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Copyright,  1917, 



MAY  26  1917 


To  my  Alma  Mater 
Robert  College  of  Constantinople 

<$-  sv 


This  book  is  submitted  as  a  study  in  applied  geography.  Its 
preparation  grew  out  of  a  desire  to  trace  the  connection  existing 
between  linguistic  areas  in  Europe  and  the  subdivision  of  the 
continent  into  nations.  The  endeavor  has  been  made  to  show 
that  language  exerts  a  strong  formative  influence  on  nationality 
because  words  express  thoughts  and  ideals.  But  underlying  the 
currents  of  national  feeling,  or  of  speech,  is  found  the  persistent 
action  of  the  land,  or  geography,  which  like  the  recurrent  motif 
of  an  operatic  composition  prevails  from  beginning  to  end  of 
the  orchestration  and  endows  it  with  unity  of  theme.  Upon 
these  foundations,  linguistic  frontiers  deserve  recognition  as  the 
symbol  of  the  divide  between  distinct  sets  of  economic  and  social 

The  attention  bestowed  on  the  Turkish  area  has  been  deter- 
mined by  the  bearing  of  the  Turkish  situation  on  European  inter- 
national affairs  and  in  the  earnest  belief  that  the  application  of 
geographical  knowledge  could  provide  an  acceptable  settlement  of 
the  Eastern  Question.  Never  has  it  been  realized  better  than  at 
the  present  time  that  an  ill-adjusted  boundary  is  a  hatching-oven 
for  war.  A  scientific  boundary,  on  the  other  hand,  prepares  the 
way  for  permanent  goodwill  between  peoples. 

My  effort  has  been  directed  to  confine  the  work  to  a  presen- 
tation of  facts,  as  I  have  felt  that  the  solution  of  the  boundary 
problems  involved  could  not  be  reached  satisfactorily  by  individual 
opinion.  Should  these  pages  afford  a  working  basis,  or  prove 
suggestive,  in  the  settlement  of  European  boundary  conflicts,  I 
shall  feel  compensated  for  the  time  and  labor  bestowed  on  the 
collection  of  the  material  herein  contained. 

My  thanks  are  due  to  the  American  Greographical  Society  for 
the  liberal  spirit  displayed  in  promoting  my  efforts  and  particu- 
larly for  the  colored  maps  which  illustrate  the  text.    I  am  under 

viii  PREFACE 

special  obligations  to  Councilor  Madison  Grant  of  the  Society  for 
new  views  and  a  better  insight  into  the  significance  of  race  in 
European  history.  To  Dr.  Isaiah  Bowman,  Director  of  the  Society, 
the  extent  of  my  debt  would  be  difficult  to  estimate,  as  his  interest 
in  my  work  has  been  unfailing  in  spite  of  the  pressure  of  his 
many  duties.  I  owe  him  many  alterations  and  suggestions  which 
have  greatly  improved  the  text.  Neither  can  I  allow  the  volume 
to  go  to  press  without  thanking  the  American  Oriental  Society 
and  the  Geographical  Society  of  Philadelphia  for  the  reproduc- 
tion of  portions  of  my  articles  printed  in  their  publications. 
Acknowledgment  of  important  criticism  on  two  articles  forming 
the  nucleus  of  the  present  volume  and  published  in  Vol.  47  of  the 
Bulletin  of  The  American  Geographical  Society  is  also  due  to 
Professors  Palmer,  Le  Compte  and  Seymour  of  Yale  as  well  as 
to  Professors  Gottheil  and  Jordan  of  Columbia.  Many  friends, 
whose  work  has  helped  mine,  I  have  never  seen.  To  them  also 
I  extend  thanks. 

Leon  Dominian. 

The  American  Geographical  Society, 
New  York. 


Figs.  1,  4,  23,  24,  P.  L.  M.  Railways  of  France. 

Figs.  15,  16,  17,  19,  20,  Swiss  Federal  Railroads. 

Figs.  36,  37,  American  Scandinavian  Review. 

Figs.  40,  42,  46,  Travel. 

Figs.  45,  56,  58,  Messrs.  Sebah  &  Joaillier,  Constantinople. 

Figs.  52,  59,  60,  61,  62,  63,  64,  65,  66,  Photos  by  Dr.  E.  Banks. 



Introduction xiii 

I.     The  Foundations 1 

II.     The  Boundaries  of  French  and  Germanic  Languages  in 

Belgium  and  Luxemburg 19 

III.  The    Franco-German    Linguistic    Boundary    in    Alsace- 

Lorraine  AND  Switzerland 35 

IV.  Borderlands  of  Italian  Language 59 

V.     Scandinavian  and  Baltic  Languages 93 

VI.     The  Area  op  Polish  Speech Ill 

VII.     Bohemian,  Moravian  and  Slovakian 141 

VIII.     The  Lands  of  Hungarian  and  Rumanian  Languages  .       .  154 

IX.     The  Balkan  Peninsula  and  its  Serbian  Inhabitants        .  174 

X.     Language  Problems  of  the  Balkan  Peninsula    .       .       .  192 

XI.     The  Geographical  Case  of  Turkey 221 

XII.     The  Peoples  op  Turkey 271 

XIII.     Summary  and  Applications 314 

Appendix  A.     German  Settlements  in  Russia 343 

Appendix  B.     The  Balkan  States  Before  and  After  the  Wars 

op  1912-1913 345 

Appendix  C.     Classification  of  Languages  Spoken  in  Europe      .  346 

Appendix  D.    A  Selected  Bibliography 348 

Appendix  E.     Key  to  Place  Names 357 

Index 367 


I.     The  Franco-Flemish  linguistic  boundary 22 

II.     The  Franco-German  linguistic  boundary  in  Alsace-Lorraine  .  46 

III.  Austria-Hungary  and  parts  of  southeastern  Europe  showing 

languages 82 

IV.  The  area  of  Polish  speech 118 

V.     Railroads  in  Turkey  showing  their  connections  and  extensions  248 

VI.     European    spheres    of   influence   and    territorial    claims    in 

Turkey 266 

VII.     Part  of  Asiatic  Turkey  showing  distribution  of  peoples  .        .  274 
VIII.     Distribution  of  Armenians  in  Turkish  Armenia       .        .        .  294 
IX.     Part  of  Europe  showing  languages  having  political  signifi- 
cance         334 



By  Madison  Geant 

Me.  Dominian's  book  on  ''The  Frontiers  of  Language  and 
Nationality"  is  the  logical  outcome  of  the  articles  written  by  him 
in  1915  in  the  Bulletin  of  the  American  Geographical  Society 
under  the  titles  of  ''Linguistic  Areas  in  Europe:  Their  Bound- 
aries and  Political  Significance"  and  "The  Peoples  of  Northern 
and  Central  Asiatic  Turkey."  In  the  present  work  the  problems 
arising  from  the  distribution  of  main  European  languages  and 
from  their  relation  to  political  boundaries  are  discussed  with 
clearness  and  brilliancy.  The  text  embodies  a  vast  collection  of 
facts  and  data  laboriously  collected  by  the  author,  who  has  applied 
to  the  subject  his  familiarity  with  Eastern  languages,  as  well  as 
an  impartial  vision  which  is  hard  to  find  in  these  days  when  our 
judgments  are  so  warped  by  the  tragedy  of  the  Great  War. 

The  difficulty  of  depicting  conditions  geographically  in  colors 
or  with  symbols  is  of  necessity  very  great.  The  peasants  who 
form  the  majority  of  the  population  of  most  European  states 
often  speak  a  different  language  or  dialect  from  that  of  the 
educated  upper  classes,  and  such  lines  of  linguistic  cleavage  fre- 
quently represent  lines  of  race  distinction  as  well.  For  example, 
in  Transylvania  the  language  of  about  sixty  per  cent  of  the 
inhabitants  is  Eumanian,  while  the  literary,  military  and  land- 
owning classes  speak  either  Magyar  or  German,  and  these  Hun- 
garians and  Saxons,  in  addition  to  forming  everywhere  the  ruling 
class,  are  gathered  together  in  many  places  in  compact  communi- 
ties. A  similar  condition  of  affairs  exists  along  the  eastern 
boundary  of  the  German  Empire,  except  that  here  the  speech  of 
the  peasants  is  Polish  and  that  of  the  dominant  classes  German. 

The  preparation  of  the  maps  which  accompany  this  volume 
has  been  a  task  of  peculiar  difficulty.  It  is  an  easy  matter  to 
show  by  colors  the  language  spoken  by  actual  majorities,  but 


such  a  delineation  frequently  fails  to  indicate  the  true  literary 
language  of  the  nation.  Mr.  Dominian's  solution  of  these  diffi- 
culties has  been  a  very  successful  one,  and  the  resultant  maps 
are  really  of  great  value,  especially  where  they  deal  with  little- 
known  frontiers  and  obscure  lines  of  demarcation,  such  as  the 
eastern  and  western  frontiers  of  the  German  Empire. 

In  spite  of  exceptions,  language  gives  us  the  best  lines  for  the 
boundaries  of  political  units  whenever  those  frontiers  conform  to 
marked  topographical  features  such  as  mountain  systems.  In 
many  cases  where  the  boundaries  of  language  and  nationality 
coincide  they  are  found  to  lie  along  the  crest  of  mountains  or  a 
well-defined  watershed,  often  along  the  base  of  plateaus  or  ele- 
vated districts,  and  very  seldom  along  rivers.  But  the  boundaries 
of  nationality  and  of  language,  when  they  do  coincide,  seldom 
correspond  with  those  of  race,  and  political  boundaries  are  more 
transitory  and  shifting  than  those  of  either  language  or  race. 

There  are  a  few  nations  in  Europe,  chiefly  small  states,  which 
are  composed  of  sharply  contrasted  languages  and  races,  such 
as  Belgium,  where  the  lowlands  are  inhabited  by  Flemish- 
speaking  Teutons,  and  the  uplands  by  French-speaking  Alpines. 
Belgium  is  an  artificial  political  unit  of  modern  creation,  and 
consequently  highly  unstable.  The  Belgian  upper  classes  are 
bilingual,  a  condition  which  precedes  a  change  of  language,  and 
unless  Flanders  becomes  united  to  Holland  or  Germany  it  is  more 
than  probable  that  F'rench  speech  will  ultimately  predominate 
there  also. 

Among  the  Celtic-speaking  peoples,  we  have  in  the  highlands 
of  Scotland,  in  the  mountains  of  Wales,  in  western  Ireland  and 
in  the  interior  of  Brittany,  remnants  of  two  distinct  forms  of 
Celtic  speech.  These  diverse  populations  have,  in  common,  only 
their  Celtic  speech,  and  are  not  related,  one  to  the  other,  by  race. 
As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  Scotch,  the  Welsh  and  the  Bretons  are 
excellent  representatives  of  the  three  most  divergent  races  of 
Europe.  The  Armorican-speaking  Bretons  are  Alpine  by  race, 
the  Cymric-speaking  Welshmen  are  Mediterranean,  while  the 
Gaelic-speaking  Scots  are  Nordic.  In  short,  there  is  today  neither 


a  Celtic  race  nor  any  recognizable  remnant  of  it.  If  one  of  these 
three  peoples  be  Celtic  in  bodily  characters,  the  other  two  must 
of  necessity  not  be  Celtic,  and  furthermore,  if  we  designate  any 
one  of  the  three  as  Celtic  by  race,  we  must  include  in  that  term 
other  distant  populations  which  by  no  stretch  of  the  imagination 
can  be  so  regarded. 

The  literary  revival  of  some  Celtic  dialects  may  be  interesting, 
but  it  will  only  serve  to  keep  the  Celtic-speaking  populations  still 
more  out  of  touch  with  the  march  of  modern  progress.  In  the 
long  run  the  fate  of  Erse,  Gaelic,  Cymric  and  Armorican  is  cer- 
tain. They  will  be  engulfed  by  the  French  language  on  the 
continent,  and  by  the  English  speech  in  the  British  Isles,  just  as 
Cornish  and  Manx  have  become  extinct  within  a  century. 

In  eastern  Europe,  the  Slavic  tongue  of  Bohemia  and  Moravia, 
known  as  Czech,  was  fifty  years  ago  on  the  point  of  utter  collapse, 
but  the  literary  revival  of  Bohemia  has  been  successful  because 
it  had  for  support  on  the  east  a  solid  mass  of  Slavic  speech  and 
the  political  power  of  Pan-Slavism,  and  in  consequence  was  able 
to  hold  its  own  against  the  encroaching  German.  These  Slavic 
dialects  all  through  eastern  Europe  and  the  minor  tongues  else- 
where are  greatly  handicapped  by  the  lack  of  books,  newspapers 
and  good  literary  forms.  In  the  case  of  Erse  and  Cymric  the 
difficulties  of  the  spelling  are  an  almost  insuperable  obstacle.  The 
French  language  in  Quebec  and  the  various  languages  spoken 
among  newly  arrived  immigrants  in  the  United  States  will  ulti- 
mately meet  the  same  fate,  since  a  few  million  illiterate  and 
poverty-stricken  habitants  of  Canada  and  a  few  million  laborers 
in  the  United  States  must  in  the  long  run  inevitably  succumb  to 
the  overwhelming  power  of  the  world  language  of  the  English 

Although  race  taken  in  its  modern  scientific  meaning — the 
actual  physical  character  of  man — originally  implied  a  common 
origin,  it  has  today  little  or  nothing  to  do  with  either  nationality 
or  language,  since  nearly  all  the  great  nations  of  Europe  are 
composed  of  various  proportions  of  two  and  sometimes  all  three 
of  the  primary  European  races.    The  population  of  England  owes 


its  blood  to  the  Mediterranean  and  to  the  more  recent  Nordic 
race.  Germany  is  composed  of  a  combination  of  Nordic  and 
Alpine,  Italy  of  a  mixture  of  Alpine  and  Mediterranean,  while 
France  unites  within  her  boundaries  the  Nordic  in  the  north,  the 
Mediterranean  in  the  south  and  the  Alpine  in  the  center.  Spain 
and  Portugal,  however,  are  overwhelmingly  of  Mediterranean 
blood,  while  the  Scandinavian  races  are  purely  Nordic.  Thus  it 
is  quite  evident  that  nationality  and  language  are  independent 
of  race,  and  in  fact  the  meaning  of  the  word  **race"  as  used  not 
only  by  the  man  in  the  street,  but  also  by  the  historian,  is  based 
on  the  spoken  language.  So  far  as  race  is  concerned  in  its  scien- 
tific sense,  there  exists  no  such  thing  as  a  ''Latin,"  a  ''Celtic," 
a  "German,"  a  "Slavic,"  or  even  an  "Aryan"  or  "Caucasian" 
race.  These  are  linguistic  terms,  and  are  not  correlated  to  bodily 

Throughout  Europe,  as  pointed  out  by  Mr.  Dominian,  there  is, 
however,  a  close  correspondence  between  topographical  and  geo- 
logical land  features,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  extent  and  spread 
of  language  on  the  other.  A  similar  close  connection  has  been 
noted  between  geographical  features  and  race.  Man's  topo- 
graphical surroundings  are  among  the  most  potent  elements  of 
environment,  and  have  operated  powerfully  in  the  selection  and 
development  of  man,  but  they  do  not  transform  or  change  one 
race  into  another.  We  have  now  discarded  the  old  conception 
that  blondness  has  anything  to  do  with  latitude,  or  altitude. 
fWhere  two  distinct  races  compete  in  a  given  environment,  it 
generally  happens  that  one  or  the  other  is  better  adapted  to  its 
surroundings,  and  that  race  tends  to  increase  at  the  expense  of 
its  rival,  with  the  result  that  one  ultimately  replaces  the  other. 
The  races  of  Europe  were  originally  adjusted  to  a  certain  fixed 
habitat,  and  when  through  conquest  or  commercial  expansion  they 
moved  out  of  their  native  surroundings  into  unfamiliar  ground, 
they  tended  to  disappear.  In  short,  race  supplies  the  raw 
material,  and  environment  is  the  molding  force,  or  to  use  another 
simile,  "the  oak  tree  and  the  poplar  tree  are  both  wood,  but  the 
one  can  be  polished  by  rubbing,  while  the  other  cannot."     In 


other  words,  the  Greek  genius  and  Hellenic  culture  were  not 
created  by  the  irregularity  and  broken  configuration  of  Greece, 
and  if  the  Greeks  had  been  transplanted  at  an  early  time  to 
Arabia,  it  is  hardly  conceivable  that  the  world  would  have  seen 
classic  civilization  in  its  most  typical  form.  On  the  other  hand, 
we  have  no  reason  to  believe  that  if  the  Arabs  had  settled  in 
Greece,  they  would  have  produced  either  Homer  or  the  Parthenon. 
If  England  had  remained  exclusively  in  the  hands  of  its  original 
Mediterranean  inhabitants,  and  if  the  Teutonic  Nordics  had  not 
conquered  it,  or  even  if  the  Nordic  Normans  had  not  reinforced 
the  Saxon  strain,  it  is  more  than  probable  that  the  British  Empire 
would  not  have  achieved  its  triumphs. 

Geographical  situation,  conditions  of  soil  and  of  climate, 
mountain  barriers,  navigable  rivers  and  abundant  seaports  have 
a  powerful,  even  a  controlling  environmental  influence  on  the 
raw  material  supplied  by  heredity,  but  in  the  last  analysis  it  is 
race  that  manifests  itself  by  characteristic  achievement. 

The  prevailing  lack  of  race  consciousness  in  Europe  compels 
us  to  disregard  it  as  a  basis  for  nationality.  In  the  existing 
nations,  races  are  generally  scattered  unevenly  throughout  the 
map,  and  are  nearly  always  grouped  in  classes,  as  originally  race 
was  the  basis  of  all  class,  caste  and  social  distinctions.  Eace 
therefore  being  not  available  as  a  test  of  nationality,  we  are  com- 
pelled to  resort  to  language.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  language  is 
the  essential  factor  in  the  creation  of  national  unity,  because 
national  aspirations  find  their  best  expression  through  a  national 

At  the  close  of  the  Great  European  War  the  question  of 
national  boundaries  will  undoubtedly  come  to  the  front  and  the 
data  collected  and  set  forth  in  this  book  will  be  useful  to  a 
thorough  understanding  of  the  problems  involved.  There  is 
reason  to  believe  that  if,  at  the  termination  of  the  Franco- 
Prussian  war,  the  international  boundary  in  Alsace-Lorraine  had 
been  run  in  conformity  with  the  linguistic  facts,  much  of  the 
bitter  animosity  of  later  years  might  have  been  avoided.  Similar 
problems  will  press  for  solution  during  the  next  few  years,  and 


if  a  permanent  peace  is  to  be  assured  neither  the  Allies  nor  the 
Central  Empires  can  afford  to  create  new  Alsace-Lorraine  or 
Schleswig-Holstein  problems  by  disregarding  national  aspirations 
as  expressed  and  measured  by  a  common  language  or  literature. 
In  the  Balkan  states  the  difficulty  of  finding  any  political 
boundaries  that  in  any  way  correspond  to  race  or  language  has 
heretofore  been  insuperable,  but  when  the  Congress  of  the  Nations 
convenes,  whether  this  year  or  next,  or  the  year  after,  every 
member  of  it  should  be  familiar  with  all  facts  that  bear  on  the 
case,  and  above  all  with  the  meaning  of  such  facts,  and  there 
exists  today  no  book  which  covers  these  questions  so  fully,  so 
accurately  and  so  impartially  as  Mr.  Leon  Dominian's  "Frontiers- 
of  Language  and  Nationality." 



The  site  of  populous  cities  and  of  trim  little  towns  was  once 
wild  waste  or  sunless  woodland.  Our  rude  forefathers,  w^andering 
upon  uninliabited  tracts,  converted  them  into  fair  fields  and 
domains  which  their  descendants  rounded  out  eventually  into 
nations.  Humanity  has  prospered  and  today  we  often  think  of 
countries  in  terms  of  their  characteristic  landscape  and  scenery. 
But  the  thought  naturally  suggested  by  the  name  France  or 
England  is  that  of  a  nation  whose  people  speak  French  or  Eng- 
lish. To  separate  the  idea  of  language  from  that  of  nationality 
is  rarely  possible. 

To  say  that  a  man's  accent  betrays  his  nationality  is  another 
way  of  stating  that  every  language  has  a  home  of  its  own  upon 
the  surface  of  the  earth.  A  word  or  an  accent  will  thrive  or 
wither  like  a  tree  according  to  region.  In  the  earliest  forms  of 
Aryan  languages,  words  for  fish  or  sea  appear  to  be  wanting — 
a  want  which  points  to  inland  origins.  The  natives  of  the  scorch- 
ing equatorial  lowlands  have  no  word  for  ice  in  their  dialects. 
A  further  glimpse  into  the  past  is  required  for  a  proper  estimate 
of  these  facts.  Man's  conquest  of  a  region  is  achieved  in  two 
distinct  stages.  The  first  settlers  rarely  accomplish  more  than 
a  material  hold.  Their  task  is  exclusively  that  of  exacting  sus- 
tenance from  the  soil.  Intellectual  possession  is  taken  at  a  later 
stage.  The  land  then  becomes  a  source  of  inspiration  to  its 
dwellers.  Having  provided  for  his  material  wants,  man  is  now 
able  to  cultivate  ideals  and  give  free  rein  to  his  artistic  propensi- 
ties.   Instead  of  brooding  in  gloomy  anxiety  over  future  support 


or  becoming  desperate  through  sheer  want  he  is  able  to  bestow 
a  leisure  hour  on  a  favorite  recreation.  In  both  of  these  stages, 
his  thoughts  and  the  words  used  for  their  utterance  are  in  har- 
mony with  their  surroundings. 

We  therefore  turn  to  the  land  for  intimate  acquaintance  with 
man  and  his  culture.  His  very  character  is  shaped  in  the  mold 
of  his  habitual  haunt.  And  language  is  little  more  than  the 
expression  of  his  character.  The  earnest  Scotchman  and  the 
steadfast  Swede,  both  hardened  by  the  schooling  of  a  vigorous 
climate,  contrast  strikingly  with  the  impulsive  Andalusian  or  the 
fitful  Sicilian  trained  to  laxity  and  carelessness  in  the  midst  of 
jjlenty.  The  revengeful  Corsican  is  the  native  of  an  unblest 
island,  while  the  Russian,  bred  in  the  vast  and  monotonous  steppe, 
cannot  avoid  injecting  a  strain  of  melancholy  into  the  literary 
treasures  which  he  contributes  to  the  human  brotherhood. 

The  emotional  ties  which  bind  man  to  his  country  or  to  his 
mother  tongue  are  the  same  because  they  "are  rooted  in  the  past. 
A  citizen  of  any  country  is  conscious  of  his  nationality  whenever 
he  realizes  that  he  has  a  common  origin  with  his  compatriots. 
Language  is  merely  the  outward  form  of  this  feeling.  But  with- 
out its  unifying  influence  national  solidarity  cannot  be  perfected. 

The  growth  of  modern  European  nations  and  the  spread  of 
their  languages  have  been  parallel  developments.  This  parallelism 
is  founded  on  the  material  ties  no  less  than  on  the  spiritual 
affinity  which  bind  men  to  the  earth.  To  furnish  evidence  of  this 
relationship  lies  within  the  province  of  geography.  Historical 
testimony  is  also  at  hand  to  show  that  political  and  linguistic 
frontiers  have  tended  to  coincide  during  the  past  two  centuries, 
except  where  artificial  measures  have  been  brought  into  play. 
Broadly  it  may  be  submitted  that  the  advance  of  civilization  in 
most  countries  has  been  marked  by  the  progress  of  nationality, 
while  nationality  itself  has  been  consolidated  by  identity  of 

Language  areas,  in  common  with  many  other  facts  of  geog- 
raphy, have  been  largely  determined  by  the  character  of  the 
surface  or  climate.    Occurrences  such  as  the  extension  of  Polish 


speech  to  the  Carpathian  barrier  or  the  restriction  of  Flemish 
to  the  lowland  of  northwestern  central  Europe,  are  not  the  work 
of  mere  chance.  An  investigation  of  linguistic  boundaries,  there- 
fore, implies  recognition  of  the  selective  influence  of  surface 
features.  But  the  influence  of  region  upon  expansion  or  confine- 
ment of  language  is  far  from  absolute.  The  part  played  by 
economic  factors  will  be  shown  in  the  following  pages  to  have 
been  of  prime  importance. 

Considered  as  political  boundaries,  linguistic  lines  of  cleavage 
have  twofold  importance.  They  are  sanctioned  by  national 
aspirations  and  they  conform  to  a  notable  degree  with  physical 
features.  Every  linguistic  area  considered  in  these  pages  bears 
evidence  of  relation  between  language  and  its  natural  environment. 
A  basis  of  delimitation  is  therefore  provided  by  nature.  Eastern 
extension  of  French  to  the  Vosges,  confinement  of  Czech  to  a 
plateau  inclosed  by  mountains,  uniformity  of  language  in  open 
plains  and  river  basins,  all  are  examples  of  the  evidence  provided 
by  geography  for  statesmen  engaged  in  the  task  of  revising 

Europe  may  be  aptly  regarded  as  a  vast  field  of  settlement 
where  the  native  element  has,  again  and  again,  been  swamped  by 
successive  flows  of  immigrants  proceeding  from  every  point  of 
the  compass.  The  wanderings  of  these  invaders  have  been 
directed,  in  part,  into  channels  provided  by  the  main  mountain 
ranges  of  Eurasia.  Valleys  or  plains  which  favored  expansion 
of  nationality  were,  at  the  same  time,  the  avenues  through  which 
languages  spread.  The  barrier  boundary  of  the  Mediterranean 
basin  contains  a  number  of  important  breaches  on  the  north  * 
which  facilitated  the  mingling  of  the  Nordic  race  with  Mediter- 
ranean men  after  it  had  mixed  with  Alpine  peoples.  Within 
historic  times  men  of  Celtic  speech  have  been  driven  westward 
by  Teutons,  who  also  pressed  Slavs  in  the  opposite  direction.  The 
consequence  is  that  few  Frenchmen  or  Germans  of  our  day  can 
lay  claim  to  racial  purity.     Northern  France  is  perhaps  more 

*  E.  C.  Semple:  The  Barrier  Boundary  of  the  Mediterranean  Basin  and  Its  Northern 
Breaches  as  Factors  in  History,  Ann.  Assoc.  Amer.  Geogr.,  Vol.  5,  1915,  pp.  27-59. 


Teutonic  than  southern  Germany,  while  eastern  Germany  is,  in 
many  places,  more  Slavic  than  Kussia.  To  ascribe  political  sig- 
nificance to  race  is  therefore  as  difficult  today  as  it  was  when 
Roman  citizenship  meant  infinitely  more  in  comparison. 

Nationality,  however,  an  artificial  product  derived  from  racial 
raw  material,  confers  distinctiveness  based  on  history.  It  is  the 
cultivated  plant,  blossoming  on  racial  soil  and  fertilized  by  his- 
torical association.  In  the  words  of  Ossian:  ''It  is  the  voice  of 
years  that  have  gone;  they  roll  before  me  with  all  their  deeds." 
Men  alone  cannot  constitute  nationality.  A  nation  is  the  joint 
product  of  men  and  ideas.  A  heritage  of  ideals  and  traditions 
held  in  common  and  accumulated  during  centuries  becomes,  in 
time,  the  creation  of  the  land  to  which  it  is  confined. 

Language,  the  medium  in  which  is  expressed  successful 
achievement  or  hardship  shared  in  common,  acquires  therefore 
cementing  qualities.  It  is  the  bridge  between  the  past  and  the 
present.  Its  value  as  the  cohesive  power  of  nationality  is  super- 
seded, in  rare  instances,  by  ideals  similarly  based  on  community 
of  tradition,  hope,  or  in  some  cases  religion.  In  speech  or 
writing,  words  give  life  to  the  emotion  which  nationality  stirs 
in  the  heart  or  to  the  reasoning  which  it  awakens  in  the 

The  distinction  between  the  conceptions  of  race,  language  and 
nationality  should,  at  the  very  outset,  be  clearly  established. 
Race  deals  with  man  both  as  a  physical  creature  and  as  a  being 
endowed  with  spiritual  qualities.  Tall,  blond  men  constitute  a 
race  distinct  from  their  fellows  who  combine  stockiness  and 
brunetness.  The  basis  of  differentiation  in  this  case  is  anatom- 
ical. Hence,  to  talk  of  an  English  or  Persian  race  is  erroneous. 
Every  nation  contains  people  endowed  with  widely  different 
physiques,  owing  to  the  extensive  intermingling  of  races  which 
has  taken  place  in  the  course  of  the  million  years  during  which 
the  earth  has  been  inhabited.  To  be  precise,  our  conception  of 
racial  differences  must  conform  to  classifications  recognized  by 
modern  anthropologists.  We  shall  therefore  consider  the  Mediter- 
ranean, Alpine  and  Nordic  races — to  mention  only  those  com- 

Fig.  1 — View  of  the  "  route  d'ltalie  "  or  road  to  Italy  at  the  extreme  south- 
eastern border  of  France  and  well  inside  the  small  area  of  Italian  language  lying 
within  the  French  political  boundary. 


posed  of  white  men — and  we  shall  find  that  they  all  blend  in 
European  nationalities. 

Take,  as  an  example,  the  racial  elements  entering  into  the 
composition  of  French  nationality.  The  dominating  type,  in 
northern  France,  belongs  to  the  tall,  narrow-headed  Nordic  race, 
with  blue  eyes  and  fair  hair.  Frenchmen  with  these  character- 
istics are  descendants  of  Franks  and  Gauls  who  settled  in  the 
northern  plains  of  the  Paris  basin.  In  Brittany  and  the  Massif 
Central,  however,  a  round-headed  and  dark  type,  short  and 
stockily  built,  is  scattered  over  the  two  main  piles  of  Archean 
mountains  which  still  remain  exposed  to  view.  In  the  Aquitaine 
basin,  as  well  as  in  the  Lower  Ehone  valley,  the  narrow-headed 
Mediterranean  race,  with  dark  eyes  and  hair,  is  everywhere 
evident  in  the  short,  brunet  inhabitants. 

Ripley  adheres  to  the  racial  segregation  of  European  man  in 
the  three  groups  enumerated  above.  But  a  further  reduction 
can  be  established  on  a  purely  geographical  basis,  with  the  result 
that  Europeans  may  be  classed  primarily  either  as  highlanders 
or  lowlanders.  Anthropological  classification  fits  admirably  in 
this  dual  distinction,  since  the  inhabitants  of  European  mountain 
lands  belong  to  the  round-head  type  while  the  dwellers  of  the 
depressions  north  and  south  of  the  central  uplifts  have  long 

From  the  conception  of  race  we  attain  that  of  people  by  con- 
sidering the  second  as  derived  from  the  mingling  of  the  first. 
Intercourse  between  the  three  great  races  of  Europe  has  always 
existed  as  a  result  of  migratory  movements.  The  impulse  to 
wander,  however  much  it  differed  in  each  known  instance,  can 
usually  be  traced  to  a  single  determining  cause,  definable  as  the 
quest  after  comfort.  This  was  the  motive  which  led  men  of  the 
Nordic  race  to  abandon  their  uncomfortable  habitat  in  the  north. 
The  same  feeling  was  experienced  by  Alpine  mountaineers  as 
they  descended  towards  attractive  lowlands  north  and  south  of 
their  rough  mountain  homes. 

Nordics  moving  to  the  south  and  Alpines  crowding  toward 
the  lowland  converged  upon  one  another.    No  meeting  of  human 


beings,  in  the  entire  history  of  mankind,  has  been  fraught  with 
consequences  of  wider  reach  than  the  contact  between  members 
of  these,  the  two  hardiest  races  which  the  world  has  produced. 
European  nationalities  and  Aryan  languages  were  born  in  those 
momentous  meetings.  The  zone  of  contact  extended  from  the 
northwestern,  lowland  fringe  of  continental  Europe  to  the  saucer- 
shaped  land  of  Polesia.  Along  the  depressed  margin  of  western 
Europe  a  heavy  flow  of  Mediterranean  men,  moving  constantly 
northward,  introduced  a  third  element  in  the  racial  constituents 
of  French  and  British  populations.  Each  of  the  three  races 
contributed  a  characteristic  share  of  physical  and  moral  traits  to 
the  spirit  of  nationality  in  Europe.  The  Nordics  left  the  impress 
of  their  northern  vigor  wherever  they  passed.  Their  native 
restlessness,  the  joint  product  of  cold  weather  and  a  hard  life, 
became  converted  into  a  magnificent  spirit  of  enterprise  when- 
ever it  blended  with  Alpine  hardiness  or  Mediterranean  ambition. 
The  Alpines,  often  considered  as  the  intellectual  type,  also 
imparted  the  virility  of  highland  physiques  as  they  migrated  to 
the  lowland.  Last,  but  not  least,  Mediterranean  men  contributed 
the  softness  of  their  native  character  as  well  as  the  fine  qualities 
due  to  a  keen  artistic  sense.  The  fusion  of  the  three  races  was 
accompanied  by  the  creation  of  the  three  great  groups  of 
European  peoples,  known  as  Celts,  Teutons  and  Slavs.  The 
differentiation  of  these  peoples  from  the  fused  group  occurred 
at  an  early  period  and  was  probably  in  full  swing  towards  the 
close  of  the  Neolithic. 

We  are  thus  led  to  picture  the  early  home  of  Celtic  dialects 
on  territory  now  falling  under  French,  Dutch  and  German  rule. 
It  is  not  unlikely  that  England  and  Ireland  are  areas  of  expan- 
sion of  this  language.  Eastward,  it  is  known  that  the  Celtic 
territory  extended  at  least  as  far  as  the  Elbe.  Beyond,  in  the 
same  direction,  an  ever  Avidening  wedge  of  Teutonic  area  inter- 
posed itself  between  Celts  and  Slavs.  The  prehistoric  home  of  the 
Teutons  will  be  found  in  the  region  around  the  western  extremity 
of  the  Baltic  Sea.  It  comprised  southern  Sweden,  Jutland,  the 
German  Baltic  coast  to  the  Oder  and  the  Baltic  islands  as  far  as 


Copyright  by  Brown  Bros. 

Fig.   2 — Schwarzwald   scenery.     A   region   of   transitional   dialects   between   High 
and  I-ow  German. 


Gothland.  The  Slav 's  original  homeland  had  its  site  on  an 
imperfectly  drained  lake-bed  extending  westward  from  the  middle 
Dnieper  valley  to  the  Niemen  and  Priepet  marshland. 

From  east  to  west  on  the  Eurasian  land  mass  the  three  main 
forms  of  language  occupy  strictly  geographical  settings.  Mono- 
syllabic Chinese  lies  rigid  and  lifeless  within  its  barriers  of  high 
mountains  and  vast  seas.  The  static  condition  of  Chinese  civili- 
zation is  reflected  in  the  changeless  form  of  its  language.  A  new 
idea  requires  a  new  word  and  a  corresponding  symbol.  In  the 
wild  and  wide-stretching  steppes  of  Siberia,  communication  of 
thought  or  feeling  is  maintained  through  the  medium  of  agglu- 
tinative forms  of  speech.  Grammatically,  this  marks  an  improve- 
ment over  the  monosyllabic  language.  In  the  case  considered 
here  it  expresses  the  restlessness  and  mobility  of  steppe  life.  At 
the  same  time  inferiority  of  civilization  is  revealed  by  poverty 
of  ideas  and  consequently  of  words.  In  the  west,  however, 
whether  we  consider  western  Asia  or  Europe,  we  deal  with  the 
world's  best  nursery  of  civilization.  In  those  regions  are  found 
the  highly  inflected  and  flexible  languages  of  the  Aryan  and 
Semitic  families.  The  grammar  of  these  languages — a  mere 
adaptation  to  superior  requirements  of  order  and  method — ren- 
ders them  particularly  responsive  to  the  constant  improvement 
in  thought  which  characterizes  western  countries. 

Aryan  languages  are  spoken  all  the  way  from  northern  India 
to  Europe's  westernmost  confines.  This  territory  comprises  the 
western  extension  of  the  central  belt  of  high  Eurasian  mountains 
together  with  its  fringing  lowlands.  In  its  elevated  portion  it  is 
the  domain  of  the  Alpine  race  and  of  the  Nordic  in  its  depressed 
northern  border.  On  the  other  hand,  that  portion  of  the  northern 
Eurasian  grasslands  which  extends  into  Europe  forms  part  of 
the  area  of  Uralo- Altaic  languages.  It  is  sometimes  contended 
that  the  original  home  of  Aryan  languages  was  situated  in  north- 
ern Europe,  where  full-blooded  northerners  now  speak  lang-uages 
belonging  to  this  family.  But  the  weight  of  evidence  in  favor  of 
a  central  European  origin  will  seem  almost  decisive  when  we 
remember  that  culture  and  civilization  have  invariably  proceeded 


from  temperate  regions.  The  Aryans  issued  at  first  from  the 
contact  of  northern  European  lowlanders  with  the  highlanders  of 
central  Europe,  subsequently  mingled  with  the  inhabitants  of  the 
Mediterranean  basin.  As  they  migrated  southward  they  must 
have  changed  continually  in  race.  Every  absorption  of  southern 
elements  tended  to  modify  their  racial  characteristics.  A  given 
type  therefore  corresponds  to  a  definite  period  and  place.  The 
vagueness  conveyed  by  the  term  Aryan,  whether  applied  to  lan- 
guage or  people,  is  to  be  explained  by  the  inherent  instability  of 
the  subject.  • 

A  theoretical  representation  of  the  operation  of  this  change 
may  be  offered  by  assuming  that  NA  is  the  offspring  of  the  first 
Nordic  N  having  come  in  contact  with  an  Alpine  A.  The  tendency 
for  NA  is  to  migrate  southwards.  His  offspring  may  be  repre- 
sented as  NAA  as  the  likelihood  is  that  NA  will  have  taken  an 
Alpine  wife  to  himself.  This  is  the  prelude  to  a  long  series  of 
generations  to  each  of  which  an  A  strain  is  added.  At  the  same 
time  the  steadily  maintained  migration  of  Nordics  in  a  southerly 
direction  towards  and  beyond  the  territory  occupied  by  the  Alpines 
tends  to  bring  new  N  strains  to  the  mixed  product.  At  a  given 
stage  contact  with  Mediterranean  races  becomes  established  and 
the  process  of  obliterating  Nordic  traits  is  intensified. 

We  thus  see  that  as  the  northern  invaders  pressed  southward 
they  became  more  or  less  absorbed  in  the  indigenous  populations. 
Their  physique  changed  and  their  individuality  vanished.  How- 
ever great  the  strength  of  the  invaders,  they  could  bring  rela- 
tively few  women  in  their  train.  This  was  especially  true 
whenever  they  operated  in  a  mountainous  country.  The  passes 
through  which  their  advance  was  made  were  open  only  to  the 
more  vigorous  in  the  bands  of  fighting  men  or  adventurers. 

At  the  end  of  the  Neolithic,  about  5,000  years  ago,-  Europe 
was  the  home  of  a  type  of  man  physically  similar  to  any  average 
European  of  our  day.  This  type  is  the  product  of  long-continued 
contact  between  the  original  human  product  of  Europe,  Asia  and 
Africa.    The  dawn  of  history  finds  him  speaking  Celtic  in  western 

*  The  Neolithic  lasted  longer  north  of  the  Alps. 


central  Europe.  An  immense  variety  of  dialects  must  then  have 
been  spoken  on  the  continent,  since  intercourse  was  slight.  Their 
fusion  into  modern  languages  has  been  the  work  of  centuries. 
Out  of  the  linguistic  sifting  of  the  past  two  millenniums,  three  great 
groups  of  languages  have  emerged:  the  Romanic,  Germanic  and 
Slavic,  distributed  over  Europe  from  west  to  east.  In  these  three 
groups  French,  German  and  Russian  occupy  respectively  the 
leading  rank. 

The  distinction  between  the  languages  spoken  in  northern  and 
southern  France  was  highly  marked  in  early  medieval  days.  The 
langue  d'oil  in  use  north  of  a  line  starting  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Gironde  River  and  passing  through  Angouleme,  L'Isle-Jourdain 
and  Roanne  eventually  acquired  ascendancy  over  the  langue  d'oc 
spoken  to  the  south.^  The  dialect  of  this  northern  language 
which  prevailed  in  Ile-de-France  was  the  precursor  of  modern 
French.  It  spread  rapidly  throughout  the  country  after  the 
acquisition  of  Aquitaine  by  French  kings  and  the  consolidation 
of  France  by  the  annexation  of  Burgundian  lands.  The  French 
of  Paris  thus  became  a  national  language  whose  linguistic  and 
literary  prestige  is  still  strongly  felt  over  the  rest  of  the  country. 

*  The  dialects  or  patois  spoken  today  in  France  all  fall  under  one  of  these  two 
languages.     They  can  be  classified  as  follows: 

Langue  d'Oo 
Patois  Spoken  in   the  Departments   of 

Languedocian Gard,   H^rault,   Pyr(:'n^>ea-0rientale3,   Aude,   Ari&ge,   Haute-Garonne, 

Lot-et-Garonne,    Tarn,    Aveyron,    Lot,    Tarn-et-Garonne. 

Provencal Drome,  Vaucluse,  Bouches-du-RliOne,  Hautes-  and  Busscs-Alpes,  Var. 

Dauphinois Is&re. 

Lyonnais Rhone,  Ain,   Saone-et-Loire. 

Auvergnat Allier,  Loire,  Haute-Loire,  Ardfeche,  Lozfere,  Puy-de-D5me,  Cantal. 

Limousin Cor^^ze,    Ilaute-Vicnne,     Creuse,    Indre,     Cher,    Vienne,     Dordogne, 

Charente,  Charente-Inf^rieure,  Indre-et-Loire. 

Gascon Gironde,  Landes,  Hautes-Pyr6n6es,  Bas8es-Pyr6n§es,  Gcrs. 

Langue  d'Oil 

Norman Normandie,  Bretagne,  Perche,  Maine,  Anjou,  Poitou,  Saintonge. 

Picard Picardie,    Ile-de-France,    Artois,    Flandre,    Hainaut,    Lower    Maine, 

Thi6rache,  Rethelois. 

Burgundian Nivernais,  Berry,  Orl^anais,  Lower  Bourbonnais,  part  of  Ile-de- 
France,  Champagne,  Lorraine,  Franche-Comt6. 



The  Eoman  conquest  of  Gaul  brought  Latin  to  the  country 
because  the  civilization  of  the  south  was  superior.  At  the  time 
of  the  coming  of  the  Franks,  the  Latinized  Gaulish  language  was 
taken  up  by  the  conquerors  because  it  also  was  the  symbol  of 

Fig.  3 — Sketch  map  of  France  showing  mountain  areas  and  basins. 

superior  intellectual  development.  The  conversion  of  barbarian 
invaders  to  Christianitj^  helped  to  maintain  Latinized  forms  of 
speech.  The  Latin  of  the  Romans  was  modified,  however,  by  the 
different  local  dialects.  Thus  the  patois  of  langue  d'oc  and  of 
langue  d'oil  acquired  resemblance  through  the  leavening  influence 
of  Latin. 

As  long  as  southern  France  exercised  a  preponderating  influ- 


•      0) 

Fig.   5 — A   farmhouse 
which  High  German  is  spoken. 

in   the   Blaclc   Forest,   a   typical   habitation   in   districts   in 


ence  in  national  affairs,  the  langue  d'oc  occupied  the  first  place 
in  the  country.  In  the  eleventh  century  it  was  spoken  by  the 
leading  classes  in  the  north,  as  well  as  by  the  masses  in  the  south. 
Such,  at  least,  is  the  testimony  of  manuscripts  of  this  period. 
But  with  the  passing  of  power  into  the  hands  of  northern  French- 
men, the  langue  d'oi'l  came  into  wider  use,  until  one  of  its  patois 
gave  rise  to  the  French  which  was  subsequently  to  become  the 
medium  of  expression  for  the  genius  of  Moliere  and  the  notable 
host  of  his  literary  countrymen. 

Between  the  langue  d'oc  and  the  langue  d'oil  the  difference 
was  that  of  north  and  south.  The  southern  idioms  expressed 
feeling  and  harmony,  hence  they  were  preferred  by  poets.  The 
troubadours  favored  them  exclusively  during  the  Middle  Ages. 
The  " parlors"  of  the  north,  on  the  other  hand,  were  endowed 
with  the  staying  qualities  of  lucidity,  order  and  precision.  •  The 
beauty  of  modern  French,  as  well  as  the  attraction  it  exerts  on 
cultivated  minds,  is  due  to  its  well-balanced  blend  of  northern 
and  southern  elements.  French  of  our  day  is  the  shrine  in  which 
the  treasured  remains  of  earlier  centuries  are  still  preserved.  In 
it  the  sunshine  of  the  south  pierces  with  its  warm  rays  the 
severity  of  northern  earnestness.  No  other  European  language 
can  boast  of  an  equally  happy  composition.  In  this  respect  it  is 
a  true  mirror  of  the  French  mind  as  well  as  of  French  nationality. 

As  spoken  at  present,  French  is  derived  in  direct  line  from  a 
sub-dialect  of  the  Picard  patois  formerly  spoken  in  Paris  and 
Pontoise  and  which  spread  throughout  all  Ile-de-France.  This 
province  may  be  aptly  described  as  the  bottom  of  the  bowl-shaped 
area  of  northern  France.  It  owes  its  geographical  distinctiveness 
to  the  convergence  of  a  number  of  important  valleys  which  empty 
the  products  of  their  fertility  into  the  Paris  basin  lying  in  its 
very  center.  Five  of  these  irregular  furrows,  the  Seine,  Loing, 
Yonne,  Marne  and  Oise,  radiate  outwardly  from  the  low-lying 
Paris  center.  The  ebb  and  flow  of  national  power  and  language 
sped  its  alternate  course  along  their  channels  until,  from  being 
the  heart,  Paris,  always  inseparable  from  its  lang-uage,  became 
also  the  head  of  France. 



The  Frankish  dukedom  founded  on  such  a  site  grew  naturally 
into  a  kingdom.  And  along  with  the  establishment  of  a  royal 
court,  the  language  of  the  region  acquired  part  of  the  kingly 
prestige.  Herein  we  find  the  explanation  of  the  derivation  of  the 
name  French  from  that  of  Franldsh  as  well  as  of  the  language 
from  the  local  sub-dialect  of  the  Picard  patois.  Already  in  the 
thirteenth  century,  from  this  magnificently  situated  base  as   a 

Fig.  6 — Part  of  France  showing  the  contact  between  "  langue  d'oc  "  and  "  langue 
d'oil "  countries.  The  shaded  area  represents  the  "  langue  d'oil "  or  northern  lan- 
guage. "  Langue  d'oc "  prevailed  in  the  unruled  area.  Between  these  two  regions  a 
transitional  zone,  shown  by  broken  ruling,  intervened,  in  which  a  mixture  of  the 
two  languages  was  spoken. 

center,  both  language  and  nation  had  absorbed  additional  terri- 
tory by  a  process  of  steady  outward  growth.  It  was  French 
unity  in  the  early  making.  As  early  as  the  twelfth  century,  no 
northern  nobleman  dared  appear  at  the  French  court  without 
having  previously  acquired  familiarity  with  its  language  and 
manners.  The  precious  literary  monuments  of  this  century  show 
that  this  court  language  was  already  known  as  "FranQois."  A 
hundred  years  later,  about  1260,  French  had  acquired  so  much 
polish  and  importance  that  we  find  Italian  writers  using  it  in 
preference  to  their  own  dialects.  So  in  1298,  Marco  Polo,  a 
Venetian,  gives  out  the  first  account  of  his  eastern  travels  in 
French,  while  Brunetto  Latini,  who  was  Dante's  tutor,  writes  his 
Tesoreto  in  the   same  language,   explaining  his   preference   by 


remarking  that  French  "est  plus  delitaubles  languages  et  plus 
conununs  que  moult  d'autres."^ 

German  was  to  become  the  language  of  central  Europe.  Inter- 
posed between  the  territories  of  Eomanic  and  Slavic  languages, 
the  area  of  German  speech  occupies  a  magnificently  commanding 
position.  Originally  the  language  spoken  west  of  the  Elbe  and 
Saale  rivers,  it  had  advanced  considerably  to  the  east  in  the  first 
century  of  the  Christian  era.  The  imposition  of  Teutonic  lan- 
guage on  Slavic  populations  is  one  of  the  results  of  this  ancient 
expansion  of  Germanic  peoples.  During  the  past  thousand  years^ 
very  little  change  in  the  distribution  of  the  main  German  dialects 
is  believed  to  have  taken  place. 

Modern  German  is  generally  divided  into  three  sub-branches. 
Low,  High  and  Middle  German.  Low  German,  Niederdeutsch  or 
Plattdeutsch,^  the  language  of  the  plain,  is  restricted  to  the  exten- 
sive northern  lowland.  Dialects  spoken  in  the  northeastern  corner 
of  Ehenish  Prussia,  Holstein,  Mecklenburg,  Brandenburg  and 
Prussia  enter  into  its  composition.  High  German,  Oberdeutsch 
or  Hochdeutsch,  is  the  German  of  the  highland.  It  comprises  the 
Bavarian,  Swabian  and  Alemannic  dialects  of  Bavaria,  Wiirttem- 
berg  and  Baden.  Its  use  as  the  literary  language  of  all  German- 
speaking  people  became  well  established  in  the  Middle  Ages. 
Luther's  translation  of  the  Bible  written  in  Saxonian  dialect,  a 
combination  of  High  and  Middle  German,  contributed  no  mean 
share  to  the  diffusion  of  the  language.  Its  use  has  been  favored 
by  Germany's  most  noted  writers  since  the  seventeenth  century. 
Schools  and  newspapers  tend  to  convert  it  eventually  into  the 
only  speech  that  will  survive  within  German  boundaries. 

A  fact  of  special  importance  can  be  traced  among  the  causes 
leading  to  the  supplanting  of  Low  German,  the  language  of  the 
German  plain,  by  High  German  as  the  national  tongue.  The 
superiority  of  the  highland  dialect  is  due  to  its  greater  assimila- 

*  The  terminal  s,  a  distinctly  Latin  form,  is  seen  to  persist  in  this  early  stag© 
of   the   language. 

'  Niederdeutsch  is  derived  directly  from  Old  Saxon,  the  language  which  entera 
into  the  composition  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  current  in  England  at  the  time  of  the- 
Norman  Conquest. 


tion  of  Celtic  words.  This  civilizing  influence  of  Celtic  culture 
is  by  no  means  a  modern  development  in  Germany.  In  the  proto- 
historic  period  it  was  mainly  through  contact  with  the  Celts  that 
the  Teutons  became  civilized.  This  intellectual  dependence  of  the 
Germans  is  revealed  for  the  period  about  300  b.c.  by  the  then 
existing  civilization,  which  was  entirely  Celtic.  The  history  that 
spans  the  intervening  years  naturally  brings  to  mind  the  influence 
which  French  language  has  always  had  in  Germany.  Voltaire's 
sojourn  at  the  Prussian  court  does  not  rank  among  forgotten 
episodes  and  it  was  not  so  long  ago  that  Leibnitz  had  to  resort  to 
L'rench  or  Ijatin  as  tlie  medium  of  his  written  expression. 

The  transit  ion  from  the  nortliern  plain  of  Germany  to  the 
high  central  regions  is  represented,  on  the  surface,  by  a  zone  of 
intermediate  uplands  in  Saxony,  Lusatia  and  Silesia.  This  area 
is  characterized  linguistically  by  a  transitional  form  of  speech 
between  Low  and  High  German."  The  similarity,  however,  of 
this  midland  German  to  High  German  is  observable  to  the  extent 
to  which  the  rising  land  over  which  it  is  distributed  presents 
analogy  to  the  mountainous  region  towards  which  it  trends.  The 
transitional  dialects  include  East,  ]\liddle  and  Rheno-Franconian, 
as  well  as  Thuringian.  They  occur  in  the  middle  Rhincland,  the 
banks  of  the  Moselle,  Hesse,  Thuringia  and  Saxony. 

A  bird's-eye  view  of  the  area  of  German  speech  shows  that 
the  language  prevails  wherever  a  well-defined  type  of  dwelling  is 
found.  This  representative  habifalion  consists  of  a  frame  house 
with  an  entrance  in  the  middle  of  one  of  its  long  sides.  The 
hearth  generally  faces  (he  threshold.  Barns  and  outlying  build- 
ings do  not  connect  with  the  main  house,  but  form  with  it  the 
sides  of  an  open  inner  yard.  German  houses  can  furthermore 
be  subdivided  into  three  distinct  sub-types  which  correspond  to 
the  linguistic  divisions  of  Low,  ]\liddle  and  High  German.  The 
Saxon  sub-type,  which  rarely  rises  above  a  single  story,  prevails 
in  the  northern  lowlands,  while  Ihe  Bavarian  sub-type  dots  the 
mountain  districts  which  resound  to  High  German.    Between  the 

•  Cf.   Sheets    12a,   Europe,   Fluaz-Gobirpaknrto,    niul    12o,    Europa,    Sprnchon-    xind 
VulkiM-kiirlo,  bo(l\    1:12,000,000,   in  Dibes:     llniul-.illns. 



two  an  inteiTnediate  sub-type  of  construction  exists  in  the  zone 
of  Middle  German. 

Russian  language  while  Slavic,  and  as  such  Indo-European, 
is  at  the  same  time  the  transition  speech  between  the  Indo- 
European  and  Uralo- Altaic  groups.  Its  inflections  connect  it  with 
the  western  group.  But  the  dominant  use  of  vowels  bears  impress 
of  the  strong  influence  exerted  by  Asia  in  the  formation  of  the 

'JO.   7 — Sketoli  map  showing  relative  position  of  the  tiiree  main  areas   in  which 
tlie  dialects  of  German  language  are  grouped. 

language.  The  very  consonants  in  Russian  are  liquid  and  softened 
so  as  to  shade  insensibly  into  vowels.  These  are  characteristics 
of  Turkish  and  Finnish.  The  singular  charm  with  which  the 
melodious  sounds  of  the  Russian  language  greet  a  stranger's  ears 
is  derived  from  this  Asiatic  strain.  In  spirit  also  the  funda- 
mental fatalism  of  Russians  increases  in  the  eastern  sections  of 
the  country.  The  trait  can  hardly  be  characterized  as  Slavic.  In 
the  case  of  the  Poles  or  Bohemians,  it  gives  place  to  buoyant 
hopefulness  which  helps  to  color  life  and  the  world  in  roseate 
hues.  The  fatalism  of  the  Russian  is  a  relic  of  past  habitat  in 
the  interminable  steppes  of  central  Eurasia.     The  Turks  whose 


former  roaming  ground  was  the  same  are  also  imbued  with  this 
spirit.  It  is  the  sophism  of  the  level  land.  No  matter  how  far 
the  horseman  urged  his  mount,  the  same  monotony  met  his  gaze. 
No  effort  on  his  part  could  ever  change  the  prospect. 

As  late  as  the  twelfth  century  the  peoples  of  the  basin  of  the 
Volga  spoke  purely  Tatar  dialects.  The  wide  and  open  steppes 
of  Siberia,  extending  without  break  into  eastern  Europe,  poured 
the  overflow  of  their  populations  into  the  valleys  of  the  Russian 
rivers  which  flow  into  the  Black  Sea.  The  great  Russian  cities 
of  the  borderland  between  Europe  and  Asia  were  either  founded 
or  Slavicized  after  the  eleventh  century.  About  that  time  the 
Slavic  dialects  of  the  Vistula  and  the  Dnieper  began  to  blend 
with  the  Asiatic  languages  of  the  Oka,  Kliasma  and  Volga  valleys. 
Modern  Russian,  a  mixture  of  Slavic  and  Tatar  or  Mongolian 
words,  was  born  of  this  blending.  In  a  broader  sense  it  is  the 
expression  of  the  union  of  Europe  and  Asia  to  create  a  Russian 
nation,  for  Russia  is  the  product  of  the  ancient  Russ  or  Ruthenian 
principalities  and  the  old  Muscovite  states.  The  former  were 
Slav  and  lay  in  Europe.  The  latter  were  Tatar  and  belonged 
physically  to  Asia.  As  a  nation  the  Russia  of  our  time  sprang 
into  existence  at  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century.  Prior  to 
that  period,  its  western  section  is  known  to  history  as  the  land 
of  Russ  or  Ruthenia.  Its  eastern  part  was  Muscovy.  Through 
the  union  of  the  eastern  and  western  sections  the  Russian  Empire 
of  modern  times  came  into  being.  No  literary  monuments  ante- 
date the  birth  of  its  nationality. 

In  Russia  the  Slav  who  is  free  from  Asiatic  contamination  is 
rarely  met  east  of  the  35th  meridian.  A  line  from  Lake  Ladoga 
to  Lake  Ilmen  and  along  this  meridian  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Dnieper  forms  the  divide  between  the  Russians  of  Europe  and 
of  Asia.  The  parting  of  the  waters  belonging  respectively  to 
the  Don  and  the  Dnieper  is,  from  a  racial  standpoint,  the  bound- 
ary between  the  two  groups.  The  Tatar  in  the  Russian  appears 
east  of  this  frontier.  The  Oriental  customs  which  permeate 
Russian  life,  the  Tatar  words  of  the  Russian  language,  all  begin 
to  assume  intensity  east  of  this  dividing  line,  while  to  the  west 

Fig.  8. 

Fig.  9. 

Copyi'njht  hij  liiderwood  &  Underwood 

Fig.   8 — This   group   of   Russian   officers   conveys  an   idea   of   the   excessive   racial 
mingling  in  Russia.     Alpine  and  Tatar  features  can  be  recognized  as  dominant. 

Fig.  9 — The  heart  of  Moscow  with  the  buildings  of  the  Kremlin  in  the  background. 


the  spirit  of  the  vast  stretch  of  north  Asiatic  steppes  disappears. 
Thus  the  commonly  accepted  Ural  frontier  of  European  and 
Asiatic  Russia  is  unwarranted  in  the  light  of  ethnic  facts.  The 
inhabitants  of  the  Volga  lands  are  essentially  Asiatics  among 
whom  the  numerically  inferior  Slav  element  has  become  dominant. 

Asia's  linguistic  contribution  to  Europe  is  the  gift  of  its 
unwooded  steppelands.  The  immense  tract  of  monotonous  country 
extending  west  of  the  Altai  Mountains  to  Europe  is  the  home  of 
a  family  of  languages  known  as  the  Uralo-Altaic.  Among  these 
the  highly  vocalic  branch  of  Finno-Ugrian  traveled  west  mth  the 
nomadic  herdsmen  who  used  it.  In  Europe  it  acquired  the  polish 
which  brought  it  to  the  forms  recognized  respectively  as  Finnish 
or  Suomi  and  Hungarian.  Both  enjoy  the  distinction  of  being 
the  most  cultivated  of  the  great  northern  Asiatic  family  of  lan- 
guages. The  case  of  Finnish  is  especially  remarkable  owing  to 
its  high  development  without  loss  of  its  original  agglutinative 

The  picture  of  this  linguistic  evolution  can  be  painted  only 
Avith  the  colors  of  geography.  The  well-defined  individuality  of 
the  Hungarian  Puszta  has  its  counterpart  in  the  Siberian  steppe 
region.  The  one  is  the  reproduction  of  the  other  in  small — a 
miniature.  Both  consist  of  undulating  land,  devoid  of  mountains 
or  hills,  and  covered  by  deep  sand.  In  Finland  too  a  remarkably 
level  stretch  of  granite  land,  marked  by  gentle  swelling,  lies  under 
a  sandy  glacial  mantle.  The  two  European  regions  have  only 
one  advantage  over  their  Asiatic  type.  They  are  better  watered. 
The  furthest  penetration  of  Eurasian  lowlands  into  Europe  is 
obtained  through  them.  The  approach  to  Hungary  is  made 
without  a  break,  through  the  valley  of  the  Danube.  To  Finland 
access  is  equally  easy  once  the  Urals  are  crossed.  That  this  range 
proved  no  obstacle  to  the  westerly  spread  of  central  Asiatic 
peoples  is  indicated  by  their  presence  west  of  its  axis  and  their 
settlement  in  the  Volga  valley  prior  to  Slav  inroads.  But  neither 
in  lake-dotted  Finnish  lands  nor  within  the  limited  and  mountain- 
hedged  area  of  Hungary  could  the  Asiatic  invaders  find  room 
for    expansion    or    nomadism.      From    herdsmen    they    became 


farmers.  The  change  is  the  dawTi  of  their  history  as  a  European 
nation,  and  of  the  development  of  every  manifestation  of  their 
culture,  A  more  advanced  language  became  the  measure  of  the 
increasingly  complex  character  of  their  needs — that  is  to  say,  of 
higher  civilization.  The  whole  story,  traced  from  its  origin, 
illustrates  the  superior  civilizing  power  vested  in  European 
geography.  In  the  sterile  steppes  of  the  northern  half  of  Asia 
man  led  an  easier  life  than  in  the  cramped  regions  of  diversified 
Europe.  On  the  broad  flatlands  of  the  east  he  roamed  with  little 
thought  of  the  morrow  and  without  incentive  to  improve  his 
condition.  In  the  west  he  was  spurred  to  activity  by  the  very 
limitations  of  his  homeland. 

In  our  day  about  seventy  different  languages  are  spoken  in 
liussia.  In  this  fact  is  found  a  serious  drawback  to  effective 
national  unity.  Fortunately  the  spread  of  the  dialects  belonging 
to  the  Slavic  group  of  languages  is  steady.  The  thorough  Slav- 
icization  of  the  peoples  of  the  basin  of  the  Volga  is  not  yet  ended, 
but  Great  Russian  is  gradually  uprooting  the  native  Uralo-Altaic 
tongues.  It  is  also  imposing  itself  upon  Asiatic  languages  in 
Caucasia  and  Transcaspian  territory.  Wherever  there  has  been 
a  thorough  blending  of  dialects  into  Russian,  nationality  has 
•  sprung  into  existence.  Elsewhere  unity  is  in  process  of  forma- 
tion. The  problem  before  the  governing  class  consists  in  hasten- 
ing the  assimilation  of  the  different  elements  to  the  original 
Slavic  nucleus.  Not  until  this  consummation  has  taken  place  will 
the  country  have  developed  its  full  strength.  And  the  measure 
of  progress  will  be  indicated  by  the  growing  replacement  of  the 
numerous  dialects  by  a  single  national  language. 

Looking  back  over  the  stormy  centuries  during  which  French, 
German  and  Russian  nationalities  were  elaborated,  we  behold  the 
formative  influence  of  language  everywhere.  Aspirations  which 
precede  the  period  of  free  and  unfettered  national  life  give  way 
to  achievement  when  national  hopes  are  crowned.  This  we  shall 
find  in  greater  detail  in  the  succeeding  chapters. 



The  western  section  of  the  Franco-German  linguistic  boundary 
extends  over  Belgian  territory  through  a  country  in  which  the 
formation  of  nationality  has  been  exceedingly  laborious.  Flemish 
and  "Walloon,  two  languages  within  a  single  political  boundary^ 
represent  the  obstacles  which  stood  in  the  way  of  national  growth. 
Physically  Belgium  also  consists  of  diversified  regions.  Its  his- 
tory is  the  long  drawn-out  struggle  between  two  powerful  neigh- 
bors. Over  and  over  again  its  inhabitants  have  found  themselves 
drawn  into  foreign  quarrels  against  their  will. 

The  country  is  a  marshland  in  which  the  mountains  and  plains 
of  Europe  meet.  The  main  divisions  which  correspond  to  this 
background  have  inherited  the  names  of  Flanders  and  Wallonia. 
The  clashing-ground  of  men  of  the  Alpine  and  Nordic  races, 
Belgium  received  wave  after  wave  of  northerners  who  came  to 
colonize  its  broad  flatlands.  At  the  time  of  the  conquest,  the 
Romans  came  upon  long-established  colonies,  but  found  to  their 
cost  that  Teuton  mvasions  were  not  ended.  In  the  fifth  century 
of  our  era  the  northern  lowland  was  cleared  of  Romans  by  the 
Franks;  but  to  this  day  the  dualism  of  its  people  has  not  been 
obliterated.  To  whatever  extent  inbreeding  has  destroyed  racial 
purity,  the  Fleming  of  our  day  represents  the  Nordic  race,  while 
the  Walloon  is  mainly  Alpine.  Of  the  two,  the  fair-complexioned 
product  of  the  north  speaks  a  Teutonic  language,  whereas  the 
swarthy  highlander  is  both  the  user  and  disseminator  of  French. 

At  the  partition  of  the  Carolingian  Empire  in  843,^  the  Schelde 
became    the    dividing    line    between    Lotharingia    and    France. 

^  The  importance  of  the  treaty  of  Verdun  of  this  date  with  regard  to  the  conflict 
between  the  French  and  the  German  languages  is  pointed  out  in  the  next  chapter. 



Flemings  and  Walloons,  who  had  been  thrown  together  for  cen- 
turies, were  separated  into  an  eastern  and  a  western  group. 
Nevertheless  their  struggle  for  unity  and  independence  continued 
to  fill  Belgium's  history.  In  the  ensuing  period  of  national  trials, 
the  political  disruption  of  the  country  is  manifested  by  the  growth 
of  civic  communities.  Belgium  became  in  turn  a  Burgundian,  an 
Austrian  and  a  Spanish  province.  The  golden  age  of  the  Bur- 
gundian period  brought  prosperity  to  the  land,  but  economic 
decadence  accompanied  the  prolonged  strife  between  Hapsburgs 
and  Bourbons.  It  was  Belgium's  misfortune  to  be  the  scene  on 
which  the  rivalry  was  fought  out.  With  a  population  reduced  by 
the  horrors  of  war,  Belgium  emerged  from  under  the  heel  of 
Spanish  oppression  only  to  fall  successively  under  Austrian, 
French  and  Dutch  domination.  But  the  seed-  of  nationality, 
planted  upon  its  uncertain  soil  when  the  valley  of  the  Schelde 
became  part  of  Burgundy,  sheltered  a  smouldering  vitality  which, 
finally,  in  the  nineteenth  century  was  fanned  to  independence. 

The  line  of  contact  between  French  and  the  languages  belong- 
ing to  the  Germanic  group  begins  at  the  sea  on  French  soil. 
Starting  a  few  miles  west  of  Dunkirk,^  the  linguistic  divide  fol- 
lows a  direction  which  is  generally  parallel  to  the  political 
boundary  between  France  and  Belgium  until,  a  few  miles  east 
of  Aire,  it  strikes  northeast  to  Halluin,  which  remains  within 
the  area  of  French  speech.  From  this  point  on  to  Sicken-Sussen, 
near  the  German  border,  the  line  assumes  an  almost  due  east 

This  division  corresponds  broadly  to  the  mountainous  and 
depressed  areas  into  which  Belgium  is  divided.  The  upland  has 
always  been  the  home  of  French.  Walloon  is  but  a  modified  form 
of  the  old  langue  d'oil.^  Flemish,  on  the  other  hand,  is  a  Ger- 
manic language  which  spread  over  Belgian  lowlands  as  naturally 
as  the  Low  German  dialects  to  which  it  is  related  had  invaded 

*  G.  Kurth:  La  fronti&re  linguistique  en  Belgiqiie  et  dans  le  nord  de  la  France, 
M^m.  couronnfs,  Acad.  R.  Sci.  Let.  et  Beaux-Arts  de  Belg.,  XLVIII,  Vol.  1,  1895, 
Vol.  2,  1898,  Brussels. 

*  Cf .  Map,  "  Ausbreitung  der  Romanischen  Sprachen  in  Europa,"  1:8,000,000, 
in  Grober:   Grundriss  der  Romanischen  Philologie,  Triibner,  Strassburg,  1904-1906. 


the  plains  of  northern  Europe.  This  east-west  line  also  marks 
the  separation  of  the  tall,  blond,  long-skulled  Flemings  from  the 
short,  dark,  round-skull  Alpine  Walloons. 

The  remarkably  straight  course  of  the  linguistic  divide,  in 
Belgian  territory,  is  generally  regarded  as  an  effect  of  the  plain 
over  which  it  extends.  Whatever  ruggedness  it  may  have  once 
possessed  has  been  smoothed  away  in  the  course  of  centuries  by 
the  ease  with  which  either  Flemish  or  French  could  spread  in  the 
low-lying  flatland.  The  two  languages  have  now  been  facing  each 
other  for  about  four  centuries.  Place  names  indicate  that  the 
variations  of  the  line  have  been  slight.  It  is  a  rare  occurrence 
to  find  Eoman  village  names  north  of  its  present  extension. 
Teutonic  roots,  in  locality  names  to  the  south,  are  likewise 
unusual.  A  few  can  be  traced.  Waterloo,  Tubize,  Clabecq,  Ohain 
were  once  Flemish  settlements.  Tubize  was  originally  known  as 
Tweebeek  and  became  a  Walloon  center  in  the  fifteenth  century. 
Ohain  likewise  is  known  in  the  form  of  Olhem  in  twelfth  century 

[Belgium's  linguistic  dualism  prevailed  throughout  the  five 
centuries  of  the  Roman  occupation.  Intercourse  at  that  time 
between  the  Belgae  dwelling  south  of  the  Via  Agrippa,  and  the 
Eomans  who  were  pushing  steadily  northwards  was  frequent  and 
intimate.  The  Latin  of  the  Eoman  invaders,  modified  by  the 
Celtic  and  Germanic  of  native  populations,  gave  birth  eventually 
to  the  Walloon  of  subsequent  times.*  The  Belgae  of  the  lowlands 
farther  north,  however,  successfully  resisted  the  efforts  made  by 
the  Romans  to  conquer  them.  The  marshes  of  their  nether  coun- 
try, and  the  forested  area  which  was  to  be  laid  bare  by  the  monks 
of  the  Middle  Ages,  constituted  a  stronghold  in  the  shelter  of 
which  Germanic  dialects  took  root.  This  forested  area — the  Sylva 
Carbonaria  of  the  Eomans — was  the  chief  geographical  feature 
which  prevented  thorough  fusion  of  Flemings  and  Walloons.  It 
was  the  westernmost  extension  of  the  Ardennes  forests  and  its 

*  The  Belgae  of  Caesar  are  probably  represented  by  the  Teutonic  populations  of 
northern  France — Flanders  and  Batavia — rather  than  by  the  Walloon.  They  are  a 
Germanic  tribe  who  made  their  appearance  in  Belgium  about  the  third  century,  B.C. 


gloomy  solitudes  covered  the  largest  part  of  the  territory  which 
has  since  become  the  province  of  Hainaut.  Beyond  its  northern 
boundary  lay  the  lands  of  Teutonic  culture  and  language.  To 
the  Flemings,  living  north  of  the  wooded  curtain,  the  Gallo- 
Eomans,  who  became  known  as  Walloons,  were  the  Walas  or 
"foreigners"  who  dwelt  south  of  the  tree-studded  barrier.  A 
sharply  defined  line  of  separation  intensified,  in  this  manner,  all 
pre-existing  racial  difl:erences._j 

At  a  later  date,  the  growth  of  the  temporal  power  of  the 
Roman  Church  resulted  in  the  establishment  of  a  number  of 
bishoprics  over  districts  segregated  irrespectively  of  linguistic 
diiferences.  Perhaps  one  of  the  most  striking  features  of  Belgian 
history  is  found  in  the  fact  that  its  linguistic  and  political  bound- 
aries have  never  coincided.  Every  century  is  marked  by  renewal 
of  the  age-long  clashes  between  the  northern  and  southern  races 
which  have  been  thrown  in  contact  along  the  western  end  of  the 
line  which  separates  the  plains  of  northern  Europe  from  the 
mountainous  southland  of  the  continent. 

It  may  be  gathered  from  all  this  that  the  linguistic  line  of 
cleavage  has  undergone  very  little  modification  in  the  course  of 
centuries.^  It  now  divides  the  country  into  a  northern  section, 
the  inhabitants  of  which  consider  Flemish  as  their  vernacular, 
but  who  also  generally  understand  French,  and  a  southern  section 
peopled  by  French-speaking  inhabitants,  who  adhere  to  the  use 
of  Walloon  dialects  in  the  intimacy  of  their  home  life.  To  the 
east,  the  political  frontier  between  Belgium  and  Germany  does 
not  divide  the  two  countries  linguistically.  Within  Prussian  terri- 
tory, Malmedy  and  a  group  of  fifteen  villages  are  inhabited  by 
a  French-speaking  folk.  As  though  to  offset  this  intrusion  of 
French  speech  on  Prussian  soil,  a  corresponding  area  of  German 
speech  is  found  in  the  Belgian  province  of  Luxemburg  around 
Arlon.®  Altogether  about  31,500  Belgians  employ  German  as  a 

•  G.  Touchard:  Les  langues  parlies  en  Belgique,  Le  Mouv.  Gdogr.,  May  11,  1913, 
pp.  226-229. 

'  N.  Warker:  Die  deiitsche  Orts-  iind  Gewassernamen  der  Belgischen  Provinz 
Luxemburg,  Deutsche  Erde,  Vol.  8,  1909,  pp.  99,  139. 

Frontiers  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  1917,  PI.  I 

The  American  Geographical  Sociefy  of  New  Yorl( 

Frontiers  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  1917,  PI.  / 


The  figures  of  the  last  (Dec.  31,  1910)  Belgian  census  ^  show 
that  the  Flemish  provinces  are  bilingual,  whereas  the  Walloon 
region  is  altogether  French.  Knowledge  of  French  as  an  educa- 
tional and  business  requirement  accounts  for  its  occurrence  in 
Flanders.  The  Romance  language,  therefore,  tends  to  supersede 
the  Germanic  idiom  as  a  national  vernacular.  The  utter  absence 
of  Flemish  in  the  Belgian  Congo  constitutes  perhaps  the  strongest 
evidence  in  favor  of  French  as  Belgium's  national  language. 

In  northwestern  France,  the  language  of  the  plain  has,  since 
the  thirteenth  century,  steadily  receded  before  the  uplander's 
speech.  At  that  time  Flemish  was  spoken  as  far  south  as  the 
region  between  Boulogne  and  Aire.^  The  area  spreading  east  of 
the  Atlantic,  between  the  present  linguistic  boundary  and  a  line 
connecting  these  two  cities,  is  now  bilingual  with  French  pre- 
dominating. It  might  be  noted  here,  however,  that  Boulogne  has 
been  a  French-speaking  city  since  Frankish  days. 

The  use  of  Flemish  in  France  is  restricted  to  the  two  arron- 
dissements  of  Dunkirk  and  Hazebrouck  as  well  as  to  a  few 
communes  of  Lille.  Dewachter's  studies"  in  this  locality  have 
been  summarized  by  Blanchard.^"  According  to  these  investi- 
gations, the  arrondissement  of  Dunkirk  contains  41  Flemish- 
speaking  communes,  four  of  purely  French  language  and  20  of 
dual  speech.  Of  the  last,  only  five  reveal  a  majority  of  Flemish 
speakers.  In  Hazebrouck  there  are  36  Flemish  communes,  eight 
French  and  nine  bilingual.  Five  of  the  latter  show  French 
predominance.  In  the  arrondissement  of  Lille,  Flemish  is  spoken 
only  in  six  bilingual  communes,  four  of  wiiich  have  a  majority 
of  French-speaking  residents.  Furthermore  a  few  Flemish- 
speaking  families  are  found  in  the  suburbs  of  St.  Omer  as  well 
as  in  a  commune  near  by.     About  one-third  of  the  inhabitants 

'  Statistique  de  la  Belgique,  Recensement  General  de  1910,  Vol.  2,  1912,  Vol.  3, 
1913,  Brussels. 

*  G.  Kurth:  op.  cit.  Kurth's  work  is  based  partly  on  place  names.  See  also  L. 
De  Backer:  La  langue  flamande  en  France,  Samyn,  Ghent,  1893. 

•  Le  flamand  et  le  frangais  dans  le  nord  de  la  France,  2me  Congr^s  international 
pour  I'extension  et  la  culture  de  la  langue  francaise,  Weissenbruch,  Brussels,   1908. 

^^  Le  flamand  dans  le  nord  de  la  France,  Ann.  de  Geogr.,  Vol.  20,  Dec.  15,  1909,. 
pp.  374-375. 


of  Tourcoing  understand  Flemish.  This  is  also  true  of  one-half 
the  population  of  Eoubaix.  In  each  of  the  cities  of  Lille  and 
Armentieres,  the  ratio  falls  to  one-quarter.  Outside  of  the 
Flemish-tainted  communes  of  the  arrondissement  of  Lille,  the 
boundary  of  this  language  is  indicated  by  the  course  of  the  Aa, 
the  canal  of  Neuffosse  and  the  Lys. 

The  progress  of  French,  in  the  Flemish-speaking  districts  of 
France,  may  be  followed  through  the  growing  invasion  of  French 
words  in  the  local  vernaculars.  The  Flemish  spoken  in  Dunkirk 
or  Hazebrouck  is  an  archaic  dialect  which  is  growing  further  and 
further  away  from  the  Flemish  of  Belgium,  as  this  language 
tends  to  identify  itself  with  Dutch  in  order  to  acquire  literary 
form.  As  a  rule,  French  is  gradually  replacing  the  Germanic 
idiom  throughout  the  line  of  linguistic  contact.  The  Frenchifying 
of  the  communes  between  the  Aa  and  Dunkirk  has  taken  place 
within  the  last  fifty  years.  In  the  same  period,  Flemish  has 
almost  entirely  disappeared  from  the  suburbs  of  St.  Omer,  and 
the  progress  of  French  towards  Cassel  and  Hazebrouck  becomes 
yearly  more  apparent.  The  bilingual  aptitude  of  the  inhabitants 
in  all  of  these  localities  is  on  the  increase  in  the  sense  that  many 
of  'the  Flemings  are  acquiring  proficiency  in  French.  Business 
requirements  in  a  large  degree  account  for  the  change. 

The  only  opposition  to  the  advance  of  French  is  found  in  the 
Flemish  immigration  which  brings  fresh  linguistic  energy  in  its 
train.  Fortunately  for  the  Eomance  language,  the  tide  of  this 
innnigration  is  weak  and  the  newcomers  are  easily  assimilated  by 
the  French-speaking  element.  A  locality  in  which  the  decline  of 
French  is  noticeable  is  found  in  the  vicinity  of  Menin  on  the 
Lys  river.  The  number  of  Flemish  immigrants  is  particularly 
heavy  in  this  region.  Coromunes  which  have  been  French  since 
immemorial  times  are  fast  becoming  Flemish.  Everywiiere  else, 
however,  French  is  steadily  encroaching  upon  the  domain  of 
Germanic  speech. 

Brussels  typifies  the  bilingual  character  of  the  country  of 
which  it  is  the  capital.  French  and  Flemish  are  spoken  both  in 
its    precincts    and    suburbs.      The    distribution    of    inhabitants, 

''"'  '*>*♦"«« 

Fig.  12. 

Fig.  13. 

Fig.  12  is  a  view  of  the  lowlying  plain  of  Flanders  in  the  vicinity  of  Waterloo. 

Fig.  13 — Shows  the  environs  of  Chaiidfontaine  and  gives  an  excellent  glimpse  of 
the  hilly  country  in  which  Walloon  language  has  held  its  own.  These  two  photo- 
graphs show  the  contrast  between  the  areas  of  Walloon  and  Flemish  in  Belgium. 


according  to  communes  or  wards,  showed  French  predominance 
on  December  31,  1910,  as  follows: 

Communes  Number  of         French-  Flemish-        French  and 

(wards)  inhabitants         speaking         speaking  Flemisli 

Bruxelles  177,078  47,385  29,081  85,414 

Anderleeht 64,157  11,211  24,320  23,486 

Etterbeck 33,227  11,107  6,596  13,166 

Forest    24,228  7,975  5,247  8,756 

Ixelles 72,991  39,473  6,733  19,799 

Jette 14,782  1,811  7,775  4,191 

Koekelberg    12,750  1,770  5,702  4,378 

Laeken   35,024  4,720  12,702  15,230 

Molenbeek-St.  Jean 72,783  11,663  24,910  31,331 

Saint-Gilles  63,140  24,376  5,928  27,497 

Saint-Josseten-Noode    . .  .  31,865  10,547  3,349  14,859 

Schaerbeek    82,4S0  20,975  13,677  40,525 

Uccle 26,979  5,818  9,074  10,169 

Woluwe— St.  Lambert  . . .  8,883  2,035  3,839  2,262 

Totals 720,367  200,866  158,933  301,063 

Although  Brussels  is  generally  placed  on  the  Flemish  side  of 
the  linguistic  divide,  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  city  may 
appropriately  be  considered  as  the  northernmost  extension  of 
the  area  of  Romance  languages  in  Belgium.  Only  two  villages  of 
Flemish  speech  intervene  between  the  capital  and  the  Walloon 
area.  They  are  Rhode-Saint-Genese  and  Hoeylaert.  Were  it  not 
for  these  two  small  communities,  Brussels  would  not  be  an  enclave 
of  French  speech  in  Flemish  territory  .J  But  the  two  villages  are 
separated  by  the  forest  of  Soignes  which  extends  in  an  elongated 
band,  all  the  way  south  of  Uccle  and  Boitsfort,  to  within  reach  of 
Waterloo.  This  wooded  area  acts  as  a  link  which  connects 
Brussels  with  the  ancient  area  of  Romance  speech.  It  tends  to 
restrict  Flemish  in  this  section  to  the  lowland  to  which  it  really 

Within  the  city  limits  the  canal,  which  now  replaces  the  natural 
water  course  flowing  on  the  site,  divides  Brussels  into  Flemish- 
speaking  quarters  and  districts  entirely  given  up  to  French  lan- 
guage. West  of  the  waterway,  the  native  vernacular  prevails 
predominantly.  This  section  of  the  Belgian  capital  is  the  site  of 
its  industries.     Its  population  consists  mainly  of  laborers.     As 



early  as  the  twelfth  century,  the  members  of  the  city's  guilds 
found  it  convenient  to  reside  along  the  banks  of  the  stream  which 
watered  the  heart  of  their  settlement.    In  our  day,  this  part  of 

)  Assche 

°  Wenimei ' 


Bodeghem  -StMartiri 


50°5o'  oSchepdael 




3  Woli/H  r  - 
St  Etu  me 

St-Joac    ten  Noode 

offi;^ssingh  en 

o  Toumep^  oef. 


-,  .^.  'm 

,  Vccle 

o  Linhebeek 

^Boitsfort        '^ 

.    "o     "  .  .  O      o    . 

.■§   ,  o  .■  •  -o  o  ■    o  o  o 

o  o    o     " 
f^J'ervUereri  ^ 

o  oo  o  a 
°o  o  0  0° 
,  o  o  o    o  ■• 

)  /    Hoeylaert 


o  Rhode - 

o  o  o 

•.-•■■  ■■^C- 

o:  ■      ■   ■<■: 

Waterloo  ./->' 


I  Clabecq 

■  Scale  of  miles 


Fig.  14 — Sketch  map  of  the  environs  of  Brussels  showing  the  forested  patch  of 
Soignes  intervening  between  the  Brussels  area  of  French  language  (shown  by  dots) 
and  the  adjacent  part  of  the  area  of  the  French  language  in  Belgium  (also  shown 
by  dots).  The  blank  area  is  territory  of  Flemish  speech.  (Based  on  a  map  by  P. 
Reclus  in  La  Geographic,  Vol.  28,  1913,  p.  312.) 

Brussels   presents    similar    advantages    to    factory   owners    and 
operators  of  industrial  plants. 

The  rising  ground  east  of  the  canal  has  always  been  favored 
as  a  residential  site  by  the  leaders  of  the  community.     In  the 


Middle  Ages  the  counts  of  Brabant  erected  their  palace  on  the 
:summit  of  this  eminence.  Since  then  the  well-to-do  residents  of 
Brussels  have  built  their  homes  on  this  side  of  the  canal.  The 
bourgeois  class  followed  the  lead  of  the  aristocracy  as  soon  as 
their  commercial  and  industrial  revenues  equaled  those  of  their 
titled  countrymen.  French,  the  language  of  culture  in  the  land, 
naturally  took  root  in  this  eastern  section  of  Brussels.  The 
tendency  of  the  privileged  classes  to  select  this  part  of  the  city 
for  their  residence  is  as  strong  today  as  in  the  past.  The  bracing 
^ir  of  the  heights  and  of  the  forest  of  Soignes  near  by  affords 
^n  inducement  which  cannot  be  found  in  the  bottom  of  the  valley. 
Spacious  a.venues  enlivened  by  elaborate  residences  extend  along 
the  crest  lines.  The  intervening  blocks  are  tenanted  by  the  middle 
classes.  Educational  institutions  also  flourish  in  these  eastern 
wards  of  Brussels.  French  prevails  overwhelmingly  in  all  their 
nooks  and  bypaths. 

The  growth  of  French  in  Brussels  is  strongly  brought  out  by 
a  comparison  of  the  following  census  figures  for  the  years  1846 
and  1910 : 



French-speaking  inhabitants 



Flemish       "                " 



Totals  ....     200,000  760,000 

The  gradual  replacement  of  Flemish  by  French  in  Brussels 
may  often  be  traced  to  recent  changes  in  the  growth  of  the  city.^^ 
In  the  faubourgs  of  Woluwe,  Boitsfort  and  Uccle  the  number  of 
users  of  French  is  on  the  increase  each  year.  The  growth  pro- 
ceeds with  sufficient  regularity  to  forecast  a  thorough  spread  of 
the  language  by  1935.  In  some  cases  it  is  easy  to  foresee  that 
some  of  the  outlying  villages  will  be  Frenchified  sooner  than 
certain  wards  of  the  western  part  of  the  city.  Tervueren  and 
Linkebeek,  for  instance,  are  both  noted  for  the  charm  of  their 
scenery.  Both  are  centers  of  attraction  for  the  well-to-do 
Belgians  and  as  a  result  tend  to  lose  their  Flemish  character. 

**  p.  Reclus:  Les  progrfes  du  Frangais  dans  I'agglomeration  Bruxelloise,  La  Oeogr., 
Vol.  28,  No.  5,  Nov.  15,  1913,  pp.  308-318. 


Tin  recent  years  a  keen  struggle  for  predominance  between 
Flemings  and  Walloons  has  been  observed  in  every  province  of 
the  country.  Each  element  aspires  to  impose  its  racial  traits, 
customs  and  ideals  on  its  rival.  The  contest  sometimes  degen- 
erates into  extreme  bitterness.  The  university,  the  street,  the 
theater,  even  the  government  offices  are  converted  into  scenes  of 
polemical  wrangling.  News  items  in  the  dailies  reveal  a  constant 
state  of  tension  between  ' '  Flammigants "  and  ''Fransquillons." 
In  this  racial  struggle,  language  has  been  adopted  as  the  rallying 
standard  of  both  parties.  Each  faction  consistently  aims  to 
eliminate  the  study  of  the  rival  tongue  in  the  primary  schools  of 
its  territory. 

The  Walloons  now  represent  a  true  blend  of  northern,  central 
and  southern  European  types.  The  mingling  was  attended  by 
the  clash  and  contest  which  has  always  marked  racial  fusion.  As 
a  language  Walloon  forced  itself  into  existence  out  of  the  confu- 
sion which  followed  a  long  bilingual  period  and  by  the  sheer 
obstinacy  of  an  humble  Belgo-Roman  people  whose  ears  had  been 
attuned  to  vernacular  speech  at  church  and  school.  It  was  no 
mean  feat  for  the  inhabitants  of  the  principality  of  Liege  to  have 
retained  their  language,  surrounded  as  they  were  by  Germanic 
peoples  on  all  sides  but  one.  The  ancient  state  had  the  shape  of 
a  triangle  whose  base  abutted  against  a  land  of  French  speech. 
Its  sides,  however,  on  the  north  and  the  east  penetrated  like  a 
wedge  into  districts  of  Flemish  and  German. 

The  language  became  prevalent  in  the  principality  of  Wal- 
lonia  after  the  tenth  century.  It  was  then  still  in  a  state  of 
infancy  and  the  literature  of  its  early  period  is  relatively  poor." 
Contrasted  with  official  and  aristocratic  French  the  Walloon  was 
a  dialect  of  little  account  prior  to  the  eighteenth  century.  Since 
that  time,  however,  genuine  interest  has  been  manifested  in  its 
folk-tales  and  literature  by  educated  Frenchmen.  But  it  remained 
for  Dutch  presumption  to  give  a  final  impetus  to  the  revival  of 

**  M.  Wilmotte :  Le  Wallon,  histoire,  litt^rature  des  origines  a  la  fin  du  XVIIe 
sifecle,  Rosez,  Brussels,  1893.  J.  Demarteau:  Le  Wallon,  son  histoire  et  sa  litt^rature, 
Li^ge,  1889. 


Walloon.  By  the  terms  of  the  treaty  of  Vienna,  Belgium  and 
Holland  had  been  assembled  into  a  single  state  known  as  the 
Netherlands.  The  Dutch  represented  the  dominant  element  in  the 
union.  Their  endeavor  to  impose  their  language  on  the  Flemings 
and  "Walloons  was  vigorously  resisted  by  the  latter.  The  streets 
of  Belgian  towns  resounded  with  the  hatred  of  the  Dutch 
expressed  in  Walloon  words. ^^  The  separation  of  Belgium  from 
Holland  in  1830  was  in  a  sense  the  expression  of  the  linguistic 
diversity  which  had  characterized  the  kingdom  of  the  Nether- 

Fusion  of  the  two  elements  of  the  Belgian  population  is 
observable  in  the  Brabant  country,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  linguistic 
frontier.  Flemish  laborers  tend  to  invade  Walloon  settlements 
with  the  result  that  the  number  of  inhabitants  of  Flemish  speech 
is  on  the  increase.  A  counter  immigration  of  Walloons  into 
Flemish  villages  also  exists,  mth  a  corresponding  addition  to  the 
number  of  French-speaking  inhabitants  wherever  it  takes  place. 
The  fact  remains,  however,  that  while  Flemings  acquire  the 
French  spoken  by  Walloons,  it  is  an  extremely  rare  occurrence 
for  the  latter  to  take  up  Flemish.  In  the  course  of  time  the 
Flemish  immigrant  in  Walloon  villages  learns  French,  while  the 
Walloon  newcomer  in  Flemish  villages  manages  to  impose  his 
language  on  his  new  neighbors.  The  net  result  is  a  gain  for  the 
French  language. 

Today,  after  almost  a  hundred  years'  quiescence,  the  Belgian 
question  enters  upon  another  critical  stage.  The  problem  is  one 
of  language  in  so  far  as  the  two  languages  spoken  in  the  country 
represent  the  aims  and  interests  of  two  different  peoples.  The 
Belgian  question  dates,  in  reality,  from  the  treaty  of  Verdun  of 
843  and  the  partition  of  Charlemagne's  empire.  Belgium  then 
became  the  westernmost  province  of  the  transition  state  known 
as  Lothringia.  It  was  the  hedge-country  artificially  created  to 
act  as  a  barrier  between  the  peoples  of  Romanic  and  Teutonic 
speech.  Its  population,  drawn  from  both  elements,  has  been  the 
alternate  prey  of  French  and  German  powers.    But  all  of  Bel- 

"  J.  Demarteau:  op.  cit.,  p.  134. 


gium's  troubled  history  has  been  affected  by  the  shape  of  the 
land.  The  only  frontier  mth  which  the  nation  has  been  supplied 
by  nature  is  the  sea  on  the  west.  On  the  other  three  sides  land 
features  merge  gradually  with  the  main  types  in  their  neighbor- 
hood. AVithin  Belgian  territory,  the  lowlands  of  northern  Europe 
join  with  the  outliers  of  the  uplifts  of  central  Europe  and 
their  extension  into  France.  Nowhere  is  the  break  sharp.  The 
basin  of  the  Schelde  itself  trespasses  on  the  neighboring  basins 
of  the  Ehine,  the  Meuse  and  the  Somme. 

Aggravation  of  the  feud  between  Walloons  and  Flemings  may 
lead  to  secession.  The  Flemish  provinces  might  then  cast  their 
political  lot  with  the  Dutch,  with  whom  their  intercourse  has  been 
marked  by  a  degree  of  friendliness  which  has  never  characterized 
their  relations  with  other  neighbors.  This  extreme  course  might 
not  unreasonably  be  adopted  as  a  measure  of  self-preservation." 
The  languages  spoken  in  Holland  and  Flanders  are  practically 
identical.  Religious  differences  alone  have  stood  in  the  way  of 
political  fusion  in  the  past.  Flemish  princes,  swayed  by  religious 
scruples,  had  refused  to  side  with  the  Protestant  communities 
whose  political  connection  had  been  established  by  the  Union  of 
Utrecht  in  1597.  The  menace  of  absorption  by  Germany  may  yet 
drive  the  Flemings  to  union  with  their  close  kinsmen  of  the  low- 
lands on  the  north,  Walloons  would  then  naturally  revert  to 
French  allegiance.  The  coincidence  of  political  and  linguistic 
boundaries  in  the  westernmost  section  of  central  Europe  would 
then  become  an  accomplished  fact.  ] 

l^he  language  of  the  Duchy  of  Luxemburg  is  a  Low  German 
dialect  in  which  a  strong  proportion  of  Walloon  French  words 
is  found.  French  is  taught  in  schools  and  is  the  language  of  the 
educated  classes.  It  is  also  used  in  tribunals,  and  in  many  places 
as  the  official  language  of  governing  and  administrative  bodies. 
The  use  of  French  is  largely  due  to  intimate  intellectual  ties  which 
bind  Luxemburgers  and  Frenchmen.    It  is  estimated  that  at  least 

^*  Germany's  violation  of  Belgian  neutrality  in  1914  has  been  followed  by 
systematic  endeavors  to  induce  Flemings  to  favor  annexation  of  their  land  to  Germany 
on  the  plea  of  ancestral  kinship. 


30,000  natives  of  the  Grand  Duchy,  or  about  one-eighth  of  its 
population,  emigrate  to  France  for  business  reasons.  Many 
marry  French  women.  Maternal  influences  prevail  with  the  chil- 
dren born  of  these  unions  with  the  result  that,  upon  returning  to 
their  native  land,  the  families  bring  French  speech  along. 

But  French  as  a  commercial  language  is  on  the  wane  through- 
out the  Grand  Duchy.  German  has  been  replacing  it  gradually 
since  1870.  This  is  one  of  the  results  of  the  small  state's  admis- 
sion into  the  ring  of  German  customs.  Prior  to  that  period 
business  was  transacted  mainly  in  the  French  dialect  of  Lorraine. 
The  spread  of  German  is  furthermore  the  result  of  a  system- 
atically conducted  propaganda  carried  on  with  well-sustained 
determination.  German  ''school  associations"  and  "Volks- 
vereine,"  established  in  every  city  of  importance,  help  to  spread 
German  speech  and  thought.  Lectures  of  the  type  entitled  ''The 
beauty  of  Schiller's  and  Goethe's  speech"  are  delivered  by 
orators  who  are  in  reality  skilled  pioneers  of  empire  engaged  in 
the  work  of  reclaiming  populations  to  Germanism.  The  efficiency 
of  their  methods  is  proved  by  the  results  they  have  obtained.  Out 
•of  a  population  of  about  21,000  inhabitants,  hardly  4,000  natives 
of  Luxemburg  speak  French  exclusively,  while  of  the  six  or  seven 
papers  published  in  the  capital,  tAvo  alone  are  issued  in  French. 

This  closing  of  the  German  grip  over  the  land  stimulated  the 
growth  of  national  feeling  among  the  inhabitants.  They  were 
reminded  by  their  leaders  that,  from  having  formerly  been  one 
of  the  seventeen  provinces  of  the  Netherlands,  the  duchy  acquired 
the  status  of  a  sovereign  state  in  1890,  on  the  accession  of  Queen 
Wilhelmina  to  the  throne.  Henceforth  the  maintenance  of  Lux- 
emburg's independence  rests  on  the  European  powders'  observ- 
ance of  the  pledges  by  which  they  guaranteed  national  freedom 
for  this  little  state.^\  The  natives  are  free  from  the  burden  of 
onerous  taxation  imposed  on  inhabitants  of  the  neighboring  pow- 
erful countries.     Peaceful  development  of  their  commerce  and 

U*"  Luxemburg's  neutrality  was  guaranteed  by  the  treaty  of  London,  May  11,  1867, 
to  which  Britain,  Austria,  Prussia,  France,  Belgium,  Holland,  Italy  and  Russia  were 


industry  is  thus  facilitated.  Their  land  is  richly  endowed  by 
nature.  The  wine  produced  in  the  Moselle  valley  and  the  exten- 
sive deposits  of  high  grade  iron  ore  found  around  Etsch  make 
the  community  one  of  the  most  prosperous  on  the  European 

Nevertheless  the  country  seemed  predestined  by  nature  itself 
to  form  a  part  of  Germany.  The  broken  surface  of  the  Ardenne 
hilly  region  and  the  extension  of  the  plateau  of  Lorraine  are 
drained  by  the  Sauer  and  Moselle  into  German  territory.  The 
life  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  entire  state  is  influenced  by  this 
easterly  drift  and  tends  yearly  to  greater  dispersal  in  the  same 
direction.  This  is  the  danger  which  prompts  them  to  cling  to 
their  independence  with  patriotic  tenacity.  Their  feelings  are 
reflected  in  their  national  hymn,  which  begins  with  the  words 
*'Mir  welle  bleiwe  wat  mer  sin  "  (We  wish  to  remain  what  we 
are).  These  are  the  words  of  the  tune  rendered  daily  at  noon  by 
tl^e  chimes  of  the  Cathedral  of  Luxemburg. 

/  Some  fifty  miles  north  of  Luxemburg,  and  at  the  point  of 
contact  of  the  French,  German  and  Dutch  languages,  lies  the 
neutral  territory  of  Moresnet,  barely  three  and  a  quarter  square 
miles  in  area.  This  forgotten  bit  of  independent  land  is  claimed 
by  both  Prussia  and  Belgium  on  account  of  the  exceedingly 
valuable  zinc  deposits  which  it  contains.  It  has  a  population  of 
some  3,000  inhabitants  who,  alone  among  Europeans,  enjoy  the 
inestimable  privilege  of  not  paying  taxes  to  any  government.  A 
Burgomaster,  selected  alternately  from  among  Prussian  and 
Belgian  subjects,  rules  this  diminutive  state  in  conjunction  with 
a  Communal  Council. 

The  survival  of  such  a  relic  of  medieval  political  disorders 
was  due  to  the  impossibility  of  making  a  settlement  between  the 
two  claimants  of  its  territory.  In  the  fifteenth  century  its  mines 
were  the  property  of  the  Dukes  of  Limburg,  who  had  leased  them 
to  Philip  the  Good,  Duke  of  Burgundy.  Shortly  after  the  French 
Revolution,  they  were  declared  national  property  by  the  French 
Republic  and  were  operated  by  the  government."    With  the  fall 

*•  The  Neutral  Territory  of  Moresnet,  Eiverside  Press,  Cambridge,   1882,  p.    14, 


of  Napoleon,  the  estate  passed  under  the  management  of  both 
Prussia  and  Holland.  After  the  Belgian  revolution  of  1830,  how- 
ever, the  entire  property  became  part  of  Belgium's  share.  A 
demand  for  rents  in  arrears  from  the  lessee  by  Prussia,  although 
recognized  as  valid  by  the  courts  of  Liege,  was  not  approved  by 
the  new  Belgian  state  and  the  only  compromise  that  could  be 
reached  was  a  declaration  of  the  neutrality  of  the  ter- 

The  Belgian  question  as  well  as  the  related  Luxemburg  and 
Moresnet  problems,  the  latter  being  of  slight  significance,  present 
themselves  today  as  economic  settlements  no  less  than  political 
adjustments.  The  inner  reason  which  had  led  German  hope  to 
dwell  on  the  annexation  of  Belgium  is  the  knowledge  that  such 
an  addition  in  territory  would  convert  Germany  into  the  dominat- 
ing industrial  nation  of  Europe.  This  position  of  superiority 
would  be  firmly  established  if,  in  addition,  the  French  basins  of 
Longwy  and  Briey  could  be  turned  into  Eeichslands,  as  had  been 
done  with  Alsace-Lorraine  in  1870.  Fortunately  for  Europe,  the 
developments  of  the  armed  contest  begun  in  1914  proved  that  the 
threat  of  this  economic  vassalage  is  no  longer  to  be  feared.  Inci- 
dentally it  is  worth  remembering  that  its  realization  would 
obviously  have  been  followed  by  the  loss  of  Holland's  inde- 
pendence. Jl 

Belgium's  political  independence  is  therefore  a  necessity  for 
the  fine  adjustment  of  the  balance  of  European  industrial  life. 
And  there  are  quarters  where  such  economic  considerations 
carry  greater  weight  than  national  sentiments.  The  main  point 
to  be  made,  however,  is  that  Belgian  nationality  is  entitled  to 
survival,  whether  it  be  examined  from  a  material  or  a  moral 
standpoint.  Changes,  if  any,  of  its  frontiers  are  indicated  in  the 
east,  where  Malmedy  and  its  environs  in  Rhenish  Prussia  consti- 
tute a  domain  of  French  language.  The  exchange  of  this  territory 
for  districts  of  German  speech  in  Belgian  Luxemburg  and  the 
strategic  reinforcement  of  this  eastern  frontier,  as  a  safeguard 
against  future  aggression,  are  desirable  for  Belgians  as  well  as 
for  Germans. 



French-  and  Flemish- Speaking  Inhabitants  of  Belgium 
Census  of  December  31,  1910 

Provinces  Number  of         French-  Flemish-         French  and 

iuhabitauls         speaiiing  speaking  Flemish 

Antwerp 968,677  12,289  762,414     '     113,606 

Brabant   1,469,677  382,947  603,507  381,997 

E.  Flanders 1,120,335  9,311  934,143  116,889 

W.  Flanders  874,135  31,825  669,081  123,938 

Hainaut 1,232,867  1,113,738  17,283  49,575 

Liege    888,341  748,504  14,726  50,068 

Limbourg    275,691  9,123  218,622  29,386 

Luxemburg    231,215  183,218  153  1,393 

Namur   362,846  342,379  733  4,436 

Totals 7,423,784        2,833,334       3,220,662  871,288 

This  table  shows  French  predominance  for  the  entire  country. 
The  arrangement  given  immediately  below  brings  out  this  fact 
more  clearly. 

Inhabitants  speaking  French  only 2,833,334 

«  «  French  and  Flemish 871,288 

«  "  French  and  German 74,993 

«  "  French,  German  and  Flemish  . .  52,547 

«  "  German  only  31,415 

«  "  German  and  Flemish 8,652 

"  "  Flemish  only  3,220,662 

«  "  None "   of  the   three  languages  330,893 


*'  Children  under  two  and  foreigners  are  included  under  this  heading. 



With  the  exception  of  a  few  districts  in  Alsace-Lorraine,  the 
political  boundary  between  France  and  Germany  is  also  the 
linguistic  line  between  French  and  German  languages.  This 
condition  is  a  result  of  the  modifications  which  French  fron- 
tiers have  undergone  since  the  treaty  of  Utrecht  in  1714.  Unfor- 
tunately the  Napoleonic  period  and  its  disorderly  train  of 
political  disturbances  brought  about  an  unnatural  extension  of 
the  northern  and  eastern  lines.  France  departed  for  a  time  from 
the  self-appointed  task  of  attracting  French-speaking  provinces 
to  itself.  Between  1792  and  1814  almost  all  of  the  territory  of 
Belgium  and  Holland  was  annexed  and  the  eastern  frontier 
extended  to  the  Rhine.  Teutonic  peoples  in  Holland,  Flanders, 
Rhenish  Prussia  and  the  western  sections  of  Hesse  and  Baden 
passed  under  French  control.  But  their  subjection  to  Napoleon's 
artificial  empire  was  of  relatively  short  duration.  The  German- 
speaking  people  in  1813  united  in  a  great  effort  to  drive  the 
French  across  the  Rhine.  They  were  merely  repeating  the  feat 
of  their  ancestors  who,  at  an  interval  of  eighteen  centuries,  had 
defeated  the  Latin-speaking  invaders  of  their  country  led  by 
Varus.  Success  in  both  movements  was  largely  the  result  of  the 
feeling  of  kinship  based  on  language.  In  9  a.d.  the  Romans  were 
forced  back  to  the  Rhine  from  the  line  they  occupied  on  the 
Weser.  The  treaty  of  Vienna  restored  French  boundaries  to  the 
lines  existing  in  1790.  French  territory  was  once  more  confined 
to  the  normal  boundaries  which  inclose  members  of  the  French- 
speaking  family.  A  natural  frontier  thus  became  determined  for 
the  country.  The  union  of  Frenchmen  into  a  compact  political 
body  was  shattered,  however,  by  the  treaty  of  Frankfort  in  1871, 



when  France  was  obliged  to  cede  the  provinces  of  Alsace  and 
Lorraine  to  Germany. 

The  part  to  be  played  by  the  province  of  Lorraine  in  the 
history  of  Franco-German  relations  was  laid  out  by  nature  itself. 
The  pro\ince  had  always  been  a  wide  pathway  connecting  highly 
attractive  regions  of  settlement.  It  lies  midway  between  the  fer- 
tile plains  of  the  Rhine  and  the  hospitable  Paris  basin.  It  is  also 
placed  squarely  in  the  center  of  the  natural  route  leading  from 
Flanders  to  Burgundy.  Physically  the  region  was  part  of 
France;  its  inhabitants  have  therefore  always  been  Frenchmen, 
but  the  lack  of  a  natural  barrier  on  the  east  provided  a  constantly 
open  door  for  Teutonic  invasion.  In  particular,  the  Moselle 
valley  has  always  facilitated  access  into  Lorraine.  The  province 
was  thus  a  borderland  disputed  first  by  two  adjoining  peoples 
and,  subsequently,  by  two  neighboring  nations. 

As  a  duchy,  Lorraine  had  attained  a  state  of  semi-independ- 
ence in  the  tenth  century.  It  then  included  the  three  bishoprics 
of  Metz,  Toul  and  Verdun.  From  the  eleventh  to  the  eighteenth 
century,  the  house  of  Lorraine  furthermore  exerted  sovereign 
power  over  Nancy  and  Luneville.  The  loosening  of  the  ties  of 
vassalage  which  united  it  to  the  German  Empire  grew  as  cen- 
turies passed. 

This  long  period  of  conflict  was  necessarily  accompanied  by 
modifications  of  linguistic  boundaries.  Glancing  back  to  the  end 
of  the  Middle  Ages,  a  slight  westerly  advance  of  the  area  of 
German  speech  may  be  ascertained  for  the  period  between  the 
tenth  and  sixteenth  centuries.^  From  that  time  on,  however, 
the  regional  gain  of  French  has  been  in  excess  of  previous  Ger- 
man advances.  Toponymic  data  afford  valuable  clues  to  early 
distribution  of  languages  in  the  region.  Occurrences  of  the  suffix 
*'ange"  which  is  the  Frenchified  form  of  the  German  ^'ingen," 
in  names  lying  west  of  the  present  line,  show  the  extent  of 
territory  reclaimed  by  the  French  language.^ 

'  H.  Witte:  Forsch.  z.  deut.  Landes-  u.  Volkskunde,  Vol.  10,  1897,  No.  4,  pp.  299- 

'  L.  Gallois :  Les  limites  linguistiques  du  Frangais,  Ann.  de  Oiogr.,  Vol.  9,  1900, 
p.   215. 


The  linguistic  boundary  in  Lorraine  assumes  a  general  north- 
west-southeast direction  as  it  winds  onward  according  to  the  pre- 
dominance of  German  and  French.  About  65  per  cent  of  the  area 
of  Lorraine,  at  present  under  German  rule,  contains  a  French- 
speaking  majority.^  From  Deutsche-Oth,  the  line  crosses  the 
Moselle  south  of  Diedenhofen  and  extends  towards  Bolchen  and 
Morhange.  The  entire  lake  district  farther  south  is  in  French- 
speaking  territory.  About  two  miles  southwest  of  Sarrebourg 
the  line  traverses  the  Saar.  The  Lorraine  boundary  is  attained 
close  to  the  headwaters  of  the  same  river.  A  German  enclave 
occurring  at  Metz  is  the  only  break  in  the  unity  of  the  area  of 
the  French  language.  A  large  frontier  garrison  and  a  host  of 
civilian  officials  account  for  the  numerical  superiority  of  German 
in  this  provincial  capital. 

The  fluctuations  of  French  in  Lorraine  since  the  eleventh 
century  have  been  studied  with  great  minuteness  by  "Witte.* 
Basing  himself  on  the  text  of  documents  examined  in  the  archives 
of  Strassburg,  Metz,  Nancy  and  Bar-le-Duc  this  scholar  succeeded 
in  plotting  the  linguistic  divide  for  the  years  1000  and  1500.  To 
these  two  lines  he  added  the  present  language  boundary  as  deter- 
mined from  his  own  field  observations.  His  method  consisted  in 
traveling  from  village  to  village,  usually  on  foot,  and  ascertaining 
personally  the  predominance  of  French  and  German  in  each 
locality  he  visited. 

Between  the  eleventh  and  sixteenth  centuries  changes  along 
this  linguistic  boundary  appear  to  have  been  unimportant.  The 
five  intervening  centuries  are  characterized  by  a  slight  westerly 
advance  of  German.  From  the  sixteenth  century  to  our  time, 
however,  the  easterly  spread  of  French  has  been  considerable. 
This  change  is  particularly  noticeable  in  southern  Lorraine,  as  if 
to  show  that  the  gap  between  the  heights  of  the  Moselle  and  the 
northern  Middle  Vosges  had  provided  an  outlet  for  the  overflow 
of  the  language  on  German  soil. 

*  p.  Langhans :  Sprachen  Karte  von  Deutsch-Lothringen,  1 : 2,000,000,  Deutsche 
Erde,  1909,  PL  3. 

*  Das  deutsche  Sprachgebiet  Lothringen  und  seine  Wandelungen,  etc.,  Forsch.  z. 
deut.  Landes-  u.  Volksk.,  Vol.  8,  1894,  pp.  407-535. 


Compared  with  Lorraine,  Alsace  has  the  advantage  of  greater 
definiteness  as  a  geographical  unit.  It  is  the  region  of  the  valley 
of  the  111  which  ends  at  the  wall  of  the  Vosges  Mountains  on  the 
west.  Its  easterly  extension  attains  the  banks  of  the  Rhine.  This 
elongated  plain  appears  throughout  history  as  a  corridor  through 
which  races  of  men  marched  and  countermarched.  The  Alpine 
race  provided  it  with  early  inhabitants.  Barbarians  of  northern 
lineage  also  swarmed  into  its  fields.  Romans  subjugated  the  land 
in  the  course  of  imperial  colonization.  The  province  subse- 
quently passed  under  Germanic  and  Frankish  sway. 

The  entry  of  Alsace  into  linguistic  history  may  be  reckoned 
from  the  year  842,  when  the  celebrated  oaths  of  Strassburg  were 
exchanged  in  Romance  and  Teutonic  languages  by  Louis  the 
German  and  Charles  the  Bald,  respectively.  This  solemn  function 
was  a  precautionary  measure  taken  by  the  two  brothers  to  safe- 
guard their  territory  against  the  coveting  of  their  senior, 
Lothaire,  to  whom  Charlemagne  had  bequeathed  the  area  which, 
for  a  time,  was  known  as  Lotharii  Regnum,  and  which  comprised 
modern  Lorraine,  Alsace,  Burgundy,  Provence  and  a  portion  of 
Italy.  The  main  point  of  interest  in  the  territorial  division  which 
marked  the  passing  of  Charlemagne,  lies  in  the  fact  that  the 
future  division  of  central  Europe  into  nations  of  French,  German 
and  Italian  speech  was  outlined  at  this  period.  Strassburg,  the 
chief  city  of  the  borderland  between  areas  of  French  and  German 
speech,  was  a  bilingual  center  at  this  early  date.  The  versions 
of  the  oaths  taken  on  February  18,  842,  by  the  royal  brothers,  as 
handed  down  by  Nithard,  Charlemagne's  grandson  and  a  con- 
temporary historian,  show  a  formative  stage  in  French  and  Ger- 
man. The  document  has  been  aptly  called  the  birth  certificate 
of  French.  Louis  the  German  spoke  the  following  words  in  the 
lingua  romana,  which  was  then  the  speech  of  Romanized  Gaul: 

Pro  Deo  amur  et  pro  christian  poblo  et  nostro  commun 
salvament,  dist  di  in  avant,  in  quant  Deus  savir  et  podir 
me  dunat,  si  salvarai  io  cist  meon  fradre  Karlo,  et  in 
adjudha,  et  in  cadhuna  cosa,  si  cum  om,  per  droit,   son 


fradre  salvar  dist,  in  o  quid  il  mi  altresi  fazet;  et  ab 
Ludher  nul  plaid  numquam  prindrai  qui,  meon  vol,  cist 
meon  fradre  Karlo  in  damno  sit/ 

Charles  the  Bald  used  the  lingua  teudisca  as  follows: 

In  Godes  minna  ind  in  thes  christianes  folches  ind  unser 
bedhero  gealtnissi,  fon  thesemo  dage  frammordes,  so  fram 
so  mir  Got  gewizci  indi  madh  furgibit,  so  haldih  tesan 
minan  bruodher,  soso  man  mit  rehtu  sinan  bruodher  seal, 
in  thiu,  thaz  er  mig  sosoma  duo ;  indi  mit  Ludheren  in  non- 
heiniu  thing  ne  gegango  the  minan  willon  imo  ce  scadhen 

Ever  since  this  event  Alsace  has  occupied  the  European 
historical  stage  as  a  bone  of  contention  between  German-speaking 
peoples  and  their  rivals  of  French  speech.  A  year  had  hardly 
elapsed  after  this  exchange  of  pledges,  when  the  division  of  the 
Frankish  Empire  between  the  grandsons  of  Charles  the  Great 
was  formally  settled  by  the  treaty  of  Verdun.  Lothaire,  the 
eldest  brother,  was  awarded  Alsace  and  Lorraine.  From  this 
time  on,  Alsace  became  a  part  of  the  lands  of  German  speech 
which  form  a  compact  block  in  central  Europe.  In  1469,  however, 
Sigismund  of  Austria  mortgaged  his  land  holdings  in  Upper 
Alsace  to  Charles  of  Burgundy  who  thereby  assumed  jurisdiction 
over  the  districts  affected  by  the  mortgage.  The  treaty  of  St. 
Omer  which  contains  the  terms  of  this  transaction  paved  the  way 
for  subsequent  French  intervention  in  both  Alsace  and  Lorraine. 
Accordingly,  a  few  years  later,  by  the  treaty  of  Nancy  (1473), 
Charles  of  Burgundy  was  recognized  by  Rene  II  of  Lorraine  as 
the  ''protector"  of  Lorraine. 

It  was  only  in  the  seventeenth  century,  however,  that  France 

'Translation:  By  the  love  of  God  and  that  of  Christian  people  and  of  our  common 
salvation,  from  this  day  on,  in  so  far  as  God  shall  grant  me  knowledge  and  power, 
I  will  support  my  brother  Karl,  here  present,  by  every  manner  of  help,  as  one  must, 
in  duty  bound,  support  one's  brother,  provided  he  acts  in  the  same  manner  with  me; 
neither  will  I  ever  make  agreements  with  Lothaire  which,  through  my  own  will,  shall 
prejudice  my  brother  Karl  here  present. 


obtained  a  deiinite  foothold  in  Alsace  and  Lorraine.  In  1648,  the 
country  won  by  treaty  settlement  her  long  contested  rights  in 
Alsace.  The  treaties  of  Nimwegen  (1G79)  and  Kyswick  (1697) 
conlirmed  Louis  XIV  in  his  possession  of  the  major  portion  of 
Alsace.  13y  that  lime  French  influence  had  acquired  a  paramount 
share  in  both  of  the  border  provinces.  Lorraine,  however,  was 
not  formally  ceded  to  France  until  the  treaty  of  Vienna  was 
signed  in  1738.  French  sovereignty  over  Alsace  was  confirmed 
again  by  the  treaty  of  Luneville,  in  1801,  and  by  the  Congress  of 
Vienna  in  1815.  It  was  to  last  until  1871.  In  that  year  Alsace 
and  Lorraine  became  part  of  the  newly  constituted  German 
Empire,  the  cession  being  determined  by  Arts.  I  to  IV  of  the 
treaty  of  Frankfort. 

The  preceding  paragraphs  show  that  the  earliest  form  of 
French  and  German  nationality  assumed  shape  immediately  after 
the  treaty  of  Verdun  and  at  about  the  time  when  the  language 
spoken  in  these  countries  began  to  present  similarity  to  the  forms 
used  at  present.  In  the  partition  of  Charlemagne's  empire  only 
two  of  the  three  divisions  were  to  survive.  The  western  evolved 
finally  into  modern  France.  The  easternmost  became  Germany. 
Lying  between  the  two,  Lothringia  naturally  became  the  coveted 
morsel  which  crumbled  to  pieces  in  the  struggle  waged  for  its 

A  highway  of  migration  cannot  be  the  abode  of  a  pure  race. 
Its  inhabitants  necessarily  represent  the  successive  human  groups 
by  which  it  has  been  overrun."  The  Alsatian  of  the  present  day 
is,  accordingly,  a  product  of  racial  mingling.  But  the  blending 
has  conferred  distinctiveness,  and  Alsatians,  claiming  a  national- 
ity of  their  own,  find  valid  arguments  in  racial  antecedents  no 
less  than  in  geographical  habitation.  The  uniform  appearance  of 
the  Alsatian  region  strikes  the  traveler  at  every  point  of  the 
fertile  111  valley,  where  the  soil  is  colored  by  a  reddish  tinge 
which  contrasts  strongly  with  the  greens  and  grays  of  surround- 

•  Anthropologic  data  for  the  southwestern  section  of  Alsace  are  instructive.  The 
generation  of  a  transition  type  between  the  short  and  sturdy  Alpine  type  and  the 
"  sesquipedal"  Teuton  is  observable.  Cf.  Ripley:  The  Races  of  Europe,  New  York, 
1891),  pp.  225-226. 


ing  regions.  By  race  also  the  Alsatian  represents  a  distinct  group 
in  which  the  basal  Alpine  strain  has  been  permeated  by  strong 
admixtures  of  Nordic  blood.  The  confusion  of  dark  and  fair 
types  represent  the  two  elements  in  the  population.  In 
a  broader  sense  the  Alsatians  are  identical  with  the  Swiss 
population  to  the  south  and  the  Lorrains  and  Walloons  to 
the  north — in  fact,  they  are  related  to  the  peoples  of  all  the 
districts  which  once  constituted  the  Middle  Kingdom  of  Bur- 

Although  sharply  defined  by  nature,  Alsace  never  acquired 
independence.  Its  situation  between  the  areas  peopled  by  two 
powerful  continental  races  was  fatal  to  such  a  development.  But 
the  influence  of  its  physical  setting  always  prevailed,  for,  despite 
its  political  union  with  Frenchmen  or  Germans,  the  region  has 
always  been  recognized  as  an  administrative  unit  defined  by  the 
surface  features  which  mark  it  off  from  surrounding  regions. 
The  influence  of  topographic  agencies  has  even  been  felt  within 
the  province.  The  separation  of  Lower  from  Higher  Alsace 
originated  in  a  natural  boundary,  formed  by  a  marshy  and  forest- 
clad  zone  extending  from  the  Tiinnchal  and  Ilohkonigsberg  moun- 
tains to  the  point  of  nearest  convergence  between  the  Rhine  and 
the  Vosges.  This  inhospitable  tract  first  separated  the  two  Celtic 
tribes  known  as  the  Sequani  and  the  Mediomatrici.  Later,  it 
afforded  a  convenient  demarcation  for  the  Roman  provinces  of 
Maxima  Sequanorum  and  Tractus  Mediomatricorum.  The  two 
archbishoprics  of  BesanQon  and  Mayence,  both  of  Middle-Age 
fame,  were  similarly  divided.  The  coins  of  Basel  and  of  Strass- 
burg  point  to  the  subsistence  of  this  line  during  the  Renaissance, 
when  two  distinct  territories  of  economic  importance  extended 
over  the  region.  In  the  administrative  France  of  modern  days, 
the  departments  of  Bas-Rhin  and  Haut-Rhin  again  reveal  adher- 
ence to  the  dividing  line  provided  originally  by  nature.  Finally 
after  the  German  annexation  of  1871  the  "districts"  constituted 
under  German  authority,  with  Colmar  and  Strassburg  as  their 
chief  towns,  conformed  once  more  with  the  historical  line  of 


The  Vosges  ^  uplift  has  been  until  recent  times  the  means  of 
barring  intercourse  between  the  plains  facing  its  eastern  and 
western  slope.  The  chain  has  prevented  communication  on 
account  of  the  height  of  its  passes,  its  thickly  forested  slopes  and 
the  sterility  of  its  soil.  The  influence  of  these  mountains  on 
European  history  deserves  contrast  with  that  of  the  Alps  where 
nature's  provision  of  passes  and  defiles  has  at  all  times  facilitated 
land  travel  in  and  out  of  the  Italian  peninsula.  Primitive  wan- 
dering tribes  found  but  scant  inducement  to  settle  in  the  moun- 
tainous area  of  the  Vosges.  Pastoral  Celts  settled  in  its 
environing  plains  long  before  they  attempted  to  occupy  the  rocky 
mass  itself.  The  Teutonic  tribes  which  followed  the  Celts  like- 
wise found  little  to  attract  them  to  the  Vosges,  and  generally 
migrated  southward  around  its  northern  and  southern  extremity, 
the  former  route  being  that  of  the  Franks  while  the  Goths, 
Burgundians  and  Alemanni  invaded  France  through  the  Belf ort 

Alsace  was  a  province  of  German  speech  throughout  the 
Middle  Ages  as  well  as  after  Louis  XIV 's  conquest  of  the  land. 
French  took  a  solid  foothold  mainly  after  the  revolution  and 
during  the  nineteenth  century.  An  enlightened  policy  of  tolerance 
towards  Alsatian  institutions  cemented  strong  ties  of  friendship 
between  the  inhabitants  and  their  French  rulers.  Alsatian  lean- 
ings towards  France  were  regarded  mth  suspicion  by  the  victors 
of  1870,  who  proceeded  to  pass  prohibitory  laws  regarding  the 
use  of  French  in  primary  schools,  churches  and  law  courts.  These 
measures  of  Germanization  were  attended  by  a  notable  emigra- 
tion to  France.  In  1871  there  were  1,517,494  inhabitants  in 
Alsace-Lorraine.  The  number  had  decreased  to  1,499,020  in  1875 
in  spite  of  52.12  per  cent  excess  of  births  over  deaths. 

Nancy,  by  its  situation,  was  destined  to  welcome  Alsatians 
who  had  decided  to  remain  faithful  to  France.  The  number  of 
immigrants  to  this  city  after  the  Franco-Prussian  war  was  esti- 

^  The  name  has  been  traced  to  the  generic  meaning  of  forest  through  its  con- 
sonants v-s-g,  which  are  convertible  into  b-s-k,  the  latter  corresponding  to  bosquet, 
busch,  bush,  etc.  Cf.  J.  C.  Gerock:  Die  Benennung  und  Gliederung  des  linksrheinischen 
Gebirges,  M.  Philomath.  Ges.  Elsass-Loth.,  Vol.  4,  1910,  pp.  251-274. 


mated  at  15,000.^  Pressing  need  of  workingmen  in  the  city's 
growing  industrial  plants  intensified  this  movement.  Alsatian 
dialects  were  the  only  languages  heard  in  entire  sections  of  the 
urban  area.  Peopled  by  about  50,000  inhabitants  in  1866, 
Nancy's  population  jumped  to  66,303  in  1876.  Metz,  on  the  other 
hand,  with  a  population  of  54,820  inhabitants  in  1866,  could  not 
boast  of  more  than  45,675  in  1875.  The  census  taken  in  1910 
raised  this  figure  to  68,598  by  the  addition  of  the  garrison  main- 
tained at  this  point.  Altogether  it  was  estimated  that,  in  1910, 
French  was  spoken  by  204,262  inhabitants  of  Alsace-Lorraine,  out 
of  a  total  population  of  1,814,564.^ 

The  present  line  of  linguistic  demarcation  in  Alsace-Lorraine 
rarely  coincides  with  the  political  boundary.  Conformity  between 
the  two  lines  is  observable  only  in  stretches  of  their  southern- 
most extension.  East  and  southeast  of  Belfort,  however,  two 
well-defined  areas  of  French  speech  spread  into  German  territory 
at  Courtavon  and  Montreux.  In  the  elevated  southern  section  of 
the  Vosges,  the  line  runs  from  peak  to  peak  with  a  general  tend- 
ency to  sway  east  of  the  crest  line  and  to  reveal  conspicuous 
deflections  in  certain  high  valleys  of  the  eastern  slope.  Its 
irregularity  with  respect  to  topography  may  be  regarded  as  an 
indication  of  the  fluctuations  of  protohistoric  colonization. 

From  Biiren  Kopf  to  about  10  miles  beyond  Schlucht  Pass, 
the  mountainous  divide  and  the  linguistic  line  coincide.  Farther 
north,  however,  French  prevails  in  many  of  the  upper  valleys  of 
the  Alsatian  slope.  This  is  true  of  the  higher  sections  of  the 
Weiss  basin,  as  well  as  of  the  upper  reaches  of  the  Bruche.  At 
a  short  distance  south  of  the  sources  of  the  Liepvre,  parts  of  the 
valley  of  Markirch  (Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines)  are  likewise  French. 
Here,  however,  the  influx  of  German  miners,  who  founded  settle- 
ments as  far  back  as  the  seventeenth  century,  converted  the 
district  into  an  area  linguistically  reclaimed  by  Germans. 

The  linguistic  boundary  in  the  valley  of  the  Bruche  corre- 

'  R.  Blanchard:  Deux  grandes  villes  frangaises,  La  Oeogr.,  Vol.  30,  IsTos.  2-6, 
1914,  pp.  120-121. 

'The   Statesman's  Yearbook,    1915,  p.  972. 


sponds  to  the  dividing  line  between  houses  of  the  Frank- Alemannie 
style  and  those  of  the  purely  Alemannie/"  Villages  of  the  Frank- 
Lorrainer  style,  in  which  narrow  fagades,  flat  roofs  and  close 
lining-up  of  houses  are  observable,  belong  to  the  period  of  French 
influence  which  followed  the  Thirty  Years'  war  and  should  not 
be  confused  with  the  former  types.  In  Lorraine  the  houses  are 
built  with  their  longest  sides  parallel  to  the  street.  The  entrance 
leads  into  the  kitchen ;  rooms  occupy  the  left  wing  of  the  building^ 
the  right  providing  stable  space.  In  some  respects  this  structure 
recalls  the  Saxon  houses  met  east  of  the  Elbe  valley.  The  char- 
acteristic feature  of  the  Lorraine  dwelling,  however,  is  found  in 
the  construction  of  the  entrance  on  the  long  side,  whereas  in  the 
German  type  of  house  it  lies  under  a  gable  on  the  short  side.  As 
a  rule  the  Alemannie  type  of  house  prevails  in  the  mountainous 
sections  and  attains  the  valleys  of  the  Meurthe.  In  the  Vosges, 
Black  Forest  and  Swabia  these  dwellings  are  distinguishable  by 
their  characteristic  inclusion  of  all  outhouses  and  barns  under  a 
single  roof.  In  the  densely  peopled  valley  of  the  Bruche  the 
most  important  settlements  rest  on  the  alluvial  terraces  of  its 
affluents.  In  the  upper  valley  the  villages  are  scattered  on  rocky 
amphitheaters,  and  here  the  Celtic  type  of  settlement  is  oftener 

Witte's  studies  show  that,  in  Alsace,"  the  delimitation  of  the 
Germanic  and  Romanic  domain  is  somewhat  more  complicated 
than  in  Lorraine.  Valuable  clues  are  generally  afforded  by 
toponymic  data.  The  Alemanni  are  responsible  for  the  suffix 
"heim."  Towns  and  villages  with  names  bearing  this  suffix  are 
restricted  to  the  plain.  The  dividing  line  extends  on  the  west  to 
the  sub-Vosgian  foreland  and  attains  the  forest  of  the  Haguenau 
on  the  north.  This  last  section  corresponds  to  the  beginning  of 
an  area  of  Frankish  colonization  having  its  center  at  Weissen- 
burg.  The  suffix  "ingen,"  which  occurs  in  place  names  of 
southern  Alsace,  is  likewise  Alemannie.    It  is  supposed  to  corre- 

*"  J.  B.  Masson:  Die  Siedelungen  des  Breuschtals  Elsass,  Monatschrift  Oesch.  u. 
Volksk.,  1010,  pp.  350-373  and  479-498. 

'*  Zur  Geschichte  des  Dpiitschtums  in  Elsass  und  im  Vogesengebiet,  Forsch.  z.  dent^ 
Landes-  u.  Volksk.,  Vol.  10,  No.  4,  1897. 



spond,  however,  to  a  later  period  of  settlement.  The  ending 
"weiler"  accompanies  the  names  of  villages  found  on  the  heights. 

These  data  led  Witte  to  assume  that  the  Celto-Roman  natives 
of  the  plains  were  thrust  back  towards  the  mountains  by  the 
Alemannic  invasion  proceeding  from  the  east.  The  designation 
*'weiler,"  which  is  also  spelled  ''weyer,"  "weyr"  and  "wir," 
indicates  the  mountain  sites  to  which  the  population  of  the  plain 
was  repelled  by  the  Germanic  flow.  The  Vosges  mountains  have 
thus  been  a  place  of  refuge  against  Germanic  aggression.  Witte 's 
researches  point  to  the  probable  peopling  of  the  Alsatian  slopes 
of  the  Vosges  by  tribes  speaking  a  Romanic  language  during  the 
invasions  of  Teutonic  barbarians.  The  so-called  Welsh  element 
appears  to  be  a  Celto-Roman  remnant  of  the  population  of  the 

The  character  of  Alsace-Lorraine  as  a  connecting  region 
between  two  great  European  nations  is  shown  also  by  demo- 
graphic studies. ^^  Life  in  the  provinces  is  accompanied  by  condi- 
tions which  prevail  in  Germany  or  France.  The  excess  of  births 
over  deaths,  which  maintains  itself  on  an  average  at  about  10.  per 
1,000,  is  lower  than  in  any  other  part  of  the  German  Empire. 
The  rate  of  birth  has  decreased  from  36  to  28  per  1,000  in  spite 
of  an  increase  in  the  population.  The  tendency  of  the  inhabitants 
to  emigrate  is  evinced  by  the  large  number  of  uninhabited  houses. 
The  decrease  in  the  native  population  is  largely  due  to  the  desire 
of  many  of  the  inhabitants  to  emigrate  to  French  soil.  In  1875 
the  proportion  of  native-born  inhabitants  amounted  to  93  per 
cent  of  the  total  population.  In  1905  it  did  not  exceed  81  per 
cent.  The  strictly  German  element  had  grown  from  38,000  in 
1875  to  176,000  in  1905.  Fully  90  per  cent  of  these  are  native- 
born  Prussians.  Among  them  the  teaching  of  French  to  children 
has  increased.  Molsheim,  in  Lower  Alsace,  and  Ribeauville,  in 
Upper  Alsace,  are  centers  for  the  study  of  French.     In  recent 

*'  H.  Witte :  Romanische  Bevolkerungsrfickstslnde  in  deutschen  Vogesentalern, 
Deutsche  Erde,  Vol.  6,  1907,  pp.  8-14,  49-54,  87-91. 

*'  DuMont  Schanberg:  Die  Bevfilkerung  Elsass-Lothringen  nach  den  Ergebnissen 
dor  Volksziihliing  vom  1  Dozombor  lOO.')  an  dor  Friiheren  Ziihlungen.  Stat.  M.  iiber 
EIsass-Lothringen,  Vol.  31,  Stat.  Bur.  f.  Elsass-Lothringen,  Strassburg,  1908. 


years  German  immigrants  have  become  the  preponderant  element 
of  the  province. 

Two  methods  of  indicating  the  presence  of  a  French  element 
in  Alsace-Lorraine  are  given  in  the  accompanying  map  (PL  II) 
of  this  region.  The  method  of  showing  percentages  according  to 
administrative  districts  "  has  been  contrasted  with  the  plan  of 
representing  the  actual  extension  of  French  predominance.^"*  In 
one  respect  the  map  is  illuminating.  It  shows  the  concordance  of 
French  and  German  authorities  regarding  the  German  character 
of  the  language  spoken  in  Alsace,  as  well  as  the  French  nature 
of  a  substantial  portion  of  Lorraine.  The  Rhine  valley,  a  natural 
region,  appears  throughout  as  an  area  of  German  speech.  The 
startling  preference  of  Alsatians  for  French  nationality  cannot 
therefore  be  substantiated  by  geographical  evidence.  It  suggests 
the  persistent  influence  of  the  human  will  swayed  by  feelings  of 
justice  and  moral  affinity  rather  than  by  material  considerations. 

To  primitive  societies,  a  river  as  large  as  the  Rhine  pro- 
vided almost  as  impassable  a  frontier  as  the  sea  itself.  It  had 
the  advantage  of  being  defined  by  nature.  The  boundary  was 
actually  marked  on  the  ground.  As  frontiers  of  the  Roman 
Empire,  the  Rhine  and  the  Danube  proved  their  practical  value 
by  the  long  period  during  Avhich  they  marked  the  extent  of 
imperial  or  republican  domain.  The  history  of  oversea  coloniza- 
tion indicates  the  partiality  of  colonial  powers  for  rivers  as 
boundaries.  It  is  likely  that  in  the  very  early  period  of  man's 
habitation  of  the  earth,  the  tribes  settled  on  either  side  of  water- 
courses had  little  or  no  intercourse.  As  they  advanced  in  ci\'ili- 
zation  relations  were  developed.  The  divisive  influence  of  running 
waters  was  therefore  exerted  most  strongly  at  the  da^vn  of 
human  history.  Later  the  river  may  become  a  link  and  finally 
may  attain  the  stage  when  it  is  a  rallying  line  for  the  activity  and 
thought  of  the  inhabitants  of  its  entire  valley. 

The  Gallo-Teutonic  line  of  the  Rhine  was  the  scene  of  many 

"  After  the  Imigiiage  map  of  Alsace-Lorraine  in  Andrea's  Handatlas,  pp.  G7-C8, 
6th  ed. 

"After  Gallois'  map,  Ann.  de  Ocogr.,  Vol.  0.  1000,  Tl.  4. 


Society  of  New  Yorl^ 




from  available    sources 
Scale:  l;l,ia5,000 
or     1  hrrh=17V4  miles 
PopTj.1    a-ti   on.: 
■      Frvac/i  pfeflaniincuijce 
a     from  XS  to  .50  %  French  .speaking 
®         „      JO  to  Z5  %        „ 
O  „         5  to  to  "/o        „ 

a         ,.        O  to  .J    "/o 

4-      %  Frent^h  speaking  i/t/iah  of  cities 
2       ■%       „ 
BASLE     over  lOO  OOO  i/t/ia/t. 
METZ     from   .50.000  to  JOOOOO  inhaJf 

Cohnar     „  to  .10.000 

Barr         „     to.fwo  to  2.5.000      .,  ? 

r/f/ZTin       lais  t/bun  10.000  _j5 J"^i 

Frmi-h      Iv^'vvl  Exfjarvsion  off^nch 

,  rJiitrictK^  sj 




J  Gernutfi    \^Z2l.suife  ttif:.\ 

..linguistic boundn/y  _  _  _  politiral  boiwcliu'ifg 

.-prmxincialboimdanes fUgtnct  ,, 

The  American  Geographical 
Society  of  New  York 

Frontier-  of  Language 
National  il^  in  Europe, 

1917,  PI.  II 


a  struggle  during  the  reign  of  Clovis.  In  the  days  of  Charle- 
magne the  dwellers  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Rhine  were  the  ' '  gens 
atroces  et  feroces"  of  French  chroniclers.  They  represented 
northern  barbarians,  the  foes  of  Christianity  and  of  the  civiliza- 
tion which  Rome  had  given  to  the  world.  Before  becoming  a 
German  river  the  Rhine  flowed  in  a  valley  peopled  by  inhabitants 
of  Celtic  speech.  The  name  it  bears  is  of  Celtic  origin.  When 
men  of  Teutonic  speech  began  to  press  westward,  the  river  sup- 
plied a  natural  moat  which,  for  a  long  period,  had  formed  part 
of  the  system  of  defense  devised  by  the  earlier  inhabitants  of  the 
land.  The  strength  of  the  position  is  attested  by  the  slowness  of 
Germanic  infiltration  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river.  To  this  day 
the  valley  province  owes  more  to  France  in  thought  and  ideals 
than  to  any  other  country.  The  Alsatian  temperament  has  much 
of  that  mental  sunshine  which  Mirabeau  calls  the  ' '  fond  gaillard. '  * 
This  is  assuredly  not  derived  from  Germany.  His  wit  is  of  the 
true  Gallic  type — mocking,  and  tending  to  the  Rabelaisian;  its 
geniality  is  reserved  for  France  and  French  institutions,  its 
caustic  side  for  Germany  and  Germans.  It  could  never  have  pro- 
ceeded from  the  ponderous  Teutonic  mentality.  Alsatians  are 
French  in  spirit  because  they  know  how  to  laugh  well,  to  laugh 
as  civilized  men  with  the  cheer  that  brightens  the  good  and  the 
irony  that  draws  out  in  full  relief  the  ugliness  of  evil. 

The  spread  of  the  French  language  in  Alsace  after  the  con- 
quest of  Strassburg  by  the  soldiers  of  Louis  XIV  was  slow.  The 
French  governors  of  the  province  never  compelled  the  Alsatians 
to  study  their  language.  Up  to  the  time  of  the  French  Revolution, 
French  served  as  the  medium  of  intercourse  in  official  circles  and 
among  the  nobility.  The  mass  of  the  people,  however,  retained 
their  vernacular.  Freedom,  granted  by  the  French  civil  admin- 
istration, was  equally  maintained  by  the  official  representatives 
of  French  ecclesiastical  authority.  Religious  tolerance  in  Alsace 
was  felt  notably  at  the  time  of  the  Revocation  of  the  Edict  of 
Nantes,  the  province  being  probably  the  only  one  in  which  Prot- 
estant Frenchmen  were  unmolested.  Moral  ties  with  France  were 
thus  cemented  by  the  extremely  liberal  character  of  French  rule. 


The  French  Revolution  was  enthusiastically  welcomed  by  the 
democratically  inclined  Alsatians.  This  event  in  fact  consolidated 
Alsace's  union  with  France.  French  military  annals  of  the  period 
contain  a  high  proportion  of  Alsatian  names.  A  community  of 
ideas  and  interests  had  come  into  being.  The  study  of  French 
was  taken  up  with  renewed  enthusiasm  in  Alsace  because  the 
language  was  the  agency  by  which  the  new  spirit  of  the  time  was 
propagated.  It  became  the  medium  of  communication  among 
thinkers.  The  revolution  of  1848  accentuated  this  tendency.  By 
that  time  every  Alsatian  who  could  boast  of  any  schooling  knew 
French.  This  linguistic  conquest  of  Alsace  was  the  result  of 
sympathy  with  French  thought  and  ideals. 

The  German  method  of  imposing  the  rival  tongue  was  dis- 
tinctly different.  All  the  brutality  which  attends  misconceptions 
of  efficiency  among  petty  officials  was  given  free  rein  in  the 
process  of  replacing  French  by  German.  A  stroke  of  the  pen  on 
April  14,  1871,  suppressed  teaching  of  French  in  the  primary 
schools  of  the  annexed  territory.  In  other  educational  establish- 
ments the  study  of  the  language  was  relegated  to  the  position  of 
minor  courses.  It  is  worth  mentioning  that  Alsace  and  Lorraine 
are  the  only  territorial  units  of  the  German  Empire  in  which  the 
study  of  French  has  met  opposition  on  the  part  of  the  govern- 
ment. The  interest  shown  for  the  Romance  language  elsewhere 
in  the  Kaiser's  land  contrasts  with  the  efforts  made  to  root  it  out 
of  Alsatian  soil. 

The  unrelenting  activity  of  the  Prussian  officials  stationed  in 
Alsace-Lorraine  has  borne  fruit,  for  the  use  of  French  by  the 
inhabitants  is  on  the  wane.  This  is  partly  due,  however,  to  the 
emigration  of  a  large  number  of  native-born  Alsatians  and  the 
swarm  of  settlers  brought  from  other  sections  of  Germany.  In 
one  respect  the  results  of  the  Germanizing  propaganda  have 
differed  from  expectations.  They  have  tended  to  foster  the  devel- 
opment of  Alsatian  dialects  as  well  as  the  spirit  of  nationality 
among  the  people.  Alsatians  preferred  to  become  proficient  in 
their  own  tongue  rather  than  in  German.  At  the  same  time,  if 
Alsace  is  to  be  German,  they  are  united  in  the  desire  to  see  their 


native  province  form  part  of  the  Empire  on  a  footing  similar  to 
that  of  other  German  states.  They  apprehend  eventual  absorp- 
tion by  Prussia  as  much  as  the  prolongation  of  the  present 
''Reichsland"  status  of  their  native  land. 

The  European  war  brought  its  train  of  trials  to  Alsatians  no 
less  than  to  other  European  peoples.  French  papers  contain  the 
complaints  of  natives  of  Alsace  and  Lorraine  serving  in  German 
regiments  to  the  effect  that  their  officers  exposed  them  to  the 
worst  dangers  of  war  with  undue  harshness.  It  is  not  unlikely 
that  at  the  cessation  of  hostilities  the  number  of  native-born 
Alsatians  will  have  dwindled  to  insignificant  proportion.  A 
plebiscite  on  the  fate  of  the  province,  taken  then,  might  help 
German  designs.  But  since  a  revision  of  the  Franco-German 
boundary  seems  inevitable,  a  preliminary  solution  might  be 
found  in  the  abrogation  of  the  treaty  of  Frankfort.  The  final 
settlement  of  the  problem  will  be  equitable  only  when  the  desires 
of  native-born  Alsatians  shall  have  been  taken  into  considera- 

Beyond  Alsace,  French  and  German  languages  meet  along  a 
line  which  extends  across  western  Swiss  territory  to  the  Italian 
frontier.^®  Its  present  course  has  been  maintained  since  the 
fifteenth  century."  Beginning  at  Charmoille,  north  of  the  Bernese 
Jura,  the  linguistic  frontier  strikes  east  towards  Montsevilier,^* 
after  which  it  makes  a  sharp  turn  to  the  southwest  as  it  follows 
the  strike  of  the  Jura  mountains.  In  this  region  the  historical 
division  between  Teutonic  and  Latin  civilization  occurs  in  the 
valley  of  Delemont  through  which  the  Some  flows.  Teutonic 
invaders  never  succeeded  in  penetrating  beyond  the  Vorburg 
barrier.  East  of  the  Jura,  the  line  passes  through  Bienne,  Douane 
and  Gleresse.  At  Ncuveville  the  valley  is  French,  The  line 
follows  thence  the  course  of  the  Thiele.  With  the  exception  of  its 
northeastern  shore  all  Lake  Neuchatel  is  surrounded  by  French- 

*'  p.  Langhans:  Die  Westschweiz  mit  deutschen  Ortsbenennung,  1:500,000,  Deutsche 
Erde,  Vol.  5,  1906,  PI.  5. 

*' E.  Gallois:  Les  limites  linguistiques  du  Frangais,  Ann.  de  04ogr.,  Vol.  9,  1900, 
p.  218. 

"P.  Clerget:  La  Suisse  au  XX^e  si&cle,  Paris,  1908,  p.  55. 


speaking  communities.  The  parting  next  coincides  with  the  line 
of  the  Broye  river  and  extends  across  the  waters  of  lake  Morat. 
The  western  and  southern  shores  of  the  lake  are  likewise  French. 
It  then  skirts  the  banks  of  the  Sarine  until  it  reaches  Fribourg, 
which  it  cuts  into  two  portions.  A  strenuous  struggle  for  lin- 
guistic supremacy  is  maintained  at  this  urban  edge  of  French- 
speaking  territory.  Inside  the  city's  line,  German  is  spoken 
principally  in  the  quarters  tenanted  by  the  laboring  classes. 
With  the  middle  classes  both  language  and  tradition  are  largely 

In  the  twelfth  century  Fribourg  had  been  turned  into  a  forti- 
fied outpost  of  German  power  by  the  Dukes  of  Zahringen.^^  The 
city's  position  between  the  Alps  and  the  Jura  favored  its  selection 
for  this  aggressive  purpose.  German  language  flourished  under 
the  shadow  of  its  castles  and  probably  would  have  taken  deeper 
root  among  its  citizens  but  for  one  fact.  At  the  time  of  the 
Reformation,  the  Fribourgers  decided  to  stand  with  the  Roman 
Church.  This  decision  converted  the  city  into  a  haven  to  which 
the  Catholic  clergy  of  French-speaking  Switzerland  repaired ;  and 
the  Bishopric  of  Lausanne  was  transferred  to  Fribourg,  where 
it  became  the  headquarters  of  active  French  propaganda. 

It  should  not  be  taken  for  granted  from  what  has  been  said 
that  the  cause  of  French  in  Switzerland  is  related  to  Catholicism. 
The  case  of  Fribourg  is  an  isolated  one.  At  Bienne,  another  of 
the  cities  on  the  linguistic  divide,  the  growth  of  French  has  an 
entirely  different  origin.  This  city  is  the  center  of  an  important 
watch-making  district.  The  growth  of  its  native  industry  favored 
rapid  increase  in  its  population.  But  the  new  citizens  were  drawn 
principally  from  the  mountainous  region  of  which  Bienne  is  the 
outlet.  The  French-speaking  highlanders  swelled  the  ranl^s  of  the 
city's  French  contingent  to  such  an  extent  that,  from  numbering 
one-fourth  of  the  population  in  1888,  it  had  grown  to  one-third 
in  1900.  The  German-speaking  farmers  of  the  plains  surrounding 
Bienne,  however,  were  never  attracted  by  the  prospect  of  factory 

*•  L.  Courthion:  Le  front  des  langues  en  Suisse,  Mercure  de  France,  Vol.  112,  No. 
420,  Dec.  1,  1915,  pp.  636-646. 

Fig.  15. 

Fig.  10. 

Fig.  15 — The  shady  arcades  and  sunny  streets  of  Lugano  in  the  Swiss  area  of 
Italian   languages   recall   the  typical   aspects   of   Italian   cities. 

Fig.  lU — The  basin  of  Lake  Geneva  is  an  ancient  domain  of  French  language  in 


work.    At  present  Bienne's  population  is  believed  to  be  equally 
divided  between  the  two  tongues. 

From  Fribourg  the  line  takes  a  straight  course  to  the  Olden- 

FiG.    18 — The    boundary    between    French    and    German    in    Switzerland.      Scale, 

horn.  Here  it  elbows  eastward  to  Wildstrubel  and  attains  the 
Valais  country.  In  the  upper  valley  of  the  Rhone,  the  line 
becomes  well  defined  as  it  coincides  with  the  divide  between  the 


Val  d'Anniviers  and  Turtman  Thai.  In  the  Haut  Valais  the 
construction  of  the  Simplon  tunnel  appears  to  have  affected  Ger- 
man adversely  and  to  have  caused  an  extension  of  French  speech 
in  the  region.  The  recession  of  German  from  the  Merge  valley 
to  the  east  of  Sierre  lies  within  the  memory  of  living  natives. 
The  linguistic  line  finally  cuts  across  the  Rhone  valley  above 
Sierre  and  strikes  the  Dent  d 'Kerens  on  the  Italian  frontier.  In 
southeastern  Switzerland,  French  surrounds  the  uninhabited 
massif  Mont  Blanc.  One  would  naturally  expect  to  find  this  lan- 
guage confined  to  the  western  slopes  of  the  uplift  only.  But  the 
inhabitants  of  Bas-Valais  districts  and  of  the  Aosta  valley  speak 
French  as  fluently  as  the  population  of  the  elevated  valleys  of 

The  prevalence  of  French  has  been  shown  to  be  due  to  the 
direction  of  travel  in  this  mountainous  region.  The  two  St. 
Bernard  Passes,  the  *'Col  du  Grand  St.  Bernard"  and  the  ''Col 
du  Petit  St.  Bernard,"  have  determined  the  route  along  which 
human  displacements  could  be  undertaken  with  a  minimum  of 
effort.^"  The  road  encircles  that  famous  Alpine  peak.  It  has 
acted  as  a  channel  through  which  French  has  flowed  into  areas  of 
Italian  and  German  speech.  This  instance  may  well  be  adopted 
as  a  classical  example  of  the  influence  of  geography  in  the  distri- 
bution of  linguistic  areas. 

'  The  origin  of  linguistic  differences  in  Switzerland  may  be 
traced  to  the  dawn  of  the  period  that  followed  Roman  conquest. 
At  the  time  of  Caesar's  invasion  of  Helvetia,  the  mountainous 
land  was  peopled  by  men  of  Celtic  speech.  Barbarian  invasions 
put  an  end  to  the  uniformity  of  language  prevailing  in  the 
country.  Romance  language  survived  in  the  highlands  of  the 
Jura  and  throughout  the  western  sections  of  Switzerland.  The 
Celtic  and  Latin  languages  spoken  in  the  first  five  centuries  of 
our  era  gave  birth  to  French.  The  Burgundian  conquerors  them- 
selves adopted  this  language  at  the  time  of  the  foundation  of  the 
first  kingdom  of  Burgundy.  German,  on  the  other  hand,  is  a  relic 
of  Teutonic  invasion  of  eastern  and  central  Switzerland.    In  the 

'"J.  Brunhes:   La  g^ographie  humaine,  Paris,  1912,  pp.  599-GOl. 


sixth  century,  the  AJemanni  took  advantage  of  the  weakening  of 
the  Burgundian  Kingdom  to  spread  beyond  the  Aar  and  overrun 
the  attractive  lake  district.  By  the  eleventh  century  they  had 
succeeded  in  imposing  their  language  on  the  native  populations 
of  the  Fribourg  and  Valais  country.  The  reunion  of  the  two 
states  under  the  reign  of  Clovis  failed  to  unify  the  language  of 
Switzerland.  A  split  occurred  again  after  the  partition  of 
Charlemagne's  dominions,  followed  by  another  period  of  joint 
political  life  until  the  death  of  Berthold  V  of  Zahringen.  After 
this  event  the  consolidation  of  languages  became  impossible  in 
Switzerland.  The  rivalry  of  the  Alemanni  and  Burgundian 
kingdoms  was  maintained  among  Swiss  populations.  In  feudal 
days,  German  Switzerland  acknowledged  the  suzerainty  of  Haps- 
burg  counts.  Romanic  Switzerland,  on  the  other  hand,  leaned 
towards  the  House  of  Savoy. 

That  the  area  of  French  speech  has  receded  during  our  era 
cannot  be  doubted.  There  w^as  a  time  when  French  was  spoken 
on  the  left  banli  of  the  Aar,  from  its  headwaters  to  below  Berne. 
At  three  different  periods  of  history  the  German  language  made 
notable  strides  in  Switzerland.  Its  earliest  forward  move 
occurred  between  the  fifth  and  ninth  centuries.  Another  advance 
took  place  between  the  eleventh  and  the  thirteenth.  The 
language  made  further  progress  during  the  religious  struggles  of 
the  Reformation.  Each  of  these  periods  was  followed  by  partial 
regain  of  lost  territory  by  French  language.  But  the  French 
gains  fell  short  of  the  Germanic  advances.  Since  the  eighteenth 
century  very  little  variation  in  the  line  has  been  recorded.  A 
slight  advance  of  French  in  the  nineteenth  century  can  be  traced. 

In  the  minds  of  Pan-Germanists  a  significant  proof  of  the 
progress  of  French  is  seen  in  cases  of  the  replacement  of  the 
word  "Bahnhof "  by  "gare"  at  railroad  stations — as  for  example 
along  the  mountainous  tract  between  Viege  and  Zermatt.  They 
also  complain  of  the  introduction  of  French  words  and  expres- 
sions in  the  German  spoken  by  Swiss  citizens.  To  the  tourist's 
eye  the  advance  of  German  in  the  Swass  villages  of  the  Grisons 
Alps  is  indicated  by  the  red-tiled  roofs  in  the  midst  of  gray 


shingled  roofs.  This  is  noticeable  in  the  Albula  valley  where 
Eomansh  was  formerly  the  only  language  of  the  natives.  Now 
the  old  Eomansh  dwellings  with  their  low  roofs,  white  walls  and 
narrow  windows  are  disappearing  before  the  wooden  houses  of 
the  German  settlers. 

According  to  the  census  of  1910  there  were  796,244  inhabitants 
of  Switzerland  who  spoke  French.  This  was  about  one-third  of 
the  country's  total  population.  Of  this  number,  765,373  were 
dwellers  in  French  Switzerland,  which  comprises  the  cantons  of 
Geneva,  Vaud,  Neuchatel,  a  portion  of  the  cantons  of  Valais  and 
Fribourg  and  the  Bernese  Jura.  The  remainder  were  scattered 
in  the  German  and  Italian  districts  of  the  Republic.  Notable 
colonies  of  French-speaking  Swiss  in  the  midst  of  the  area  of 
German  speech  are  found  at  Berne  and  Basel.  In  all,  three  of 
the  twenty-two  cantons  are  of  French  speech.  Fribourg  and 
Valais  contain  French-speaking  majorities.^^  The  canton  of  Tessin 
with  its  140,000  inhabitants  is  Italian  in  language.  In  Berne  the 
majority  of  the  city's  population  speak  German,  only  120,000 
inhabitants  out  of  a  total  of  600,000  using  French, 

The  history  of  Switzerland  shows  that  at  bottom  neither 
language  nor  physical  or  racial  barriers  suffice  to  constitute 
nationality.  Human  desire  to  achieve  and  maintain  national  inde- 
pendence, or  to  establish  liberal  institutions,  depends  on  will  or 
purpose  far  more  than  on  physical  facts.  Diversity  of  language 
never  impaired  Switzerland's  existence  as  a  sovereign  nation. 
Racial  heterogeneity  in  its  population  likewise  failed  to  w^eaken 
national  feeling.  Over  such  natural  drawbacks  the  indomitable 
determination  of  free-born  Helvetians  to  maintain  their  country's 
sovereignty  has  prevailed.  Frenchmen  and  Germans  have  always, 
been  warring  elements  in  Switzerland,  but  animosity  bred  by 
racial  differences  invariably  disappeared  in  matters  where 
national  existence  was  at  stake.  A  bond  of  patriotism  based  on 
common  religious  and  democratic  ideals  proved  strong  enough  to 
overcome  divergencies  due  to  natural  causes. 

**  The  French-speaking  population  of  the  Valais  is  estimated  at  70  per  cent  of 
the  inhabitants  of  the  canton. 


The  Swiss  Confederation  originally  consisted  of  the  three 
German-speaking  cantons  of  Uri,  Schwyz  and  Unterwalden," 
clustering  round  Lake  Lucerne,  in  the  very  heart  of  the  mountain 
state.  The  desire  to  rid  their  land  of  Hapsburg  tyranny  had 
drawn  together  the  inhabitants  of  this  region  as  early  as  in  1291. 
In  the  ensuing  twenty-five  years,  these  mountaineers  succeeded  in 
making  their  democratic  ideas  dominant  in  their  home  districts. 
This  led  to  the  gradual  adherence  of  adjoining  territories.  By 
the  middle  of  the  fourteenth  century  an  "Everlasting  League" 
had  been  securely  established  in  this  orographic  center  of  the 
European  continent.  At  the  Congress  of  Vienna,  in  1815,  twenty 
cantons  of  the  present  confederation  were  finally  rounded  out. 
Of  these;  fifteen  are  now  predominantly  German. 

French  Switzerland  receives  a  large  number  of  German  immi- 
grants. In  1900  the  number  of  Germans,  both  from  German 
cantons  and  from  the  German  Empire,  was  estimated  at  164,379. 
In  1910  this  foreign  element  had  grown  to  a  community  of 
186,135.  The  tendency  of  these  newcomers  is  to  become  assimi- 
lated. Intermarriage  and  social  intercourse  favor  French  influ- 
ence. As  a  rule  the  second  generation  of  these  Germans  cannot 
speak  the  paternal  vernacular  and  become  lost  in  the  mass  of 
its  French-speaking  neighbors.  The  assimilating  power  of  the 
French  Swiss  is  also  observable  at  Delemont  and  Moutier,  in  the 
Bernese  Jura,  where  the  piercing  of  the  Weissenstein  has  brought 
a  heavy  flow  of  German  immigrants. 

The  only  localities  in  which  German  gains  were  recorded  in 
the  census  of  1910  were  Porentruy  and  the  northern  part  of  the 
canton  of  Fribourg.  A  counter  advance  of  French  at  Bienne 
tends  to  maintain  the  balance  even.  This  city  had  8,700  inhabi- 
tants of  French  speech  in  1910,  as  against  7,820  in  1900.  In 
Fribourg  itself  the  stronghold  of  Swiss  Germanism  is  found  in 
the  university.  The  cultural  influence  of  this  institution  radiates 
far  into  the  mountain  villages  of  Switzerland,  but  its  work  is 
offset  by  the  campaign  carried  on  in  favor  of  French  at  the 
universities  of  Geneva,  Lausanne  and  Neuchatel. 

"M.  L.  Poole:   Historical  Atlas  of  Modern  Europe,  Oxford,   1902,  PI.  44. 




A  parent  language  for  Celtic  and  Italic  may  have  flourished  at  a  yet  undeter- 
mined point  in  the  Western  Alps.  Meillet  ~^  points  to  the  possibility  of  a  period  of 
common  development  of  their  dialects  in  view  of  similarities  in  the  highly  ancient 
forms  of  the  two  groups.  In  that  case,  westerly  and  southerly  divergences  eventually 
led  to  modern  French  and  Italian.  Of  the  two  branches  in  which  Italic  dialects  are 
represented  at  the  dawn  of  histoi-y,  namely,  Latin-Faliscan  and  Oscan-Umbrian,  the 
former  alone  survived  in  noteworthy  degree,  under  the  guise  of  Latin.  Oscan- 
Umbrian  dialects,  known  by  inscriptional  remains,  gave  way  before  Latin  at  the 
beginning  of  the  Christian  era. 

Celtic,  at  that  period,  had  been  supplanted  by  two  important  derived  languages: 
Gaelic  and  Breton,  which  prevailed  for  many  centuries.  Gaulish,  the  gaulois 
language  of  French  writers,  was  disappearing  fast.  The  ease  of  Breton  deserves 
particular  mention  in  the  study  of  the  migrations  of  languages.  This  form  of  Celtic 
belongs  to  the  British  subdivision  of  its  linguistic  family.  Its  persistence  in 
Armorica  is  due  to  immigration  from  British  soil  which  intensified  the  preexisting 
Celtic  character  of  the  mountain  speech.  The  inflow  of  emigrants  to  France  was 
particularly  strong  during  the  period  of  Saxon  invasions. 

Celtic,  the  earliest  language  of  Gaul,  was  spoken  by  the  Celts,  whose  original 
home  was  in  northwestern  Europe.  The  British  Isles  and  continental  Europe  from 
Hanover  southward  to  the  Pyrenees  and  the  basin  of  the  Po  were  colonization  areas 
of  the  Celts.  The  fact  that  Celtic  stands  linguistically  in  the  closest  relation  with 
Italic  and  Germanic  may  be  taken  as  a  proof  of  its  intermediate  geographical 
position  between  the  two.  In  the  middle  of  the  first  pre-Christian  millennium  the 
Teutons'  nearest  neighbors  to  the  south  were  the  Celts.  In  400  B.C.  Bohemia  was 
probably  occupied  by  a  Celtic  people.  This  country  is  the  easternmost  colony  of  this 
group.  In  these  early  periods  the  Elbe  marked  the  boundary  between  Teutons  and 
Celts.  About  200  n.c.  Teutonic  speech  first  attained  the  Rhine,  having  reached  the 
river  from  the  northeast. 

Celtic  became  Romanized  after  the  Roman  conquest  in  the  first  century  of  our 
era.  The  lingua  vulgaris  used  by  the  soldiers  and  traders  sent  to  colonize  the  country 
gradually  displaced  native  vernaculars.  By  the  end  of  the  fourth  century  Celtic  as 
a  language  had  practically  disappeared  from  the  entire  country.  The  new  Romance 
language  had  taken  such  strong  root  in  the  land  that  successful  invaders  of  French 
soil  were  henceforth  to  adopt  it  and  abandon  their  native  tongue.  Thus  Visigoths, 
Burgundians  and  Franks  who  invaded  Gaul  in  the  fifth  century  forsook  their  own 
language  and  employed  the  speech  of  the  people  they  had  conquered.  This  was  a 
result  of  the  superior  intellectual  qualities  of  the  conquered  race.  The  Franks  in 
particular,  a  Teutonic  people,  established  themselves  firmly  enough  in  northern 
Gallo-Roman  territory  to  confer  the  name  of  France  to  the  whole  region,  although 
tlieir  endeavors  to  settle  in  southern  France  had  been  unsuccessful.  It  required  fully 
six  centuries  for  the  language  of  the  Roman  colony  of  Gaul  to  become  definitely 
differentiated  from  Latin.  By  the  seventh  century  the  idiom  spoken  in  France  was 
known  as  Romance  or  Romanic. 

**  Introduction  a  l'6tude  comparative  des  langues  indo-europ6ennes,  Paris,  1915. 




Distribution  of  Languages  in  Switzerland  According  to  the  Census  of  1910 

Canton  German  French  Italian  Romansli  Others 

Aargau   222,571  1,532  6,197  72  389 

Appenzell  a/r 56,505  134  1,285  27  68 

Appenzell  i/r  14,469  32  97  4  6 

Basel  City   127,491  3,601  4,021  138  1,062 

Basel  72,809  1,124  2,548  27  114 

Berne '.  528,554  104,412  12,247  172  2,198 

Fribourg 42,634  94,378  1,911  42  586 

Geneva    17,456  120,413  12,641  196  5,058 

Glarus  31,733  66  1,306  69  120 

Graubiinden  58,465  838  20,963  37,147  2,441 

Lucerne  161,083  1,316  4,808  126  365 

Neuchatel   17,305  111,597  3,747  50  816 

Nidwalden    13,329  31  319  5  6 

Obwalden   16,738  66  330  28  23 

St.  Gall 282,722  1,099  17,584  456  967 

Schaffhausen    43,795  379  1,712  18  193 

Sehwyz   56,311  258  1,612  64  60 

Soleurne   111,373  2,818  2,570  21  179 

Tessin    5,829  1,008  147,790  131  457 

Thurgau    125,876  593  8,328  89  291 

Uri 20,937  80  1,053  56  15 

Valais   37,351  80,316  10,412  16  165 

Vaud  34,422  264,222  16,694  220  8,194 

Zug    26,406  217  1,454  26  71 

Ziirieh  472,990  5,714  19,696  634  4,601 

Switzerland  2,599,154  796,244  301,325  39,834  28,445 




Percentage  op  Languages   Spoken  in   Swiss  Cantons* 

Canton  French 

Aargau   0.7 

Appenzell  A/ii 0.2 

Appenzell  i/r   0.2 

Basel  City  2.6 

Basel  1.5 

Berne 16.1 

Fribourg 67.6 

Geneva    77.3 

Glarus  0.2 

Graubiindeu   0.7 

Lucerne 0.8 

Neuchatel   83.6 

Nidwalden 0.2 

Obwalden   0.4 

St.  Gall    0.4 

Schaffhauseu    0.8 

Sehwyz   0.4 

Soleurne   2.4 

Tessin   0.6 

Thurgau    0.4 

Uri 0.4 

Valais    62.6 

Vaud   81.6 

Zug    0.8 

Zurich    1.2 

Switzerland  21.1 





































































































'  Graphisch-statistischer  Atlas  der  Sehweiz,    Bureau  des  eidgen.  Departements  des 
Innern,  Berne,  1914,  Taf.  7. 


Italy's  early  history  is  molded  by  the  shape  of  the  land  and 
its  natural  divisions.  In  the  beginning,  each  valley  was  a  tribal 
seat.  The  basin  of  the  Po  was  the  home  of  Celtic-speaking  Gauls. 
Etruscans,  whose  early  language  cannot  fit  into  the  Indo- 
European  group,  peopled  Tuscany.  Greeks  settled  in  southern 
Italy  in  numbers  sufficiently  large  to  bestow  the  name  of  Magna 
Graecia  on  the  districts  they  occupied.  The  welding  of  these 
territorial  elements  into  the  Roman  state  was  attended  by  the 
spread  of  the  Latin  language  within  the  land.  Rome's  Latin 
eventually  reached  far  beyond  peninsular  frontiers. 

Modern  Italian  nationality  did  not,  however,  acquire  concrete 
expression  before  the  nineteenth  century.  For  fully  two  hundred 
years  prior  to  that  time  the  Hapsburgs  had  steadily  encroached 
on  Italian  territory.  It  remained  for  the  democratic  ideals  of  the 
French  Revolution  to  become  the  moving  force  in  the  shaping  of 
Italian  nationality.  Unity  of  language  favored  its  rapid  develop- 
ment. Beginning  with  Piedmont  in  the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth 
century  Italy  grew  to  its  present  extent  by  the  addition  of  terri- 
tory to  the  south.  Lombardy  was  added  in  1859,  Tuscany  and 
the  kingdom  of  Two  Sicilies  in  1860,  Venetia  in  1866  and  the 
Papal  States  in  1870.  _  Prior  to  these  years  Italian  national 
aspirations  had  found  solace  in  a  Venetian  saying,  expressive  of 
Austrian  covetings,  ''Carta  tua,  montagna  mia,"  which  may  be 
rendered  as  ''Yours  is  the  map,  but  mine  the  land."  Since  then, 
a  people  speaking  the  same  language  has  become  united  into  a 
single  nation  on  the  Italian  peninsula.  The  land  frontier  of  Italy, 
however,  has  remained  to  this  day  a  zone  of  linguistic  mingling. 

Districts  of  non-Italian  languages  are  occupied  by  populations 
made  up  of  descendants  of  immigrants  from  beyond  the  Alps  or 



from  beyond  the  seas.  Six  foreign  linguistic  groups  can  be  dis- 
tinguislied,  to  wit:  (1)  Franco-Proven(jal,  (2)  German,  (3) 
Slovene,  (4)  Albanian,  (5)  Greek,  (G)  Catalan.^  The  political 
signilicance  to  be  attached  to  these  settlements  is  slight,  as  they 
contain  a  negligible  proportion  of  the  kingdom's  population.  The 
foreign  languages  are  used  only  in  the  home.  Beyond  the 
threshold  Italian  prevails  everywhere._\ 

Franco-ProveuQal  dialects  are  in  current  use  among  the 
dwellers  of  the  Stura,  Oreo  and  Doire  Baltee  valleys.  In  the 
province  (circondario)  of  Aosta  the  foreign  language  was  current 
in  over  70  villages  (communi)  at  the  time  of  the  census  of  1901. 
The  province  of  Pignerol  boasted  of  the  two  communi  of  Praly 
and  San  Martino  di  Perrero  in  which  the  same  French  dialects 
prevailed.  The  names  of  the  communi  of  Beaulard,  Bousson, 
Champlas  du  Col,  Clavieres,  Fenils,  Molliercs,  Rochemolles,  Sal- 
bertrand,  Sauze  d'Oulx,  Solomiac  and  Thures,  all  in  the  circon- 
dario of  Suse,  likewise  indicate  the  presence  of  French-speaking 
inhabitants.  It  was  computed  that  the  language  was  used  in  the 
daily  life  of  18,958  families  out  of  the  30,401  recorded  in  the 
census  of  that  year.  The  average  number  of  individuals  to  a 
family  being  4.22  in  those  districts,  it  follows  that  about  80,000 
subjects  of  the  king  of  Italy  speak  a  French  dialect.  In  1862, 
French  was  spoken  by  7G,73G  inhabitants  of  the  valley  of  Aosta. 
The  importance  of  the  language  has  hardly  changed  since  then, 
as  it  has  remained  the  medium  of  church,  school  and  general 
culture.  Nevertheless  the  use  of  French  dialects  is  on  the  wane 
in  the  circondarii  of  Pignerol  and  Suse  since  the  reconstitution 
of  Italy. 

.Planted  between  France  and  Italy,  Piedmont  became  a  con- 
necting province  in  which  the  transition  from  one  country  to  the 
other  can  be  followed.  Its  role  is  analogous  to  that  of  Alsace- 
Lorraine  on  the  confines  of  the  French  and  the  German  languages. 
French  taste  and  mode  of  living  prevail  in  many  sections  of 
Piedmont.     Turin   strikes    travelers   proceeding   from    southern 

*  Colonic   strnnicro   nol    torritorio  politico.     La   Oeogr.,   Vol.    3,    1915,  Mny-J\ine, 
pp.  222-224. 



Italy  as  being  in  many  respects  a  city  of  French  customs.  The 
French  spoken  in  Italy  also  represents  a  transition  speech 
between  the  langne  d'oi'l  and  the  langue  d'oc.  It  has  close  analogy 
with  the  patois  spoken  in  French  Switzerland,  the  Dauphinc,  the 
Lyonnais  and  the  valley  of  Aosta.  All  these  regions  once  formed 
part  of  the  kingdom  of  Burgundy. 

The  French  vernacular  of  thousands  of  Piedmontese  is  fur- 

FlG.    21 — Map    showing    some    of    the    important    localities    of    Frencli    speech    in 
Northwestern  Italy. 

thermore  related  to  the  cause  of  Protestantism,  which  has  taken 
solid  root  in  this  mountain  land  in  spite  of  the  persecutions  to 
which  it  had  been  formerly  subjected.  As  used  by  the  natives  of 
the  region  the  local  dialect  consists,  more  properly,  of  a  modern 
form  of  an  old  langue  d'oc  dialect  similar  to  the  patois  of  various 
districts  in  the  French  High  Alps.  To  the  Protestant  inhabitants 
of  these  mountain  communities  French  has  served  as  the  only 
medium  of  intercourse  with  their  co-religionists  in  Switzerland 
and  France. 

The  little  village  of  Torre  Pellice,  on  a  small  mountain  railway 


leading  into  one  of  the  main  valleys  of  Piedmont,  offers  the 
strange  contrast  of  being  peopled  by  inhabitants  whose  language 
is  French,  while  their  customs  are  Italian,  and  their  religion 
Protestant.  The  austerity  of  their  manners  recalls  at  first 
impression  the  natural  gravity  of  mind  observable  among  French- 
spealdng  Swiss  who  belong  to  the  same  faith.  Ampler  acquaint- 
ance with  the  simple  mountaineers  will  draw  out  their  pride  of 
being  descendants  of  Protestants  whose  religious  views  antedate 
Luther's  preaching  by  fully  three  centuries. 

\History  and  geography  have  concurred  in  the  preservation  of 
religious  and  linguistic  individuality  in  the  three  Valdese  valleys. 
Their  inhabitants  are  sons  of  twelfth  and  thirteenth  century 
heretics  known  by  the  names  of  Albigenses,  Lollards,  Cathars  or 
Vaudois,  against  all  of  whom  the  persecution  of  the  Roman 
church  was  directed.  Massacres  and  forced  conversions  uprooted 
heresies  everywhere  in  Europe  except  in  the  high  valleys  of 
Piedmont.  Here  the  arduous  character  of  the  region  afforded 
defense  against  the  organized  bands  sent  to  conquer  early 
adherents  of  reformed  doctrines.  The  narrow  gorges  became  the 
theater  of  bloody  affrays  in  which  victory  would  sometimes  favor 
the  attacking  foreigners  and  sometimes  the  besieged.  No  definite 
conquest  of  the  mountain  zone  was  ever  made  by  the  Catholic 
armies.  The  surname  of  Israel  of  the  Alps,  bestowed  locally  on 
the  village  of  Torre  Pellice,  is  a  memorial  of  this  period  of 
religious  struggle. 

An  episode  in  this  long  contest,  which  is  not  unrelated  to  the 
current  prevalence  of  French,  took  place  in  1630.  The  operations 
of  the  army  sent  by  Richelieu  in  that  year  were  followed  by  an 
epidemic  of  plague  to  which  thousands  of  natives  succumbed. 
Many  of  the  community's  religious  leaders  were  carried  off  by 
the  dread  disease.  Their  places  were  taken  by  pastors  and 
preachers  who  came  from  Geneva  or  the  Protestant  towns  of 
France.  From  this  period  on  religious  services  were  carried  on 
in  French.  The  influence  of  the  language  spread  beyond  the 
rough  mountain  sanctuaries  to  which  it  was  at  first  confined.  In 
such  retired  valleys  cultural  influences  generally  emanate  from 


the  church,  a  fact  observable  particularly  in  the  mountainous 
portions  of  Asia.  Today  along  with  the  memory  of  former  strug- 
gles the  language,  which  was  partly  a  result  of  their  bitterness, 
has  survived.  To  the  highlander  of  western  Piedmont,  French 
is  the  symbol  of  successful  resistance  against  religious  oppres- 
sion. He  clings  to  it  and  will  not  tolerate  Italian  in  its  place. 
His  mountain  villages  are  in  fact  the  nursery  of  hundreds  of 
teachers  of  French  employed  in  Italian  schools. 

;  The  Franco-Italian  linguistic  boundary  starts  at  Monte  Eosa 
and  extends  south,  past  Gressoney,  irito  the  valley  of  the  Doire 
Baltee,  to  the  town  of  Settimo  Vitone.  French  has  always  pre- 
dominated  in  this  region,  ilt  is  at  present  the  vernacular  of  the 
well-to-do  inhabitants  and  is  taught  in  schools  concurrently  with 
Italian.  Thence  to  the  west  the  linguistic  boundary  passes  south 
of  Grand  Paradis  Peak  and  attains  the  political  boundary  at  the 
sources  of  the  Oreo  river.  Linguistic  and  political  boundaries 
coincide  in  the  next  27  miles,  the  line  passing  through  a  moun- 
tainous and  scantily  settled  region. 

North  of  Suse,  linguistic  and  political  lines  diverge  from  each 
other.  The  former  crosses  the  Doire  Ripaire  at  about  five  miles 
east  of  the  town.  It  then  extends  in  a  southerly  direction  to 
Perouse  on  the  Ghison  river  and  traverses  the  Pellice  where  the 
river  leaves  the  highland.  The  Po  is  attained  near  Monte  Viso 
and  the  political  frontier.  From  the  latter  peak  the  line  reaches 
Sampeyre,  beyond  which  it  crosses  the  Stura  at  Vinadio.  The 
Franco-Italian  boundary  is  reached  once  more  at  a  few  miles 
east  of  Lantosque.  From  here  on  to  the  sea  Italian  speech 
invades  Frencli  territory. 

The  structure  of  the  Alps  has  contributed  powerfully  to  the 
peopling  of  a  part  of  the  basin  of  the  Po  by  a  Celtic-speaking 
race.  In  Turin  the  name  of  the  Taurins,  a  Celto-Ligurian  tribe, 
has  been  preserved  to  this  day.  Alpine  valleys  converge  towards 
the  east  and  diverge  towards  the  west.  Human  migrations  have, 
therefore,  been  more  intense  from  west  to  east  than  in  the  oppo- 
site direction.  Western  Piedmont  thus  passed  under  French 
influence  after  the  Middle  Ages.     At  that  time  the  counts  of 


Savoy  obtained  possession  of  the  country  around  Suse  and  Turin. 
Later  they  added  all  of  Piedmont  to  their  domain.  The  upper 
valley  of  the  Doire  Kipaire  was  part  of  the  French  kingdom  until 
the  treaty  of  Utrecht  in  1715. 

jl  From  the  Mediterranean  northward,  the  last  section  of  the 
Franco-Italian  linguistic  boundary  traverses  French  soil  and 
coincides  roughly  with  the  crest  of  the  eastern  watershed  of  the 
Var.  This  region  is  known  administratively  as  the  Dcpartement 
des  Alpes-Maritimes.  Linguistic  unity  within  its  boundaries  has 
been  determined  mainly  by  the  relief  of  the  land.^  Practically 
every  one  of  the  high  Alpine  valleys  debouches  into  the  Var. 
Connection  between  the  sea  and  the  mountain  districts  is  obtained 
through  the  channels  of  this  basin.  Intercourse  among  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  dcpartement  has  thus  been  reflected  towards  France- 
rather  than  Italy.  The  langue  d'oc  prevails  in  the  entire  Var 
system,  but  Genoese  dialects  of  Italy,  or  the  ''si"  languages, 
appear  immediately  to  the  west.  The  linguistic  divide  can,  there- 
fore, be  located  between  the  valley  of  the  Var  on  the  one  side  and 
those  of  the  Eoya  and  Bevera  on  the  other.  It  should  be  made  to 
pass,  according  to  Funel,^  at  the  very  point  in  La  Turbie  where 
Augustus,  a  Roman  emperor,  erected  a  monument  to  mark  the 
boundary  between  his  domain  and  Gaul  The  inhabitants  of  the- 
eastern  section  of  this  line  appear,  however,  to  be  content  with 
French  nationality  in  spite  of  their  Ligurian  dialects.  At  the 
time  of  the  rectification  of  this  frontier  in  1860,  their  French 
leanings  were  proclaimed  in  a  referendum  which  set  forth  their 
desire  to  acquire  citizenship  under  the  French  tricolor.  ^ 

The  city  of  Alghero  and  its  environs  in  the  island  of  Sardinia 
contain  a  colony  of  Catalonians  whose  language  is  identical  with 
the  vernacular  in  use  on  the  Balearic  islands.  This  group  con- 
sists of  9,800  individuals  out  of  a  total  of  10,741  inhabitants  of 
the  commune  of  Alghero,  In  1862  this  small  community  com- 
prised 7,036  individuals.    This  rooting  of  a  Spanish  dialect  on  an 

*  L.   Funel :    Les  parlers  populaires   du   Dcpartement   des  Alpes-Maritimes,   Bull.. 
06ogr.  Hist,  et  Descrip.,  1897,  No.  2,  pp.  298-303. 
"Op.  cit. 



Fig.  22 — The  dotted  line  indicates  the  divide  between  the  areas  of  French  and 
Italian  language.  Black  dots  near  the  Swiss  border  show  Italian  villages  where 
German  is  the  vernacular  of  the  natives. 

()(»       ru()Nrii':us  or  j.AN(;nA(;K  anj)  nationality 

Jialiiin  iHlaiid  is  traced  to  the  year  3354  when  the  Ari\goniaiis 
eoiKiiiered  Sardinia.  'J^lie  long  i)eriod  of  Spanish  rule  over  the 
ialand  accouiilH  lor  tlie  (survival  of  the  language  to  this  day. 

pLMie  southern  boundary  ol'  (Jernian  speech  abuts  against  Italian 
I'roni  Switzerland  '  to  the  Carinthian  hills."  The  intrusion  ol'  the 
Jlomanio  tongue  within  tin;  Austrian  political  line  lacks  homo- 
genoity,  howovei',  lor  it  j,s  Italian  proper  in  western  Tyrol  and 
Ladin  in  its  western  extension.  But  of  the  400  odd  miles  of 
boundary  between  Austria  and  Italy  a  bare  GO  will  coincide  with 
tliti  linguistic  divide  between  (Jernian  and  Italian.  Moreover  a 
nninbcr  of  enclaves  of  (Jennan  speech  exist  within  the  area  of 
Italian  language  spreading  over  Austrian  territory.  Some  of 
these  (leiinan  settlements  arc  found  near  Pergino  and  Fcrsina. 
(Jlose  to  the  Italian  frontier,  the  town  of  Casotto  in  the  Lavarone 
region  is  likewise  peo])l(Hl  by  German-speaking  inhabitants." 

(Herman  is  the  vernacular  of  two  small  districts  within  Italian 
boundaries  which  adjoin  the  Swiss  frontier  and  lie  in  the  Alpine 
valleys  of  Piedmont.  The  most  important  of  the  two  is  situated 
sonlh  of  Monte  lu)sa.  It  comprises  the  three  adjacent  valleys 
of  Oressoney,  Sesia  and  Macugnaga.  The  other  is  found  in  the 
A'al  l'\)rmaz/a  or  upper  valley  of  the  Toco,  l^oth  of  these  groups 
are  extensions  ol'  the  area  of  German  speech  which  spreads  over 
the  eastern  portion  of  the  canton  of  Valais.  This  section  of 
Switzerland  was  swamped  between  the  ninth  and  sixteenth  cen- 

*  lUoiluT  11.  (uiniuix:    Pio  tloiit.  OrtsiiamiMifoniuMi  in  \Vos(scli\vi>i/,,  Dnttscho  Krde, 

Vol.  f>,   num.  p.   170. 

" 'riio   Italian   popiilnlion   of   Auairia-Uuiijjnry   ia  oatiiuateil   at  7l)S,-122  according 

to  (ho  Auatrian  oonanH  of  l!)10.     Kalian  ronipidations  sot  the  total  number  of  Italians 

living  in   Auslria  at    SlJT.OOO,  (lisdiliiitfd  as  follows    (lioU.  A'cd/.  Soc.  Ocoiir.,  Auji;.   1, 

n>lf).  p.  SU7)  : 

lippor  Adiijo  Valley   'jr..000 

Tront  ino     aTn.OOO 

Triost 142,000 

Aiistrian   Fri\ililand    0;>,000 

Istria    14S.000 

Dahnatia    lUKOOO 

Finnio     2C..000 

•Potnl     S37.000 

'  C  do  l.uoohi:  Trontino  o  Tirolo,  Jioll.  10,  Minist.  Aff.  Kstei-i,  Homo,  101."),  p.  70. 

Fig.  23— The  rearland  of  Nice  as  typified  by  tliis  view  of  tlie  Mediterranean  Alps 
oontaiiiH  numerouH  l)iliri».Mi;il  wttlemcnts.  Tiie  bridge  in  the  photograph  in  the  Pont 
du   I-oup. 


turies  by  a  flood  of  Teutonic  invaders  consisting  mainly  of 
Alemannic  tribes  ^  proceeding  from  the  Bernese  Oberland.  All  of 
the  upper  Valais,  from  Miinster  as  far  as  Loeche  and  Zermatt, 
became  Germanized  during  that  period.  The  easterly  spread  of 
this  movement  led  a  number  of  German-speaking  colonists  to 
cross  Gries  Pass  into  the  Formazza  valley,  while  others  went 
through  the  passes  of  Monte  Moro  and  Monte  Theodule  to  the 
upper  valleys  of  Piedmont.  According  to  historical  documents 
the  German  settlers  reached  the  shores  of  Lake  Maggiore.  But 
their  language  became  lost  in  the  midst  of  Italian  speech  and 
held  its  own  only  in  the  valleys  already  mentioned. 

The  Piedmontese  group  of  German  dialects  occurs  in  small 
settlements  distributed  on  the  southern  slopes  of  Monte  Eosa. 
The  most  noteworthy  localities  of  Teutonic  speech  are  Gressoney, 
Saint  Jean,  Gressoney-La  Trinite  and  Issime.  Dialects  belonging 
to  the  same  group  occur  in  the  Alagna  and  Rima  S.  Giuseppe 
villages,  in  Valsesia  as  well  as  in  the  Agaro,  Formazza,  Macugnaga 
and  Salecchio  localities  of  the  Ossola  valley.  Altogether 
these  settlements  contain  about  5,000  German-speaking  inhabi- 
tants. Occupation  of  the  region  by  Germans  dates  from  the 
twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries  when  emigration  into  upper 
Valais  took  place.  The  language  once  extended  as  far  south  as 
the  Ornavasso.  Its  progress  during  the  past  half  century  has 
been  insignificant. 

Val  Formazza  comprises  the  entire  upper  valley  of  the  Toce, 
north  of  Foppiano.  The  region  is  locally  kno"wn  as  Val  d'Anti- 
gorio  in  its  southern  stretch.  To  the  north,  from  Domodossola 
onward,  it  acquires  the  name  of  Val  d 'Ossola.  It  has  seven 
settlements  scattered  along  the  banks  of  the  river  and  contains  a 
population  of  about  800  inhabitants  engaged  chiefly  in  cattle- 
raising.  La  Chiesa  is  its  most  important  village.  The  region  is 
noted  in  the  list  of  scenic  spots  of  northern  Italy  on  account  of 
the  Toce  falls,  which  attract  a  large  number  of  tourists.  The  dual 
character  of  its  human  institutions  is  reflected  in  the  names  of 

^  A.  Dauzat:  Les  values  italiennes  de  langue  allemande,  A  Travers  le  Monde, 
1913,  Sept.  6,  pp.  285-2,86. 


its  villages,  which  are  both  Italian  and  German.  Foppiano  is  also 
known  as  Unterwald;  La  Chiesa  as  Andermatten ;  San  Michele  as 
Pommat;  Canza  as  Fruttwald.  German  names  are  gradually 
being  dropped,  however,  concurrently  with  the  steady  replace- 
ment of  the  Teutonic  language  by  Italian. 

AJl  these  valleys  are  bridges  which  connect  the  areas  of 
Italian  and  German.  Travelers  are  struck  by  the  transitional 
character  of  every  human  manifestation  within  their  boundaries. 
As  one  proceeds  northwards  from  the  main  Italian  area,  the  type 
of  stone  habitation  characteristic  of  Italian  villages  gives  way  to 
the  wooden  house  of  German  villages.  Examples  of  both  styles 
are  in  evidence  throughout  the  settlements  of  German  speech  on 
Italian  soil.  The  native  costume  of  the  women  also  recalls  the 
intermediary  character  of  the  region.  Black  skirts  as  well  as 
high  and  tight  waists,  of  the  same  color,  are  characteristic  of  the 
canton  of  Valais.  The  headdress — an  ample  foulard  of  black 
interspersed  with  green  and  red — worn  close,  is  of  unmistakable 
Italian  origin.  The  style  in  which  middle-aged  native  women 
comb  their  hair  is  also  Italian.  They  part  it  into  a  number  of 
small  plaits  held  together  by  metallic  combs  after  a  fashion  seen 
among  elderly  dames  in  Lombardy. 

The  eastern  borderland  of  Italian  language  contains  German- 
speaking  inhabitants  in  the  provinces  of  Verona,  Vicenza,  Belluno 
and  Udine,  who  are  living  witnesses  of  the  early  German  settle- 
ments founded  as  trading  posts  on  the  way  to  the  Adriatic  coast. 
Bavaria  provided  many  of  these  emigrants  in  the  beginning  of 
the  thirteenth  century.  The  language  spoken  by  their  descend- 
ants is  known  locally  as  Cimbro.  It  has  practically  disappeared 
from  the  Veronese  district,  where  its  survival  is  traced  in  the 
forested  areas  of  the  "commune"  of  Progno  through  some  50 
inhabitants.  The  inhabitants  of  the  communes  of  Sappada  and 
Sauris  and  of  the  Timau  district  in  the  Paluzza  commune  also 
employ  German.  It  is  estimated  that  1,170  families,  representing 
about  5,500  inhabitants,  speak  Teutonic  dialects  in  these  Venetian 
districts  of  Italy. 

South  of  the  Dolomite  Alps  the  tableland  of  the  Sette  Com- 



muni  is  also  inhabited  by  German-speaking  subjects  of  the  king 
of  Italy.  Teutonic  dialects  have  survived  in  seven  villages  scat- 
tered in  the  adjoining  valleys  of  the  Upper  Astico  and  the  middle 
Brenta.  These  communities  formed  the  regency  of  the  Sette 
Oommuni,  which  from  1259  to  1807  was  an  independent  state. 
Rotzo,  the  westernmost  and  oldest,  has  a  splendid  location  in  the 
wooded  area  at  the  outlet  of  Val  Martello.    In  Roana  to  the  east       Felire 







!    f    i    1    ? = 

Fig.    25 — The   localities   of    German    speech    in   the    Sette    Communi   districts    of 
Italy  are  underlined.     The  broken  line  indicates  the  Austro-Italian  frontier. 

over  five  hundred  families  still  employ  the  German  dialect  as 
their  vernacular.  At  Asiago,  however,  the  German  element  has 
almost  disappeared,  although  during  the  Middle  Ages  the  town 
was  an  important  center  of  Teutonism,  as  is  testified  by  the  his- 
torical collections  deposited  in  its  museums.  Gallic  is  known  in 
history  as  a  trading  center  of  local  magnitude.  Enego,  the  last 
settlement  towards  the  east,  was  founded  before  its  Teutoniza- 
tion,  for  it  was  a  Roman  colony.  San  Giacomo  di  Lusiana  is  the 
only  settlement  of  German  speech  beyond  the  plateau  borders. 
Its  situation  on  the  southern  slope  brought  it  within  the  sphere 


of  Vouoiiau  iiiilueuce  to  a  degree  never  i'elt  by  its  sister  eoiu- 

Past  the  Italian  frontier,  traveling  towards  Trent,  every  town 
and  village  of  the  valley  of  the  Adige  bears  an  Italian  name  and 
is  peopled  by  Italians.  Ala,  Mori,  Kovereto  and  Galliano  are 
types  of  these  Italian  eonnnnnities  within  Austrian  territory. 
Those  small  lowiis,  scattered  along  the  banks  of  the  river  which 
brought  life  to  the  region,  are  peopled  mainly  by  farmers.  The 
valley  in  which  (hey  are  found  has  played  an  important  part  in 
Italian  history,  in  ancient  times  barbarian  invaders  marched  to 
the  conquest  of  the  peninsula  through  its  conveniently  situated 
gap.  During  three  centuries  the  armor-clad  troops  sent  by  Ger- 
man emperors  to  crush  revolts  in  Cisalpine  cities  crossed  the 
Alps  at  the  Hreuuer  Pass  and  followed  the  channel  of  the  Adige 
as  it  broadened  towards  the  south,  l^own  the  same  valley 
Austrian  regiments  poured  into  Lombardy  in  18(50,  when  the 
plainsmen  gave  signs  of  readiness  to  revolt  from  foreign  rule. 
^Modern  changes  have  failed  to  detract  from  the  importance  of 
this  ancient  highway,  for  the  shortest  railroad  route  connecting 
Italy  witli  central  Germany  is  constructed  along  the  natural 
groove  carved  by  (he  southward  flowing  waters  of  the  Adige,  and 
the  transit  trade  between  the  two  countries  follows  its  channel. 

The  most  important  Germanic  invasion  of  the  Trentino  in 
historical  times  began  in  375  a.d.  and  lasted  two  centuries.  This 
movement  was  repeated  in  the  last  half  of  the  tenth  century. 
Under  the  rule  of  the  bishop-prince  Frederick  of  Vanga,  a  con- 
siderable number  of  German  settlers  established  themselves  on 
his  territory  between  the  years  1207  and  1218.  The  actual  Ger- 
manization  of  the  highlanders  of  the  southern  Tyrol  had  its  start 
in  this  period,  the  records  of  the  time  showing  changes  from 
Italian  to  German  in  the  names  of  localities  as  lands  and  estates 
were  acquired  by  Germans.  But  throughout  medieval  times  and 
to  the  eud  of  the  eighteenth  century,  historical  records  make 
mention  oi'  the  Florentine  character  of  its  industrial  and  com- 
mercial life. 

The  southerly  advance  of  the  German  language  in  the  moun- 

i'K,.    ZC 

Fig.  27. 

Fig.  20— View  of  thf;  historic  hrnuncr  J'asrt.  Tlirouj^li  lliis  iriounlaiti  j.'ap  Teutonic 
invaders  have  poure<l   into  Italy  hinoe  the  dawn  of  liihtory. 

Fig.  27 — The  mountain  hetth-ment  of  Cortina  in  tiie  Arnpezzo  di.-^trict  in  the 
Trcnlino   i.s   inliahited  mainly   hy   Italiana. 

Fig.  28. 

Fig.  2D. 

Fig.  "28 — The  approach  to  Meran  in  tlic  Austrian  Tyrol  and  at  the  Ttalo-Gcrmanic 
hmguage  border. 

Fig.  2!) — Stelvio  Pass  at  tlic  eastern  edge  of  tiie  area  of  Romansh  dialects,  show- 
ing the  mountainous  character  of  the  country  in  which  this  language  has  survived. 



tainous   province   has    followed   the   valleys    of   the   Etsch    and 
Eisack,  for  the  channels  through  which  mountain  waters  flowed 

Fig.  30 — Sketch  map  of  the  Trentino  showing  languages  spoken.    Scale,  1:2,400,000. 

towards  the  Adriatic  also  facilitated  the  transportation  of  goods 
from  the  German  highlands  of  central  Europe  to  the  Mediter- 
ranean.    A  steady  current  of  freight  has  been  maintained  in  a 


southerly  course  along  tliis  route  since  the  beginning  of  con- 
tinental commerce  in  Europe.  In  the  Middle  Ages  numerous 
colonies  of  German  traders  had  acquired  solid  footing  along  the 
much  traveled  road  over  the  Brenner  Pass  which  connected 
Augsburg  and  Venice.^ 

Early  activity  of  German  traders  stamped  its  imprint  on  the 
linguistic  map  by  a  wedge  of  Teutonic  speech  thrust  towards  the 
Trentino,  between  Italian  on  the  west  and  Ladin  on  the  east. 
This  linguistic  protuberance  occupies  the  valley  of  the  Etsch 
south  of  its  confluence  with  the  Eisack.  The  divide  between  the 
two  languages  has  its  westernmost  reach  near  Trafoi,^  knoAvn 
also  as  Travis.  The  junction  of  Swiss  and  Austrian  political 
boundaries  at  this  point  corresponds  to  the  contact  between  the 
German  of  the  Tyrol  and  the  Romanic  idioms  of  Engadine. 
Thence,  the  linguistic  line  of  separation  skirts  the  base  of  the 
Ortler  massif  and  subsequently  coincides  with  the  watershed  of 
the  Etsch  and  Noce  rivers.  Ladin  settlements  begin  north  of  the 
Fleims  valley^"  and  spread  beyond  the  Gradena  basin  (Groden- 
thal)  to  Pontebba  (Pontafel)  and  Malborghet  where  the  meeting  of 
Europe's  three  most  important  linguistic  stocks,  the  Romanic, 
Germanic  and  Slavic,  occurs. 

The  language  spoken  by  the  Italians  of  the  Trentino  consists 
of  Lombard  and  Venetian  dialects.  Ladin  dialects  are  spoken  in 
some  of  the  small  valleys  east  of  the  Adige.  In  the  valley  of 
Monastero,  near  the  Swiss  frontier,  the  inhabitants  speak  a 
dialect  of  Ladin  or  Romansh  which  is  akin  to  Friulian.  This 
patois  was  in  greater  use  during  the  Middle  Ages.  The  Ladins, 
both  in  Austria  and  Italy,  are  Italians  in  every  respect  save  that 
of  language,  although  here  also  the  two  peoples  are  closely  related. 
Ladin  language  is  a  slightly  altered  form  of  Latin  containing 
words  of  non-Romanic  stock  which  differ  according  to  the  locality 
overrun  by  the  Romans.  The  same  definition  applies  to  the 
Romansh  language   of   Switzerland.     Romansh   and   Ladin   are 

*  0.  Noel,  Histoire  du  commerce  du  monde,  Paris,  1891,  Vol.  2,  pp.  148-168. 

•  B.  Auerbach:  Races  et  nationaliWs  en  Autriche-Hongrie,  Paris,  1808,  p.  86. 

"  Scheller,  Deutsche  u.  Eomanen  in  Siidtirol  u.  Venetien,  Pet.  Mitt.,  1877,  pp. 


therefore  basically  Latin  languages  which  did  not  develop  to  the 
stage  of  Italian  or  French  and  which  differ  from  each  other  in 
the  number  of  pre-Eoman  words  they  contain.  Friulian  belongs 
to  the  same  category  of  Romance  languages  and  differs  from 
Ladin  merely  in  having  a  larger  proportion  of  Italian  words. 
Like  Ladin  it  is  not  a  literary  language  and  is  therefore  being 
superseded  by  Italian.  Eomansh  dialects  of  Switzerland  will 
probably  survive  longer  since  in  the  canton  of  Grisons  they  are 
recognized  as  official  together  with  German  and  Italian,  and  in 
Engadine  Romansh  is  still  a  literary  dialect. 

The  claims  of  Italy  in  the  Trentino  include  ^^  the  Bolzano 
•district  lying  at  the  confluence  of  the  Isarco  and  the  Adige.  This 
locality  is  peopled  by  16,000  Germans  and  4,000  Italians.  Meran, 
the  upper  valleys  of  the  Adige  and  Isarco  together  with  their 
affluents,  Bressanone  on  the  Isarco,  and  Bruneco  on  the  Rienza 
likemse  fall  within  the  territory  claimed  by  Italy.  A  return  to 
the  Italian  fold  of  the  small  groups  of  Italians  scattered  between 
Salorno  and  Bolzano,  between  Bolzano  and  Meran  and  between 
Bruneco  and  Bressanone  is  shown  in  this  manner  to  lie  within 
the  realm  of  possibility.  As  early  as  774  Charlemagne's  division 
of  the  region  between  the  kingdoms  of  Bavaria  and  Italy  had 
implied  recognition  of  linguistic  variations.  But  the  importance 
of  maintaining  German  control  over  natural  lines  of  access  to 
southern  seas  determined  his  successors  to  award  temporal  rights 
in  the  southeastern  Alps  to  bishops  upon  whose  adherence  to 
Germanic  interests  reliance  could  be  placed.  The  bishopric  of 
Trentino  thus  passed  under  the  Teutonic  sphere  of  influence. 
The  present  political  union  of  the  territory  of  the  old  see  with  the 
Austrian  Empire  is  hence  a  relic  of  medieval  German  politics. 

/"^Historically  the  Trentino 's  connection  with  Italy  rests  on 
ancient  foundations.  At  the  height  of  Roman  power  Tridentium 
was  an  important  city.  It  was  situated  in  the  tenth  Italian 
region,  known  as  Venetia  et  Histria.  After  the  fall  of  the  western 
Empire  it  was  included  in  the  Italian  districts  conquered  by  the 

**  A.  Galanti :  I  diritti  storici  ed  etnici  dell'  Italia  sulle  terre  irredente,  La  Oeogr., 
Vol.  3,  Nos.  3-4,  March-April  1915,  p.  88. 


Ostrogoths  and  Byzantines.  Under  the  Lombards  Trent  became 
the  capital  of  a  dukedom.  In  the  Romano-Germanic  feudal  period 
it  was  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Italy  constituted  by  Charles  the 
Great,  and  later,  of  the  Marches  of  Verona  established  by  Otto  I. 
Conrad  II  in  1027  turned  the  region  over  to  religious  ownership. 
From  this  date  on  it  is  known  as  the  princely  bishopric  of  Trent. 
The  bishop-princes  who  ruled  in  the  Trentino,  however,  were 
constantly  at  war  with  the  feudal  lords  who  had  authority  over  the 
lands  north  and  south  of  the  Trentino.  In  the  sixteenth  century 
the  court  of  Bernardo  Clesio,  one  of  the  most  famous  of  these 
religious  rulers,  was  distinctly  Italian  in  thought  and  customs. 

The  Trentino  bishopric  w^as  abolished  in  1805  by  Napoleon 
and  the  region  then  became  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Bavaria. 
From  1809  to  1814,  however,  the  Trentino,  together  with  a  part 
of  the  upper  Adige  valley,  was  converted  into  an  Italian^ 
administrative  district  under  the  name  of  Dipartimento  dell'  Alto 
Adige.  In  1815  the  region  was  assigned  to  Austria  together  with 
Lombardo-Venetia  and  the  Tyrol. 

Throughout  the  eventful  history  of  the  present  millennium  the 
Tyrol  has  been  the  cockpit  of  Germano-Romance  clashes.  A 
lively  competition  between  German  and  Italian  traders  has  always 
been  maintained  within  its  borders.  D.uring  the  era  of  religious 
upheavals,  the  Germans  rallied  to  the  cause  of  the  Reformation 
while  the  Italian  element  remained  faithful  to  the  authority  of 
the  Vatican.  Contact  with  the  Teutonic  element  appears  to  have 
failed,  however,  to  eradicate  or  modify  the  Italian  character  of  the 
region's  life  and  institutions."^_^ 

The  splendor  of  the  Italian  Renaissance  stamped  its  mark  on 
all  the  Tyrolese  districts  drained  by  waters  flowing  southwards. 
Castles  and  churches  of  the  Trentino  show  the  influence  of  Italian 
architectural  styles.  Their  interior  ornamentation  derived  its 
inspiration  from  the  same  source.  In  painting,  the  Bressanone 
and  Bolzano  schools  of  the  fifteenth  century  likewise  maintained 
Italian  traditions  in  the  valley  of  the  upper  Adige.    Statues  and 

"A.  Galanti:    I  Tedeschi  sul  versante  meridionale  delle  Alpi,  Typ.  Acad.  Lincei, 
Rome,  18S5,  p.  185. 


bas-reliefs  in  the  towns  of  this  region  also  bear  witness  to  the 
Italian  taste  of  its  inhabitants. 

All  these  artistic  leanings  towards  Italy  are  best  observed  in 
Trent  itself.  The  celebrated  castle  of  the  "Buen  Consiglio"  is  a 
blend  of  Venetian  and  Veronese  styles.  Bramante  was  the 
architect  of  the  Tabarelli  palace,  and  a  disciple  of  TuUio  Lom- 
bardo  built  that  of  Moar.  The  Duomo  di  Trento  owes  its  beauty 
mainly  to  the  artistic  conceptions  of  the  Comacini  masters.  Some 
of  its  frescoes  dating  from  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  centuries 
are  the  handicraft  of  Veronese  artists.  This  Italian  influence  has 
been  maintained  to  the  present  day.  A  tourist  reaching  the  city 
will  behold  Dante's  symbolic  statue — the  work  of  Zocchi,  a  Flor- 
entine— immediately  upon  leaving  the  main  station.^^  Eoaming 
through  the  city  his  attention  will  be  attracted  by  innumerable 
reminders  of  modern  Italian  work  of  the  type  seen  in  the  fa§ade 
of  St.  Peter's  church.  These  are  concrete  manifestations  of  an 
intellectual  and  artistic  outflow  from  the  Italian  border  north- 

lEeports  on  the  German  propaganda  carried  on  in  the  Trentino 
have  been  made  on  several  occasions  to  their  governments  by 
Italian  consular  agents.^*  This  movement  is  prosecuted  with 
untiring  perseverance  by  the  members  of  the  Tiroler  Volksbund, 
an  organization  founded  in  1905,  for  the  purpose  of  diffusing 
German  language  and  customs  in  southern  Tyrol.  Schools  and 
other  institutions  managed  by  German  staffs  provide  Teutonic 
education  free  of  cost  to  the  natives.  Periodicals  and  pamphlets 
are  distributed  profusely  to  this  end.  Lectures  setting  forth  the 
Germanic  origins  of  Trentino  settlements  are  delivered.  A  more 
aggressive  method  of  action  consists  in  sending  out  ''Wander- 
lehrers"  or  traveling  teachers  to  give  elementary  courses  from 
village  to  village. 

Descendants  of  Rheto-Eomans  settled  in  eastern  Tyrol  speak 
a  language  of  Latin  stock  which,  in  common  with  other  moun- 

**  According  to  press  reports  in  1915  Dknte's  monument  was  destroyed  by  the 

"  G.  de  Lucchi:  Trentino  e  Tirolo,  Boll.  16,  Minist.  Aff.  Esteri,  Rome,  1915. 


tain  languages,  failed  to  blossom  into  literature  mainly  on  account 
of  the  secluded  life  of  its  highland  users.  The  dialect  is  closely- 
allied  to  the  Friulian.  The  two  form  together  the  western  border 
of  the  Slovene  linguistic  area  and  attain  Triest  on  the  south. 
Lack  of  written  masterpieces  tends  to  weaken  the  life  of  the 
language  and  it  is  being  replaced  by  Italian.  Concurrently  with 
the  growth  of  the  region's  foreign  intercourse  in  modern  times 
invasion  of  German  words  can  also  be  detected,  though  not  to  the 
extent  of  impairing  the  fundamental  Romanic  strain. 

The  Adriatic  provinces  of  the  Austro-Hungarian  Empire  are 
peopled  mainly  by  Italians  and  Slavs.  German  and  Hungarian 
elements  in  the  population  consist  of  civil  and  military  officials 
and  of  merchants.  From  an  ethnological  and  linguistic  standpoint 
the  maritime  district  is  Italian  or  Slav  according  to  its  elevation. 
The  Romanic  stock  forms  the  piedmont  populations  while  the 
dwellers  of  the  hilly  coast  chains  are  of  Slavic  issue  and  speech. 
The  western  coast  of  the  Istrian  peninsula,  however,  is  an  area  of 
Italian  speech,  which  is  generally  confined  to  urban  centers. 

The  following  figures  for  the  population  of  the  Dalmatian 
islands  show  the  numerical  inferiority  of  the  Italians :  ^' 

according  to 
Locality                       census  of  1910 

speaking  Serbo- 
Croatian  dialects 

Inhabitants  speaking 


Per  cent 


Per  cent 

Lissa,  St.  Andrea  and 







L  e  s  i  n  a ,   Spalmadori 

and  Torcola   






Ciarzola,  Cazza,  Lagosta 

and   adjoining    reefs 






Stagno  district,  includ- 

ing  Meleda    island  " 






*' O.  Keude:  Italien  und  die  Dalmatienische  Inselfrage,  Kartogr.  Zeits.,  Vienna, 
Nov.  15,  1915. 

*"  Austrian  census  returns  have  been  the  object  of  frequent  criticism  in  non- 
Germanic  countries.  The  political  interests  of  the  Austrian  government  may  have 
led  Its  officials  to  minimize  the  importance  of  the  language  spoken  by  dissenting  peo- 
ples. A  tendency  to  overestimate  the  spread  of  German  has  always  been  suspected. 
A  common  practice  consists  in  forming  artificial  administrative  districts  so  as  to 
create  German  numerical  superiority  within  their  borders.  As  a  rule  an  increase  of 
10  per  cent  in  the  number  of  Slavs,  Rumanians  and  Italians  can  be  safely  added  to 
the  figures  set  forth  in  government  statistics.  Conversely  the  same  percentage  may 
be  subtracted  with  safety  from  the  totals  for  Germans  and  Hungarians. 


Zara,  Spalato,  Sebenico,  Ragusa  and  Cattaro,^^  however,  con- 
tain flourishing  colonies  of  Italians  whose  commercial  enterprise 
has  helped  their  mother  tongue  to  prevail  if  not  predominate  in 
their  region.  Outside  of  these  cities,  the  Italian  element,  wherever 
present,  is  restricted  to  littoral  strips.  The  Slavs  invariably 
occupy  the  plateau  and  the  slopes  extending  seaward. 

The  Istrian  region  of  predominant  Italian  speech  consists  of 
the  western  peninsular  lowland  extending  south  of  Triest  ^*  to  the 
tip  of  the  promontory  beyond  Pola.^®  Istrians  to  whom  Italian 
is  vernacular  number  147,420  individuals  according  to  the  census 
of  1910.  The  Slavs  of  the  Karst  and  terraced  sections  constitut- 
ing the  rest  of  the  population  belong  to  the  Roman  faith,  but 
have  no  other  common  bond  with  their  Italian  countrymen. 

Istria  is  a  triangle  about  60  miles  long  with  a  maximum 
breadth  of  46  miles.  It  rises  from  the  southwestern  coast  gradu- 
ally up  to  the  Dinaric  Alps.  Owing  to  its  undulating  surface  and 
the  absence  of  coastal  plains,  it  may  be  regarded  as  a  part  of 
this  range,  jutting  out  into  the  sea.  On  the  whole,  Istria  may  be 
called  a  Karst  land,  for  three-fourths  of  its  surface  consists  of 
Karst-forming  limestone  and  only  one-fourth  of  sandstone  and 
marl.  With  few  exceptions  its  natural  waterways  are  confined 
to  the  sandstone  districts.  The  peninsula  is  also  a  transition 
region  between  the  mild  Mediterranean  and  central  European 
climates.  The  summers  are  dry  and  in  autumn  heavy  rains  fall. 
Almost  all  the  land  is  productive  and  67  per  cent  of  its  popula- 
tion live  by  agriculture  and  forestry/j 

Settlement  by  Slavs  of  the  hills  dominating  the  Adriatic 
appears  to  have  taken  place  continuously  from  the  ninth  to  the 
seventeenth  century.     Feudatory  chiefs   of  medieval   ages   first 

*^  Italian  predominates  in  both  Zara  and  Spalato,  the  latter  city  being  second  in 
commercial  importance  along  the  Dalmatian  coast.  It  is  estimated  that,  in  all,  more 
than  18,000  Italians  inhabit  Dalmatia. 

^*  Triest  and  its  environs  are  peopled  mainly  by  Italians.  The  suburbs  are  in- 
habited by  crowded  Slavic  settlements.  The  census  of  1910  shows  118,960  Italians, 
57,920  Slovenes,  11,860  Germans  and  2,400  Croats.  For  Istria  returns  of  the  same 
date  give:  Italians  147,417,  Serbo-Croatians  168,184,  Slovenes  55,134. 

^'  M.  Wutte :  Das  Deutschtum  in  Osterreichischen  Kiistenland,  Deutsche  Erde, 
Vol.  8,  1909,  p.  202. 


resorted  to  this  method  of  developing  the  uncultivated  slopes  and 
highlands  of  the  eastern  coast.  The  Venetian  republic  and  the 
Austrian  government  adopted  similar  measures  of  colonization. 
Slavic  tribes,  hard  pressed  by  their  kinsmen  or  by  Tatars  from 
the  east,  thus  found  refuge  in  the  mountainous  Dalmatian  coast- 
land  under  the  aegis  of  western  nations.  A  traveler  taking  ship 
today  and  sailing  from  harbor  to  harbor  along  the  shores  of  the 
eastern  Adriatic  would  readily  notice  the  numerical  superiority 
of  these  descendants  of  Slavs.  They  constitute  the  mass  of 
toilers  in  every  walk  of  life,  and  sooner  or  later  probably  will 
erect  a  political  fabric  on  the  foundations  of  their  linguistic 

Slavic  dialects  are  found  in  the  Friulian  sections  of  eastern 
Italy  as  well  as  in  the  Abruzzi  and  Molise  regions.  The  Slavic 
population  of  Friuli  was  estimated  in  1851  at  26,676.  The  census 
of  1901  records  the  existence  of  5,734  Slavic-speaking  families 
scattered  in  16  communi  and  consisting  of  about  36,000  indi- 

The  Slavs  of  Italy  may  be  divided  into  four  dialectical  groups 
as  follows :  ^° 

Natisone  group  composed  of  17,291  individuals 
Torre  "  "  "    12,9SG  " 

Judrio  "  "  "     1,230  " 

Resia  "  "  "     4,671  " 

The  Molise  group  is  the  remnant  of  a  once  extensive  Slav 

colony    which    had    reached    the    province    of    Chieti.     Kound- 

headedness,  accompanied  by  high  stature  and  blondness,  among 

inhabitants  of  the  communes  of  Vasto,  Cupello,  Monteoderisio, 

Abbateggio,  Lanciano,  San  Giovanni  Teatino,  Cascanditella  and 

San   Vito    Chietino   betrays    Slavic   ancestry.     And   yet    Slavic 

dialects  are  hardly  heard  any  longer  in  these  country  districts. 

The  communes  of  Acquaviva  CoUecroce  and  San  Felice  Slavo 

alone  boast  of  some  4,500  inhabitants  who  speak  Slovene. 

(The  Karst  or  Carso  formation  on  which  Slovene  life  developed 
"^ . 

*•  G.  Canastrelli:  II  Tiiimero  degli  Slavi  in  Friuli,  Riv.  Oeogr.  It.,  Vol.  21, 
Nos.  1-2,  Jiui.-Fcb.  1014,  pp.  96-102. 


is  the  western  section  of  a  long  calcareous  plateau  which  extends 
from  the  Juhan  Alps,  along  the  border  of  the  ancient  Friulian 
gulf  and  attains  Balkan  ranges.  It  separates  the  valley  of  the 
Save  from  the  Adriatic.  A  characteristic  aspect  is  noticeable 
over  all  its  extent  in  the  thickness  of  its  limestone  beds  and  their 
deep  fissures.  Surface  water  cannot  collect  and  flow  for  any  dis- 
tance without  disappearing  into  a  fissure.  The  erosion  forms  of 
the  plateau  are  of  the  Karst  type  and  differ  radically  from  those 
of  the  average  humid  climate.  Chambers  of  marvelous  dimen- 
sions are  formed;  funnel-shaped  sink-holes  dot  the  surface;  and 
the  rivers  run  underground. 

The  Slovenes  settled  on  the  calcareous  plateau  of  Carniola 
cluster  around  Laibach  and  attain  the  area  of  German  speech  on 
the  north,  along  the  Drave  between  Marburg  and  Klagenfurth. 
Eastward  they  march  with  Hungarians  and  the  Serbo-Croat 
group  of  southern  Slavs.  Their  southern  linguistic  boundary  also 
coincides  with  that  of  the  latter.  Around  Gottschee,  however,  a 
zone  of  German  intervenes  between  Slovene  and  Croatian  dialects. 
Practically  the  entire  eastern  coast  of  the  Gulf  of  Triest  lies  in 
the  area  of  Slovene  speech.  The  group  thereby  acquires  the 
advantage  of  direct  access  to  the  sea,  a  fact  of  no  mean  impor- 
tance among  the  causes  that  contributed  to  its  survival  to  the 
present  day  in  spite  of  its  being  surrounded  by  Germans,  Hun- 
garians, Croats  and  Italians. 

The  Slovenes  may  be  considered  as  laggards  among  the  Slavic 
immigrants  who  followed  Avar  invasions.  They  would  probably 
have  occupied  the  fertile  plains  of  Hungary  had  they  not  been 
driven  to  their  elevated  home  by  the  pressure  of  Magyar  and 
Turkish  advances.  Confinement  in  the  upland  prevented  their 
fusion  with  any  of  the  successive  occupants  of  the  eastern  plains 
below  their  mountain  habitations.  Racial  distinctiveness,  char- 
acterized by  language  no  less  than  by  a  highly  developed  attach- 
ment to  tradition,  resulted  from  this  seclusion. 

Starting  from  the  Adriatic  Sea  in  the  vicinity  of  Triest  the 
boundary  of  Slovene  territory,  according  to  Niederle,  extends  to 
Duino,   Montefalcone,    Gradisca   and   Cormons.     From   the   last 


locality  it  heads  for  Italian  territory,  within  which  it  cuts  off  the 
districts  east  of  Tarcento  and  Resia  from  the  area  of  Italian 
speech.  At  Kanin  the  line  is  once  more  on  Austrian  soil.  It  now 
proceeds  to  Pontafel,  Saint-Hermagoras,  Dobrac  and  Villach,  the 
latter  city  being  mainly  German.  Beyond  the  Drave,  the  lin- 
guistic frontier  passes  close  to  Woerther  Lake  and  thence  by 
Kostenberg  and  Moosburg.  From  this  town  the  divide  is  pro- 
longed to  Gurk  and  extends  towards  Diex,  Greutschach,  Griffen 
and  St.  Pancrace.  It  next  attains  Arnfels.  Fifty  years  ago, 
according  to  the  same  authority,  the  environs  of  this  village  were 
inhabited  by  Slovene  populations.  The  district  has  since  then 
been  reclaimed  by  German  speech.  The  same  is  true  of  the  right 
bank  of  the  Mur  in  the  vicinity  of  Radkersburg. 

At  Radgona,  the  Slovene  boundary  crosses  the  Mur  once  more 
and  extends  northward  into  Hungary  as  far  as  the  German  village 
of  St.  Gotthard,  which  it  leaves  to  the  north.  Thence  it  turns 
southward  at  the  Raab  and  heads  for  the  Mur,  which  it  crosses 
at  Gornia  Bistrica.  The  line  then  runs  close  to  the  provincial 
boundaries  of  Croatia  and  Carniola  before  attaining  the  sea 
again  in  Istria.  The  Slovene  area  thus  delimited  comprises  the 
duchy  of  Carniola,  excepting  the  Gottschee  enclave,  northern 
Istria,  the  Udine  region,  southeastern  Karinthia,  southern  Styria 
and  part  of  the  Hungarian  "comitats"  of  Vas  and  Zala.  This 
Slovene  land  is  now  but  a  dwindled  remnant  of  its  former  exten- 
sion. At  one  time  the  Slovenes  extended  as  far  west  as  the 
Pusterthal  in  Tyrol,  while  their  settlements  even  reached  the 
Danube  (at  Linz  and  Vienna)^ 

Contact  between  languages  on  the  Italo- Austrian  frontier  has 
infhiencod  the  political  relations  between  the  two  countries.  The 
whole  foreign  policy  of  the  Austrian  Empire,  in  fact,  may  be  said 
to  have  been  stimulated  mainly  by  the  necessity  of  keeping  its 
mixed  population  in  subjection.  The  central  position  of  Austria- 
Hungary  had  made  it  the  meeting-place  of  every  important  race 
in  Europe.  The  mountain-girt  monarchy  is  a  seething  reservoir 
of  nationalities.  Germans  from  the  west  flow  into  it.  Czechs  and 
Slovaks  press  in  from  the  northwest,  Poles  and  Ruthenians  from 



the  north  and  northeast.  A  Rumanian  drive  proceeds  from  the 
southeast.  Croats,  Serbians  and  Slovenes  are  steadily  pushing 
northward.    Italians,  advancing  from  the  southwest,  complete  the 

Fig.  31 — The  area  of  Slovene  speech  in  Austria  and  adjacent  parts  of  Italy. 

ring.    Facing  these  racial  swarms  a  central  mass  of  Hungarians 
are  striving  to  expand  against  them. 

For  more  than  twelve  centuries  Austria's  geographical  posi- 
tion has  made  her  the  protectress  of  Europe  from  successive 
onslaughts  of  barbarian  hordes  pressing  from  the  east.  The 
German-speaking  nucleus  of  the  present  Dual  Monarchy  was 
founded,  at  the  end  of  the  eighth  century,  by  Charles  the  Great 
as  a  bulwark  against  the  Avars.  A  little  later  the  role  of  stem- 
ming the  tide  of  Hungarian  attacks  also  devolved  upon  it.  Fight- 
ing incessantly  and  on  the  whole  successfully  against  eastern 
invaders,    the    Austrians    gradually    extended    their    territory 


.V    . 

towards  the  Orient.  The  valley  of  the  Danube  provided  them  with 
settling-land  and  passage-way.  War  and  marriages  brought 
their  share  of  added  territory  to  the  Hapsburg  reigning  family. 
By  152G  Moravia,  Bohemia,  Silesia  and  Hungary  had  been  added 
to  the  Empire.  Transylvania  was  conquered  in  the  seventeenth 
century,  Galicia  and  Bukovina  in  the  eighteenth.  At  the  begin- 
ning of  the  nineteenth  century,  Austria  was  the  leader  among 
German-speaking  states.  Prussian  shot  and  shell  ousted  her 
from  this  position  at  the  battle  of  Sadowa  in  1866.  But  the  task 
undertaken  over  a  thousand  years  ago  is  still  being  performed. 
Austrians  today  are  engaged  in  another  effort  to  check  the  west- 
ward Slavic  flow. 

The  country  is  ill-prepared  to  meet  its  hereditary  foe.  The 
sovereign  existence  of  Austria-Hungary  to  this  day  can  be 
regarded  only  as  an  exceedingly  marvelous  feat  of  political  jug- 
glery. Its  weakness  lies  in  the  presence  of  strong  contingents  of 
dissimilar  races  in  its  population.  Struggle  between  the  com- 
ponent masses  is  as  unending  as  it  is  passionate.  To  the  lack  of 
linguistic  or  racial  affinity  must  be  added  the  want  of  a  liberal 
form  of  government  in  the  strictly  representative  or  federative 
sense.  Representative  government,  in  the  absence  of  everything 
else,  might  have  provided  the  required  bond  of  political  cohe- 
sion. Of  the  total  population  of  Austria  only  11,000,000,  or  24 
per  cent,  are  Germans.  These  Teutons  pay  allegiance  to  the 
Hapsburg  emperor  along  with  9,000,000  Hungarians,  3,000,000 
Rumanian^  and  about  1,000,000  Italians.  The  Slavic  race,  how- 
ever, outnumbers  every  other  element  in  the  Empire.  Its 
21,000,000  members  constitute  44  per  cent  of  the  subjects  of 
Charles  I. 

In  one  sense  Austria's  mission  of  protecting  Europe  ended  as 
soon  as  the  Ottoman  Empire  ceased  to  be  a  source  of  danger. 
To  consolidate  Danubian  nationalities  in  a  single  group  capable 
of  withstanding  the  Turkish  advance  had  constituted  Austria's 
most  glorious  part  in  modern  history.  "With  the  elimination  of 
the  Turkish  danger,  the  necessity  of  political  union  among  the 
peoples  occupying  the  valley  of  the  Danube  was  removed.     The 


The  American  Geographi'^^  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  1917,  PI.  Ill 



Legend     ^^^ 

D  Italian      DPolislj^A 

□  Rumanian  □Czechxl^'-^     v 

□  German      □Slovak 

□  Hungarian  □Slovei   ^ 
□TurMiTatar  □Serto 
□BiBSHii  sMeniai^  Bdjarij 

E3   Unlnha^itedA: 







The  American  Geographical  Societ\)  of  New  Yorl^ 

Fronti.,,  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  191 7.  Pi  HI 



L  e  g'en.d  <s''''~'o'  ^'"^- 

n  ItaliaB      n  Polish 
D  Rumanian  □CzechiMDravian  ' 
□  German      DSlovalQan 
□Hmigarian  □  Slovene 
□TiirMiTatar  □SerlnaiuaiHliaii 
□toan  4MieiiHn[I]  Mganan 
r~l  Uninha'bitedJSreas 
_—  Nattonallioundanes 






chief  reason  for  the  maintenance  of  an  Austrian  state  thereby 
ceases  to  exist.  Events  of  our  own  times  reveal  the  natural 
working  out  of  these  international  problems.  As  long  as  Moham- 
medanism threatened  to  absorb  Christianity  in  southeastern 
Europe,  the  various  peoples  of  the  Austrian  Empire  stood 
shoulder  to  shoulder  against  a  common  foe.  The  sense  of  security 
now  induces  them  to  turn  their  thoughts  on  themselves  and 
effectively  hasten  the  growth  of  national  consciousness  based  on 
ideals  and  aspirations  which  can  be  expressed  in  a  common  lan- 

The  passing  of  Austria's  usefulness  as  a  nation  has  been 
marked  by  the  country's  growing  vassalage  to  the  leading  Teu- 
tonic power.  At  Berlin,  the  center  of  Imperial  Germany,  the  aim 
of  every  leader  is  to  further  the  easterly  expansion  of  the  Empire. 
Austria,  commanding  the  natural  route  to  the  southeast,  figures 
as  a  precious  asset  in  these  imperial  estimates.  But  success  to 
German  ambition  spells  defeat  to  the  dreams  of  political  inde- 
pendence cherished  in  the  minds  of  the  peoples  of  Austria- 
Hungary.  A  conflict  of  vital  importance  to  each  contestant  is 
raging.  The  struggle  is  likely  to  be  maintained  wherever  more 
than  a  single  language  continues  to  be  spoken. 

The  mastery  of  the  Adriatic,  claimed  by  Italy  at  present,  has 
been  contested  in  the  past  twenty-five  centuries  by  every  people 
which  succeeded  in  gaining  a  foothold  on  its  shores.  Illyrians, 
Greeks,  Romans,  Byzantines,  Venetians  and  Turks  each  in  their 
day  acquired  maritime  supremacy  in  the  Mediterranean,  and 
naturally  aspired  to  control  this  waterway.  The  prize  was  worth 
fighting  for.  It  was  part  of  the  lane  of  traffic  between  the  rich 
valley  of  the  Po,  the  lands  beyond  the  Alps  and  eastern  coun- 
tries. In  the  present  century  eastern  trade  generally  runs  in 
different  channels.  A  sufficient  tonnage,  however,  finds  its  way 
to  the  great  harbors  of  the  Adriatic  to  excite  Italian  ambitions. 
Moreover  Italian  manufacturers  are  looking  forward  to  the 
establishment  of  crosswise  trade  relations  with  the  Balkan 
peninsula.  These  are  economic  considerations  which  impart 
definite  aim  to  the  policy  of  Italian  statesmen. 


The  moat  satisfactory  picture  of  Italian  desire  to  annex 
Dalmatia  appears  on  maps  of  the  Adriatic,  which  show  the  con- 
trast between  the  opposite  coasts.  On  the  Italian  side,  the  coast- 
line runs  with  monotonous  uniformity.  It  is  devoid  of  the  head- 
lands, gulfs  or  islands  which  impart  economic,  strategic  and 
scenic  value  to  Dalmatia.  Barring  short  stretches  in  Tuglia  the 
entire  Italian  coast  is  shallow  and  sandy.  Its  well-known  ports 
hardly  deserve  the  name.  Mariners  are  well  aware  of  the 
obstacles  to  navigation  along  the  whole  western  Adriatic  shore. 
At  the  head  of  this  sea,  especially,  the  situation  for  Italian 
shipping  is  most  unfavorable,  owing  to  the  large  number  of 
rivers  which  discharge  material  collected  from  practically  the 
entire  eastern  watershed  of  the  Alps  and  that  of  the  northern 
Apennines.  From  west  to  east  some  among  the  most  important 
of  these  rivers  are  the  Po,  Adige,  Piave  and  Isonzo.  This 
piling  of  material,  added  to  the  process  of  land  emergence  going 
on  at  the  head  of  the  Adriatic,  impairs  the  value  of  the  Gulf  of 
Venice  to  modern  navigation. 

The  Dalmatian  coast,  however,  with  its  numerous  bays  and 
gulfs  setting  far  into  the  land  and  broken  by  many  headlands, 
is  fringed  by  a  garland  of  outlying  islands.  These  natural 
features  of  the  region  provide  the  advantages  denied  to  Italy. 
Almost  every  mile  of  shore  in  Dalmatia  contains  a  commodious 
harbor  for  merchantmen  or  a  well-sheltered  base  for  war  vessels. 
Most  of  the  rivers  originating  in  the  mountain  chains  over- 
looking blue  water  flow  eastward  toward  the  Danube.  Very  little 
silt  and  sediment  therefore  linds  its  way  to  the  Dalmatian 

Linguistically,  the  eastern  shore  of  the  Adriatic  is  Serbian  or 
Albanian.  But  the  history  of  this  coastal  land  is  Italian  in  spite 
of  the  showing  of  census  returns  as  to  the  decided  numerical 
inferiority  of  Italians  within  its  limits.  Rome  had  reached  Dal- 
matia and  the  Near  East  by  way  of  the  Adriatic.  A  whole  chain 
of  imposing  ruins  extending  to  the  wild  Albanian  shores  bear  the 
unmistakable  impress  of  Roman  splendor.  In  the  partition  of  the 
Roman  Empire  in  295  a.d.  Dalmatia  was  assigned  to  the  western 



and  not  to  the  eastern  half.  The  period 
of  its  subjection  to  Venetian  rule  is  one 
of  the  most  brilliant  in  its  history.  All 
the  civilization  it  received  came  from 
the  west. 

The  fact  is  that  the  Italian  element 
has  always  been  predominant.  After 
1866  its  influence  was  viewed  with  dis- 
favor by  the  Austrian  government. 
Serbians  and  Croats  were  encouraged 
to  settle  in  the  Italian  communities  of 
the  coast  and  officials  of  the  Dual  Mon- 
archy were  instructed  to  assist  the  Slavs 
in  every  possible  manner  with  a  view  to 
counterbalancing  Italian  primacy  in  the 
province.  In  recent  years  the  task  of 
the  Austrian  government  became  doubly 
difficult,  for  its  representatives  could  not 
avoid  playing  alternately  into  the  hands 
of  Serbians  and  Italians. 

Dalmatia  has  always  greeted  Italian 
thought  as  the  heritage  of  Rome  and 
Venice.  Its  history,  its  most  notable 
monuments  and  its  whole  culture  are 
Xjroducts  of  either  Roman  or  Venetian 
influence.  The  maritime  cities  in  par- 
ticular still  remain  strongholds  of  Italian 
thought.  Almost  every  one  boasts  of 
a  native  son  who  has  distinguished  him- 
self in  the  cause  of  Italy. 

Zara,  which  Italian  authors  delight 
in  qualifying  as  "italianissima,"  is  the 
native  city  of  the  Italian  patriot  Arturo 
Colantti.  The  great  Dalmatian  poet 
Niccolo  Tomasseo,  whose  monument  was 
erected  in  Sebenico  in  1896,  was  a  son 



of  this  city  and,  although  an  intensely  patriotic  Slav,  nevertheless- 
thus  expressed  himself  in  Italian : 

Ne  piu  tra'l  monte  e  il  mar,  povero  lembo 
Di  terra  e  pocbe  ignude  isole  sparte, 
0  Patria  mia,  sarai;  ma  la  rinata 
Serbia  guerriera  mano  e  mite  spirto, 

showing  thereby  the  extent  of  the  hold  of  Italian  culture 
over  the  land.  Again,  Spalato  is  the  birthplace  of  Antonio  Baja- 
monti,  one  of  the  greatest  exponents  of  Italy's  claims  over 

According  to  the  Austrian  census  of  1910  the  population  of 
the  province  consisted  of  645,666  inhabitants.  Of  these  it  is  esti- 
mated that  60,000  are  Italians,  who  constitute  the  progressive 
and  educated  element  of  the  population.  The  Slav  inhabitants 
number  approximately  480,000,  but  only  about  30,000  among  them 
have  a  speaking  knowledge  of  Italian.  The  mass  of  this  Slavic 
element  is  uneducated. 

The  Illyrians  were  early  inliabitants  of  the  eastern  Adriatic 
coast  whom  the  Romans  had  conquered  in  order  to  check  piracy 
in  the  Adriatic.  After  being  tamed  these  barbarians  formed  the 
substratum  of  the  population  of  Adriatic  cities.  Throughout  the 
coast  their  language  was  displaced  during  the  Middle  Ages  by 
the  Venetian  of  Italian  traders.  In  the  Albanian  mountains,  how- 
ever, the  old  Ulyrian  tongue  strongly  impregnated  w^ith  Latin 
words  still  survives.  Roman  influence  could  not  be  exerted  on 
this  rugged  land  as  strongly  as  on  the  coast. 

Rome's  ancient  domination  of  the  Ulyrian  coast  and  Wal- 
lachian  plains  led  to  highly  interesting  consequences.  A  genuine 
Romance  language  was  once  spoken  by  the  mountain  population 
of  shepherds  which  extended  across  the  entire  Balkan  peninsula 
from  the  Dalmatian  coast,  through  the  Bosnian  and  Serbian 
highlands,  into  the  easternmost  ranges  of  the  Carpathians.  The 
similarity  observable  in  Balkan  and  Carpathian  mountain  dialects 
thus  finds  its  source  in  the  original  easterly  expansion  of  Rome. 
The  Banat  territory,  in  which  the  proportion  of  Rumanian  inhabi- 
tants is  high,  is  the  bridge  land  which  connects  the  Rumanian 


form  of  Latin  used  on  the  broad  Transylvanian  shelf  to  the 
Albanian  prevailing  in  the  broken-up  highlands  of  Albania. 
Romance  speech  therefore  found  a  ready  soil  in  the  Balkan  uplifts. 
It  may  even  be  detected  in  the  mountainous  sections  of  Thrace, 
a  province  which  also  fell  under  Roman  rule  during  the  transition 
period  from  pagan  to  Christian  days. 

The  arrival  of  Slavs  in  the  seventh  century  forced  the  Romans 
to  take  refuge  behind  city  walls,  so  that  although  the  vast  non- 
urban  part  of  the  province  became  Slavic  in  population,  the  cities 
remained  Latin  and  formed  themselves  into  a  number  of  inde- 
pendent republics.  These  city  states  passed  under  Venetian 
protection  in  the  ninth  and  tenth  centuries  to  safeguard  them- 
selves against  the  piratical  raids  of  Slavs  who  had  succumbed  to 
the  nefarious  influence  exerted  by  the  dissected  coast  with  its 
numerous  fiords  and  deep-water  harbors. 

The  Venetian  protectorate  soon  became  converted  into  direct 
sovereignty.  But  the  yoke  of  the  Doges  lay  light  on  the  land,  the 
administration  of  cities  being  left  entirely  in  the  hands  of  the 
citizens.  Venetian  authority  was  most  strongly  felt  in  Dalmatia 
after  the  assumption  of  the  title  of  Dux  Histriae  et  Dalmatiae  by 
Doge  Pietro  Orseolo  II.  All  the  efforts  of  Hungarians  in  the 
thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries,  and  of  Turks  in  the  seven- 
teenth, to  insinuate  themselves  into  Dalmatian  affairs  were  futile. 
The  imposing  barrier  of  the  Dinaric  Alps  forbade  intercourse 
between  Dalmatia  and  the  east.  Life  and  progress  flowed  into 
the  province  from  the  west  over  Adriatic  waters. 

Dalmatia  changed  hands  frequently  during  the  Napoleonic 
period.  Perhaps  it  is  on  this  account  that  the  Dalmatian,  when 
questioned  regarding  his  nationality,  answers  by  stating  that  he 
has  two  languages.  Of  these  he  calls  one  ''lingua  del  cuore,"  and 
the  other  ''lingua  del  pane."  His  native  province  was  awarded 
to  Austria  by  the  treaty  of  Campoformio  in  1797  and  subsequently 
annexed  to  Napoleon's  Empire  by  the  treaty  of  Presburg  in  1805. 
It  reverted  to  Austrian  rule  in  1814.  Successive  masters,  how- 
ever, failed  to  root  out  Italian  in  the  region.  The  language  was 
recognized  as   official   until   1860.     The   formation   of   a  united 


Italian  state  marked  the  beginniiig  of  a  repressive  policy  directed 
against  Italians  by  the  Austrian  government.  The  effort  of  the 
Hapsburg  administration  was  entirely  directed  towards  the  devel- 
opment of  the  Adriatic  Slavs  in  order  to  counterbalance  Italian 
influence.  A  great  revival  of  Croatian  and  Serbian  national  feel- 
ing resulted  from  this  policy. 

The  award  of  the  entire  eastern  Adriatic  coast  to  Italy  would 
not  only  trespass  on  lands  of  alien  speech,  but  would  seriously 
hamper  future  economic  development  of  Croatians  and  Serbians 
by  preventing  these  peoples  from  attaining  the  sea.  These  points 
are  admitted  by  most  Italian  irredentists.  They  therefore  limit 
their  claims  to  the  Istrian  peninsula  and  the  coast  region  of 
Dalmatia  comprised  between  the  Velebiti  range  and  the  Narenta 
river.  Italy's  position  in  the  Adriatic  would  be  improved  by  the 
recognition  of  the  rights  of  her  Slav  neighbors.  The  goodwill  of 
a  united  and  liberated  Jugoslavia,  which  would  be  bound  to  Italy 
by  ties  of  interest  and  sentiment,  would  thus  be  acquired. 

The  Croatian  coastland,  in  the  section  which  extends  along  the 
waterway  of  the  same  name  from  the  gulf  of  Fiume  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Zermagna  river,  is  known  as  the  Morlacca.  The  bay  of 
Buccari  is  strategically  necessary  for  the  protection  of  Fiume, 
and  Italians  would  probably  make  a  strong  claim  for  its  posses- 
sion in  case  the  larger  seaport  came  into  their  possession.  The 
Serbian  coastland  really  begins  south  of  the  Narenta  river  and 
centers  around  Ragusa.  This  is  the  only  city  of  any  importance 
on  the  Adriatic  coast  in  which  evidences  of  Serbian  culture  are 

The  old  Sla^dc  settlers  were  probably  traders  who  plied  between 
the  coasts  of  Dalmatia  and  Abruzzi  during  the  Middle  Ages. 
In  the  kingdom  of  Naples  Slav  colonists  are  known  as  early  as 
the  eleventh  century,  during  the  reign  of  Emperor  Otto  I.  The 
bulk  of  Slavic  immigration  into  Italy  dates,  however,  from  the 
beginning  of  the  fifteenth  century  when  possession  of  the  coast 
provinces  was  disputed  by  the  Aragonians  and  Angevins.  Both 
claimants  induced  Slavs  to  colonize  the  contested  regions  on  con- 
dition that  they  would   recognize   the   authority   of   those   who 



provided  them  with  land.  At  a  later  period  the  advance  of 
Turkish  hordes  in  the  Balkans  drove  a  large  number  of  Slavic 
families  westward. 

The    Turkish   conquest   of   Greece   also   forced   many   Greek 
families  to  seek  safety  on  the  Italian  mainland.    As  a  result,  two 

Fig.  33 — The  Slavic  colonies  of  the  Molise  group  in  eastern  Italy  are  shown  by 
black  dots. 

communities  of  Greek  speech  are  found  on  Italian  territory  at 
Lecce  in  the  province  of  Puglia  and  at  Bora  in  Calabria.  The 
vernacular  of  both  these  regions  contains  a  strong  proportion  of 
Italian  words  without,  however,  losing  its  affinity  with  the  original 


mother  tongue.  The  Lecce  conununity  consists  of  4,973  families 
scattered  in  nine  communi.  The  southern  group  is  represented 
by  2,389  families  settled  in  four  communi  of  the  Bora  district,  in 
Reggio  di  Calabria  and  in  Palizzi.  Altogether  Greek  is  spoken  as 
a  vernacular  by  30,700  inhabitants  of  Italy. 

Still  another  reminder  of  the  Turkish  conquests  of  the  fifteenth 
and  sixteenth  centuries  is  afforded  by  the  presence  of  an  Albanian 
element  living  along  the  eastern  coast  of  Italy.  This  group  con- 
sists of  between  80,000  and  90,000  Albanians  speaking  their  own 
language.  The  purity  of  Albanian  speech  and  custom  has  been 
preserved  by  them  on  the  alien  soil  skirting  western  Adriatic 

This  total  shows  a  marked  decrease  from  the  figure  of  96,000 
reported  in  the  census  of  1901.  Emigration  accounts  mainly  for 
this  loss.  At  the  same  time,  a  tendency  among  Albanians  to 
forsake  their  vernacular  for  Italian  is  discernible  as  intercourse 
with  the  dominant  element  increases. 

All  these  nuclei  of  foreign  languages  cannot  impair  the  unity 
of  Italian  nationality  because  the  racial  distinctions  on  which 
they  are  based  have  been  largely  obliterated.  The  final  supremacy 
of  Italian  language  is  already  in  sight.  From  the  valleys  of 
Piedmont  to  the  eastern  coastlands  which  face  Albania,  the  alien 
tongues  are  giving  way  before  the  national  vernacular,  perhaps 
just  because  no  pressure  or  effort  to  hasten  their  disappearance 
is  being  exerted  by  the  government. 

''^  0.  Marinelli:  II  numero  degli  Albanesi  in  Italia,  Riv.  Geogr.  It.,  Vol.  20,  pp. 
364-367;  A.  Similari:  Gli  Albanesi  in  Italia,  loro  costumi  e  poesie  popolari,  Naples, 




Inhabitants  of  Italy  Speaking  Non-Italian  Vernaculars  * 







Number  of  Families  2 
(Average  of  four  persons 

Localities                                               to  the  family) 

Saluzzo  (Cuneo)    238 

Aosta  (Torino) 15,692 

Pignerol    1,937 

Suse    1,779 

Aosta   (Torino)    430 

Domodossola   (Novara)    250 

VaraUo    412 

Asiago   (Vieenza)    501 

Tregnago    (Verona)    30 

Pieve  di  Cadore  (Belluno)  299 

Tolmezzo  (Udine)    280 

Cividale  del  Friuli  (Udine)    3,769 

Gemona   , 120 

Tolmezzo   990 

Tarcento    1,371 

Larino  (Campobasso)    1,069 

Larino  (Campobasso)   2,431 

Penne  (Teramo)    66 

Ariano  di  Puglia  (Avel.)    763 

San  Severo  (Foggia)   832 

Taranto   (Leece)    757 

Lagonegro  (Potenza)    2,319 

Catanzaro     701 

Cotrone   (Catanzaro)    789 

Nicastro    434 

Castrovillari  (Cosenza)    3,330 

Cosenza    1,441 

Paola   (Cosenza)    408 

Rossano 1,702 

Corleone  (Palermo)  385 

Palermo   2,733 

Leece    4,935 

Gerace  (Reggio  di  Calab.)  129 

Reggio  di  Calabria  1,841 

Alghero    (Sassari)     2,552 

Total 57,715 

*  Annuario  Statistico  Italiano,  2d  series,  Vol.  4,  1914,  Roma,  1915,  p.  28. 

*  The  Italian  practice  of  computing  by  families  is  a  result  in  this  instance  of 
the  official  standpoint  which  recognizes  foreign  languages  as  prevailing  only  in  home 


The  proportion  of  inhabitants  of  Italian  (including  Ladin) 
speech  in  the  Adriatic  lands  claimed  by  Italy  is  given  as  follows 
according  to  the  Austrian  Census  of  1910 :  ^ 


Proportion  of  Inhabitants  of  Italian  (Including  Ladin)  Speech  in  thb 
Adriatic  Lands  Claimed  by  Italy  According  to  the  Austrian  Census  of 

Coast                                               Total  number  of  Number  of  Italian  (and  Ladin) 

Provinces                                          Austrian  subjects  speaking  Austrian  subjects 

Triest    (city)    190,913  118,959 

Gorz        "         29,291  14,812 

Gorz               (district)     73,275  2,765 

Gradisca               "          31,321  26,263 

Monfaleone          "           47,858  45,907 

Sesana                  "           30,078  343 

Tolmein                "          38,070  29 

Rovigno    (city)    11,308  10,859 

Capodistria    (district)    87,652  38,006 

Lussin                   "           20,450  9,884 

Mitterburg           "           48,243  4,032 

Parenzo                "           60,368  41,276 

Pola                     "          85,943  40,863 

Veglia                  "           21,136  1,544 

Volosca                "          51,363  953 

Total  number  of  Number  of  Italian  (and  Ladin) 

Dalmatia                                          Austrian  subjects  speaking  Austrian  subjects 

Benkovac        (district)    44,054  84 

Cattaro                 "          36,014  538 

Curzola                "           29,695  444 

Imotski                "           42,086  46 

Knin                    "          54,936  186 

Lesina                  "          26,902  586 

Makarska             "          27,649  117 

Metkovie              "          15,475  32 

Ragusa                 "           38,632  526 

Sau  Pietro  " 

(Brazza)                       22,865  265 

Sebenico               "           57,658  968 

Sinj                       "           57,021  111 

Spalato                 "           98,509  2,357 

Zara                      "           83,359  11,768 

*  G.   Lukas :    Die  Latinitiit   der   adriatischen  Kiiste   Osterreich-Ungarns — Geogra- 
phische  Vorlesungen,  Pet.  Mitt.,  Vol.  6,  Nov.  1915,  pp.  413-416. 


Scandinavia's  remoteness  from  the  center  of  European 
political  strife  has  not  saved  the  region  from  the  inconveniences 
arising  from  linguistic  clashes.  Especially  is  this  true  where 
political  and  linguistic  boundaries  do  not  coincide.  The  Danish- 
German  frontier  has  been  marked  by  antagonism  between  Danes 
and  Germans.  Denmark's  hold  on  Schleswig-Holstein  prior  to 
1866  had  engendered  bitter  feeling  among  Germans,  who  consid- 
ered the  subjection  of  their  kinsmen  settled  on  the  right  bank  of 
the  Elbe  estuary  as  unnatural.  After  Prussia  had  annexed  the 
contested  region,  it  was  the  Danes'  turn  to  feel  dissatisfied  and 
to  claim  the  districts  occupied  by  their  countrymen. 

The  problem  of  Schleswig-Holstein  is  a  direct  consequence  of 
Germany's  geography.  By  its  position  in  Europe  the  Teutonic 
empire  is  essentially  a  land  power.  Its  maritime  development 
began  in  the  midst  of  adverse  natural  conditions  in  the  northern 
confines  of  the  country.  The  southern  Baltic  and  the  North  Sea 
are  both  shallow.  Sandbanks  and  winter  ice  hamper  navigation 
in  the  easternmost  stretch  of  these  waters.  An  outlet  exists  only 
in  the  round-about  and  rock-studded  Danish  straits.  The  Oder^ 
Elbe  and  Ems  are  constantly  discharging  material  collected  from 
the  mountainous  heart  of  Europe.  The  harbors  of  the  north- 
western shore  are  artificial  and  require  ceaseless  watching,  for 
all  of  which  German  navigation  pays  a  heavy  annual  tax. 

The  Danish  tongue  of  land  which  divides  Germany's  northern 
sea  boundary  into  two  separate  regions  contains  in  its  eastern 
and  northern  coasts  the  very  advantages  which  Germany  cannot 
find  on  its  northern  frontier.  Eastern  Jutland  boasts  a  few 
natural  harbors  located  at  the  head  of  the  indentations  which 
impart  a  fiord-like  aspect  to  this  coast  and  which  in  course  of 



time  liave  grown  into  centers  of  commercial  activity.  German 
shipping  circles  would  consider  the  annexation  of  the  Danish 
peninsula  to  Germany  as  a  measure  leading  to  high  economic 
advantages,  even  though  the  construction  of  the  Kiel  canal  has 
materially  changed  conditions  which  atfected  the  Danish-German 
situation  when  the  duchies  of  Schleswig  and  Holstein  were 
annexed  in  1866. 

The  present  Danish-speaking  population  of  Schleswig-Holstein 
is  variously  estimated  at  between  140,000  and  150,000.  These 
subjects  of  the  Kaiser  occupy  the  territory  south  of  the  Danish 
boundary  to  a  line  formed  by  the  western  section  of  the  Lecker 
Au,  the  southern  border  of  the  swampy  region  extending  south 
of  Reus  and  the  northern  extension  of  the  Angeln  hills.  Between 
this  line  and  the  area  in  which  German  is  spoken  a  zone  of  the 
old  Frisian  tongue  of  Holland  survives  along  the  western  coast 
of  the  peninsula  from  the  Lecker  Au  to  the  Treene  river.^ 
Frisian  is  also  spoken  in  the  coastal  islands. 

The  degree  to  which  linguistic  variations  adapt  themselves  to 
physical  configuration  is  admirably  illustrated  in  this  case,  by 
the  southerly  extension  of  Danish  along  the  eastern  section  of  the 
peninsula  where  persistence  of  the  Baltic  ridge  appears  in  the 
hilly  nature  of  the  land.  The  Low  German  of  the  long  Baltic 
plain  also  continued  to  spread  unimpeded  within  the  low-lying 
western  portion  of  the  narrow  peninsula,  until  its  northward 
extension  was  arrested  by  uninhabited  heath  land.  The  presence 
of  Frisian  along  the  western  coast  is  undoubtedly  connected  with 
the  adaptability  of  Frisians  to  settle  in  land  areas  reclaimed  from 
the  sea. 

The  province  of  Schleswig  began  to  acquire  historical  promi- 
nence as  an  independent  duchy  in  the  twelfth  century.  Barring 
few  interruptions  its  union  with  the  Danish  crown  has  been  con- 
tinuous to  the  time  of  the  Prussian  conquest.  In  1848  both 
Schleswig  and  Holstein  were  disturbed  by  a  wave  of  political 
agitation  which  expressed  itself  in  demands  for  the  joint  incorpo- 

*  A  substantial  account  of  the  tribes  speaking  these  three  languages  was  given  as 
early  as  731  by  the  Venerable  Bede  in  his  Historia  Ecclesiastica. 


ration  of  both  states  in  the  German  Confederation.  To  what 
extent  the  mass  of  Danish  inhabitants  of  the  duchies  took  part  in 
this  movement  is  a  matter  of  controversy.  Holstein  was  an 
ancient  fief  of  the  old  Germano-Roman  Empire.  Its  population 
has  always  been  largely  German.  But  the  duchy  of  Schleswig  is 
peopled  mainly  by  Danes.  By  the  terms  of  the  treaty  of  Prague 
of  August  23,  1866,  both  Austria  and  Prussia  had  agreed  to 
submit  final  decision  on  the  question  of  nationality  to  popular 
vote.^  The  provisions  of  the  clause  dealing  with  the  referendum, 
however,  were  not  carried  out,  and  on  Jan.  12,  1867,  Schleswig 
was  definitely  annexed  by  Prussia.^ 

Incorporation  of  the  Danish  provinces  w^as  followed  by  sys- 
tematic attempts  to  Germanize  the  population  *  through  the 
agency  of  churches  and  schools.  In  addition  a  number  of  coloni- 
zation societies  such  as  the  "Ansiedelungs  Verein  fur  westliche 
Nordschleswig, "  founded  at  Podding  in  1891,^  and  the  ''Deutsche 
Verein  fiir  das  nordliche  Schleswig"  were  formed  to  introduce 
German  ownership  of  land  in  the  Danish  districts.  The  final 
years  of  the  nineteenth  century  in  particular  constituted  a  period 
of  strained  feeling  between  Danes  and  Germans  owing  to  unset- 
tled conditions  brought  about  by  duality  of  language  and 

At  present  the  problem  of  Schlesw^ig  is  considered  settled  by 
the  German  government,  A  treaty  signed  on  January  11,  1907, 
between  the  cabinets  of  Berlin  and  Copenhagen  defined  the  status 
of  the  inhabitants  of  the  annexed  duchy.  The  problem  of  the 
"Heimatlose"  or  citizens  without  a  country^  was  solved  by  the 

^  [Translation.]  "  Art.  V.  His  Majesty  the  Emperor  of  Austria  transfers  to  His 
Majesty  the  King  of  Prussia  all  the  rights  which  he  acquired  by  the  Vienna  Treaty 
of  Peace  of  30th  October,  1864,  over  the  Duchies  of  Holstein  and  Schleswig,  with  the 
condition  that  the  populations  of  the  Northern  Districts  of  Schleswig  shall  be  ceded 
to  Denmark  if,  by  a  free  vote,  they  express  a  wish  to  be  united  to  Denmark."  E. 
Herstlet:   The  Map  of  Europe,  by  Treaty,  London,  1875,  Vol.  3,  p.  1722. 

'A  later  treaty  signed  by  Austria  and  Prussia  at  Vienna  on  Oct.  11,  1878, 
suppressed  the  referendum  clause,  Avhich  had  never  been  viewed  with  favor  by  the 
German  government. 

*  M.  R.  Waultrin :  Le  rapprochement  dano-allemand  et  la  question  du  Schleswig, 
Ann.  Sci.  Polit.,  May  15,  and  July  15,  1903. 

"  L.  Gasselin:   La  question  du  Schleswig-Holstein,  Paris,   1909. 

*  L.  Gasselin:  op.  cit.,  p.  206. 



recognition  of  the  right  of  choice  of  nationality  on  their  part. 
The  German  government  considered  this  measure  as  satisfying 
the  aspirations  of  its  subjects  of  Danish  birth.  Nevertheless, 
although  the  Danish  government  appeared  to  share  these  views, 
the  acquiescence  of  Danes  living  in  Germany  to  any  solution  other 

Fig.  34 — Sketch  map  of  Schlesvvig-Holstein  showing  languages  spoken.  According 
to  the  German  viewpoint.  Scale,  1:1,200,000.  (Based  on  maps  on  pp.  59,  60,  Andree's 
Eandatlas,  6th  ed.) 

than  the  restoration  to  Denmark  of  the  Danish-speaking  sections 
of  Schleswig  remains  doubtful.  That  suspicion  of  the  loyalty  of 
the  Schleswig  Danes  is  still  entertained  in  Germany  is  shown 
by  statements  like  that  made  by  Henry  Goddard  Leach,  Secretary 



of  the  American-Scandinavian  Foundation,  when  he  asserted' 
that  Eoald  Amundsen,  discoverer  of  the  South  Pole,  was  pre- 
vented from  lecturing  in  Norwegian,  in  the  town  of  Flensborg, 
because  the  language  resembled  Danish. 


Fig.  35 — Sketch  map  of  Schleswig-Holstein  showing  languages  spoken.  According 
to  the  Danish  viewpoint.  Scale,  1:1,200,000.  (After  Rosendal  based  on  Clausens 
and  Heyers.) 

In  Norway  the  linguistic  problem  goes  under  the  name  of 
Maalstraev.  The  question  of  language  in  that  country  was 
debated  with  marked  fervor  ®  during  the  years  prior  to  the  sepa- 
ration  from   Sweden.     "Freedom   with   self-government,   home. 

^  Scandinavia  and  the  Scandinavians,  New  York,  1915,  p.  30. 
"  Op.  cit.,  p.  143. 


land  and  our  own  language"  was  the  jjlea  of  Mr.  Jorgen  Lovland, 
subsequently  Premier  of  Norway,  in  an  address  to  the  Norwegian 
youth  in  1904.  "Political  freedom,"  then  said  Mr.  Lovland,  "is 
not  the  deepest  and  greatest.  Greater  is  it  for  a  nation  to  pre- 
serve her  intellectual  inheritance  in  her  native  tongue." 

Norwegian  history  is  not  continuous,  complaisant  historians  to 
the  contrary.  A  long  break  occurs  from  the  Union  of  Kalmar  in 
1397,  when  the  country  ceased  to  exist  as  a  political  entity,  to 
1814.  During  this  period  of  extinction,  Norway  was  a  mere 
geographical  shuttlecock  tossed  between  Sweden  and  Denmark. 
The  latter  country  as  a  rule  obtained  the  upper  hand  in  its  deal- 
ings with  Norway.  This  relation  accounts  for  the  analogies  in 
the  languages  of  the  two  nations.  But  although  Norway  had 
seceded  from  Denmark  in  1814,  the  Danish  language,  representing 
the  speech  of  the  more  energetic  and  better  educated  Danes, 
remained  ofdcial.  Four  and  a  half  centuries  of  union  between  the 
two  countries  had  made  Danish  the  medium  of  intellectual  devel- 
oijment  throughout  Norway.  But  this  linguistic  invasion  was 
accompanied  by  a  notable  modification  of  Danish.  Norwegian 
intonations  and  sound  articulations  became  adapted  to  it  and  the 
Norwego-Danish  language,  which  is  spoken  today,  gradually  came 
into  use. 

This  hybrid  language,  however,  does  not  prevail  exclusively. 
About  95  per  cent  of  the  Norwegians  speak,  according  to  districts, 
different  dialects  derived  from  the  Old  Norse.  The  NorAvego- 
Danish,  or  Kiksmaal,  is  the  language  of  polite  society  and  the  one 
which  a  foreigner  naturally  learns  when  in  Norway.  The  lan- 
guage of  the  land,  or  Norsk  as  it  is  called  by  the  Norwegians, 
has  the  merit  of  being  more  homogeneous  than  either  Danish  or 

Nationality  and  language  have  grown  apace  in  Norway.  Prior 
to  the  nineteenth  century  the  use  of  words  taken  from  the  Nor- 
wegian dialects  was  considered  bad  form.  The  granting  of  a 
constitution  to  the  Norwegians,  in  1814,  created  a  strong  feeling 
of  nationality  throughout  the  land.  This  spirit  was  reflected  in 
active  research  for  evcrv  form  of  Old  Norse  culture.     Hitherto 


despised  patois  words  were  forced  into  prose  or  poetry  by  tlie 
foremost  Norwegian  writers,  a  movement  to  Norsefy  the  Riks- 
maal  thus  being  originated. 

As  a  result  of  these  endeavors  a  new  language,  the  "Lands- 
maal,"  or  fatherland  speech,  came  into  being  about  the  middle 
of  the  nineteenth  century.  The  name  of  Ivar  Aasen  will  always 
be  linked  with  it.  This  highly  gifted  peasant  devoted  his  life  to 
the  idea  of  a  renaissance  of  the  Old  Norse  language  through  the 
unification  of  the  current  peasant  dialects.  Scientific  societies, 
urged  by  patriotism  no  less  than  by  genuine  scholarly  interest, 
granted  him  subsidies  which  enabled  him  to  carry  on  his  studies. 
Two  of  his  works — "The  Grammar  of  the  Norwegian  Popular 
Language,"  published  in  1848,  and  a  "Dictionary  of  the  Nor- 
wegian Popular  Language,"  in  1850 — virtually  established  a  new 
medium  of  speech  in  Norway. 

Landsmaal  was  happily  introduced  just  about  the  time  when 
a  sense  of  national  consciousness  began  to  dawn  on  Norwegian 
minds.  By  a  number  of  enactments  of  the  Storting  the  study  of 
the  new  national  tongue  was  made  compulsory.  This  body  first 
acted  in  May  1885  by  requesting  the  Government  "to  adopt  the 
necessary  measures  so  that  the  people's  language,  as  school  and 
official  language,  be  placed  side  by  side  with  our  ordinary  written 
speech."  Then,  in  1892,  the  follow^ing  law  for  elementary  schools 
w^as  framed:  "The  school  board  (in  each  district)  shall  decide 
whether  the  school  readers  and  text-books  shall  be  composed  in 
Landsmaal  or  the  ordinary  book-'maal'  and  in  which  of  these 
languages  the  pupil's  written  exercises  shall  in  general  be  com- 
posed. But  the  pupil  must  learn  to  read  both  languages." 
Finally,  in  1896,  the  study  of  Landsmaal  was  made  obligatory  in 
the  high  schools. 

After  Norway  secured  complete  national  independence,  in 
1905,  the  Landsmaal  advanced  rapidly.  Its  use  was  permitted  in 
university  examinations.  By  1909  one  hundred  and  twenty-five 
out  of  six  hundred  and  fifty  school  districts  had  adopted  "New 
Norse"   as   the   medium   ©f  instruction.^"     In   the   bishopric   of 

•  Op.  cit.,  p.  147.  »"  Op.  cit.,  p.  148. 


Bergen  the  new  language  came  to  stay  in  56  out  of  101  country- 
parishes.  The  issue  between  Landsmaal  and  Riksmaal  being 
closely  linked  with  nationalism  in  Norway,  many  Norwegians  have 
now  come  to  look  upon  the  Danish  tongue  as  a  sign  of  former 
vassalage.  New  Norse,  on  the  other  hand,  embodies  the  newly 
acquired  national  independence.  In  the  eyes  of  patriots  it  is  the 
language  which  is  most  closely  allied  to  the  saga  tongue  of  their 
Viking  ancestors.  And  yet  it  is  stated  that  less  than  a  thousand 
persons  in  Norway  actually  use  New  Norse  in  their  conversa- 
tion." The  supplanting  of  Norwego-Danish  by  the  made-to-order 
Landsmaal  bids  fair  to  take  time.  But  the  process  of  welding 
Norwegian  dialects  into  a  single  national  language  is  going  on. 
In  this  must  be  sought  the  signiJScance  of  Norway's  language 
agitation.  A  Norwegian  tongue  which  will  be  spoken  within  Nor- 
wegian boundaries  is  being  formed.  In  recent  years  it  has  been 
customary  to  publish  all  'acts  of  Parliament  both  in  Norwego- 
Danish  and  in  Landsmaal. 

The  Swedish  language  differs  from  Norwegian  by  a  typical 
accentuation.  The  growth  of  the  language  to  its  present  form 
may  be  traced  back  to  the  Runic  period  of  the  thirteenth  century. 
At  that  time  Swedish  was  free  from  foreign  admixture.  The 
influence  of  Latin  and  of  Middle  and  Low  German  was  felt  later. 
The  language  passed  successively  through  the  period  of  Old 
Swedish  (1200-1500)  and  Early  Modern  Swedish  (1500-1730). 
Its  present  form  belongs  to  the  Later  Modern  School,  although 
it  is  spoken  now  without  much  change  from  the  language  of  the 
middle  eighteenth  century. 

The  eastern  half  of  the  European  continent  contains  a  zone 
of  excessive  linguistic  intermingling  along  the  line  where  Teutonic 
and  Slavic  peoples  meet.  From  the  shores  of  the  White  Sea  to 
the  Baltic  and  thence  to  the  coast  of  the  Black  Sea  an  elongated 
belt  of  lowland  was  ill  fitted  to  become  the  seat  of  a  single  state 
because  nature  has  not  provided  it  with  strongly  marked  geo- 
graphical boundaries  which  might  have  favored  the  development 
of  nationality.    Hence  it  is  that  before  the  eighteenth  century  we 

"  Op.  cit.,  p.  150. 


do  not  find  a  single  nation  in  possession  of  this  region.  On  the 
other  hand,  it  is  the  site  on  which  three  religions  met  in  bloody 
fray  in  modern  times.  At  the  beginning  of  the  modern  era  its 
northern  sections  became  the  theater  of  wars  between  Protestants 
and  Catholics,  while  to  the  south,  Christians  arrayed  against 
eastern  infidels  were  obliged  to  war  for  centuries  before  the 
danger  of  the  invasion  of  central  Europe  by  Mohammedan  hordes 
was  totally  removed. 

The  Finns,  occupying  the  northernmost  section  of  this  elon- 
gated belt,  are  linguistically  allied  to  the  Turki.  Physically  they 
constitute  the  proto-Teutonic  substratum  of  the  northern  Russians 
with  whom  they  have  been  merged.  Their  land  was  transferred 
from  Sweden  to  Russia  in  1808.  Autonomy  conceded  by  the 
Czar's  government  provided  the  inhabitants  with  a  tolerable 
political  status,  until  it  was  rescinded  by  the  imperial  decree  of 
February  15,  1899.  The  opening  years  of  the  present  century 
marked  the  beginning  of  a  policy  of  Slavicization  prosecuted  with 
extreme  vigor  on  the  part  of  the  provincial  administrators. 

The  Finnish  peoples  of  Russia  must  be  regarded  as  autochthons 
who  have  been  subjected  to  the  inroads  of  both  Slavic  and  Tatar 
invasions.  In  the  ninth  century  a.d.  they  formed  compact  popu- 
lations on  the  European  mainland  directly  south  of  Finland, 
where  their  descendants  now  group  themselves  in  scattered 
colonies.  Except  in  Finland  they  are  being  Slavicized  at  a  rapid 
rate  and  the  Slav  population  is  now  imposing  itself  on  the  Tatar 
which  had  once  swamped  the  indigenous  element. 

Early  mention  of  these  Finns  shows  them  divided  into  several 
tribes.  The  Livs  and  Chuds,  who  dwelt  mainly  around  the  gulfs 
of  Livonia  and  of  Finland,  were  the  forefathers  of  the  present 
inhabitants  of  northern  Livonia  as  well  as  of  Esthonia."  The 
Ingrians  and  the  Vods  inhabited  the  basin  of  the  Neva.  The 
Suomi  tribes,  of  which  the  Kvens,  Karels,  Yams  and  Tavasts  were 
the  most  important,  occupied  the  Finnish  territory  held  at  present 
by  their  descendants.  Every  river  valley  of  northwestern  Russia 
was  in  fact  a  tribal  homeland.     The  term  Finnish  as  applied  to 

A.  Eambaud:  Histoire  de  la  Riissie,  Paris,  1914,  p.  21, 


these  tribes  refers  to  their  culture,  which  was  Asiatic  throughout. 
Racially,  however,  they  consist  of  Nordics  with  a  strong  addition 
of  Tatar  blood. 

The  area  of  Finnish  speech  forms  a  compact  mass  extending 
south  of  the  C9th  parallel  to  the  Baltic  shores.  Its  complete  access 
to  the  sea  is  barred  in  part  by  two  coastal  strips  in  the  gulfs  of 
Bothnia  and  Finland  in  both  of  which  Swedish  predominates  in 
varying  percentages.^^  The  group  of  the  Aland  Islands,  although 
included  in  the  Czar's  dominions,  is  also  peopled  by  Swedes  all 
the  way  to  the  southwestern  point  of  Finland.^'  This  broken 
fringe  of  Swedish  is  conceded  to  be  a  relic  of  the  early  occupation 
of  Finland  by  Swedes."  One  of  its  strips,  the  Bothnian,  is 
remarkably  pure  in  composition.  The  band  extending  on  the 
northern  shore  of  the  Gulf  of  Finland,  however,  contains  enclaves 
of  the  Finnish  element.  This  is  ascribed  to  an  artificial  process 
of  ^'fennification"  resulting  from  the  introduction  of  cheap  labor 
in  the  industrial  regions  of  southern  Finland.  Slower  economic 
development  of  the  provinces  of  the  western  coast,  on  the  other 
hand,  tends  to  maintain  undisturbed  segregation  of  the  population. 

The  ties  uniting  Finland  with  Sweden  are  moral  and  cultural. 
Swedish  missionaries  of  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries  were 
the  agents  through  w^hom  Christianity  was  introduced  into  Fin- 
land. Together  with  religion  many  Swedish  customs  and  laws 
superseded  the  primitive  social  organization  of  the  Finns.  The 
relation  established  was  virtually  that  of  an  intellectual  minority 

•      •  •      *  • 

gammg  the  upper  hand  over  an  ignorant  majority.  A  change  m 
the  situation  came  about  in  the  middle  of  the  fourteenth  century 
when  Finland  became  an  integral  part  of  the  Swedish  kingdom 
and  all  civil  and  political  distinctions  between  the  two  elements 
of  its  populations  were  abolished. 

Finland's  union  with  the  west  failed,  however,  to  bring  about 
Swedish  predominance  in  the  land.     The  Finns  preserved  their 

"Atlas  de  Finlande,  Carte  46,  Helsingfors,  1911. 

'*  K.  B.  Wiklund:  Spiilken  i  Finland,  1880-1900,  Ymcr,  1905,  No.  2,  pp.  132-149. 
"R.    Saxen:     Repartition    des    langues,    Fennia,    Vol.     30,    No.     2,     1910-1911, 
Helsingfors,  1911. 

Fig.  36. 

Fig.  37. 

Fig.  30 — View  of  the  Lake  country  near  Kuopi,  showing  the  Kallavesi  Sea  with 
low  islands  and  level  sliores.     This  is  a  ciiaracteristic  Finnish  landscape. 

Fig,  37 — Above  the'  Koivukoski  Falls  at  Kajana.  Finnish  waterways  are  the 
usual  lanes  of  traffic  between  the  inland  seas  of  that  country. 


language  and  tended  in  fact  to  assimilate  their  conquerors.  The 
physical  isolation  of  their  country  from  Sweden  contributed 
largely  to  foster  this  incipient  stage  of  Finnish  nationality.  The 
Gulf  of  Bothnia  and  the  frozen  solitudes  of  Lapland  proved  an 
effective  barrier  to  the  complete  fusion  of  Swedes  and  Finns. 
Eastward,  however,  no  natural  obstacles  intervened  between  Fin- 
land and  Eussia.  The  prolonged  struggle  between  the  latter 
country  and  Sweden  hence  inevitably  led  to  the  Russian  conquest 
of  Finland. 

The  peace  of  Nystad  in  1721  enabled  Russia  to  occupy  Finnish 
territory  for  the  first  time.  All  of  the  southeastern  portion  of  the 
duchy  then  became  part  of  the  Muscovite  empire.  A  further 
cession  in  1743  at  the  treaty  of  Abo  brought  Swedish  frontiers  as 
far  west  as  the  Kymmens  line.  The  final  conquest  was  ratified  by 
the  treaty  of  peace  signed  by  Swedish  and  Russian  plenipoten- 
tiaries on  September  17,  1809.  Sweden  formally  renounced  its 
rights  over  Finland  and  the  duchy  became  part  of  Russia. 

Today  Finland  is  a  country  with  three  languages.  Russian  is 
the  channel  of  official  activity.  Finnish,  through  a  literary 
revival,  has  won  its  right  to  be  the  language  of  the  land  and  this 
is  a  symbol  of  the  Finns'  desire  for  independent  national  exist- 
ence. Swedish  remains  as  the  age-old  medium  through  which 
Christianity  and  western  culture  were  conveyed.  It  is  also  to  a 
large  extent  the  business  language  of  the  province,  especially  for 
communication  with  western  Europe.  Competition  between  the 
three  languages  is  carried  on  with  unabating  energy.  The 
struggle  is  an  outward  manifestation  of  the  fight  for  independence 
waged  by  the  natives  of  Finland  in  the  presence  of  Swedish  and 
Russian  efforts  to  dominate  the  country.  The  common  danger 
from  Russia  has  lately  drawn  the  Swedish  and  Finnish  groups 
together,  although  the  Finns  were'  previously  strongly  anti- 
Swedish.  The  old  antagonism  still  lingers  in  society  life.  The 
Swedish-speaking  element  rarely  mixes  with  the  Finnish-speaking. 
This  is  particularly  noticeable  at  Helsingfors,  where  each  lan- 
guage represents  a  distinct  stratum  of  social  life. 

In  Russia's  Baltic  provinces  two  of  the  world's  oldest  yet 


absolutely  distinct  languages  are  spoken.  South  of  the  Gulf  of 
Finland  the  Esthonians  or  Chuds  still  retain  a  primitive  form  of 
Mongolian.  In  the  neighboring  Letto-Lithuanian  group,  on  the 
other  hand,  a  speech  which  is  closely  akin  to  the  old  Aryan  is 
employed.  Almost  any  Lithuanian  peasant  can  understand  simple 
phrases  in  Sanskrit.  The  survival  of  archaic  languages  in  this 
section  of  Europe  is  the  result  of  isolation  provided  by  a  forested 
and  marshy  country  in  which  folk-characteristics  maintained  their 
ancient  forms.  From  the  racial  standpoint  Esthonians,  Letts  and 
Lithuanians  are  fair,  generally  tall,  narrow-faced  and  long- 
headed. In  the  Fellin  district,  in  southern  Estland,  a  very  pure 
Nordic  type  is  found  among  peoples  of  Esthonian  speech. 

Early  Russian  chronicles  describe  the  Letts  and  Lithuanians 
as  divided  into  several  tribes."  The  Yatvags  were  scattered  along 
the  banks  of  the  Narev.  The  Lithuanians  proper  together  with 
the  Shmuds  peopled  the  Niemen  valley.  Very  little  dialectical 
differences  exist  between  the  two.  The  Shmuds  cluster  now  in 
northwestern  Kovno  without,  however,  attaining  the  Baltic  shore. 
The  left  bank  of  the  Drina  was  occupied  by  the  Semigals,  while 
on  the  right  dwelt  the  Letgols  who  were  the  ancestors  in  direct 
line  of  the  Letts  of  southern  Livonia.  The  Kors,  who  lived  on 
the  western  shores  of  the  Gulf  of  Riga,  were  later  to  impose  their 
name  on  the  province  of  Kurland." 

Two  of  these  tribes,  the  Shmuds  and  the  Lithuanians,  escaped 
the  Teutonic  conquest  through  the  inaccessibility  of  their  forested 
and  marshy  retreat.  Around  them  the  Kors  and  the  Letts,  as 
well  as  the  primitive  Slav  occupants  of  Prussia,  had  been  subju- 
gated by  the  Knights  of  the  Teutonic  Order.  The  only  salvation 
for  these  tribes  from  Teutonic  oppression  consisted  in  their  seek- 
ing the  natural  shelter  occupied  by  the  two  more  fortunate  groups 
of  their  kinsmen.  Behind  this  natural  barrier  Lithuanian  nation- 
ality was  bom  in  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth  century  under  the 
leadership  of  Mindvog,  an  energetic  chieftain  who  insured  his 

*•  A.  Rambaud:  Histoire  de  la  Russie  depuis  les  origines  jusqu'fl  nos  jourg, 
Paris,  1914,  p.  21. 

' '  Rambaud :  op.  cit. 


o^vn  supremacy  by  causing  the  leaders  of  rival  clans  to  be  put  to 
death.  With  the  help  of  the  Poles  the  Lithuanians  eventually 
checked  the  easterly  expansion  of  the  Teutons. 

The  region  occupied  by  Lithuanians  in  former  times  can  be 
traced  today  by  the  distribution  of  the  type  of  dwelling  peculiar  to 
this  people.  The  ancient  area  exceeds  the  borders  of  the  present 
linguistic  zone.  The  earliest  examples  of  Lithuanian  houses  consist 
of  a  single  room.  The  indoor  life  of  a  single  family  was  spent 
within  this  one  apartment.  This  primitive  habitation  grew  into 
the  modern  style  by  the  successive  addition  of  rooms.  In  course 
of  time  a  kitchen  or  a  stable  was  added  to  the  main  building. 
Sometimes  the  old  type  of  house  stands  to  this  day  adjoining 
more  modern  buildings.    In  such  cases  it  is  used  as  a  barn. 

The  old  Aryan  of  the  Lithuanians  is  in  vogue  principally  along 
the  Duna  and  Niemen  rivers  as  well  as  around  Vilna,  where  this 
people  are  settled  in  compact  masses.  In  spite  of  the  antiquity  of 
their  language,  no  texts  prior  to  the  sixteenth  century  are  kno^\Ti. 
Emigration  in  the  past  decade  to  large  Russian  cities,  and  to 
America,  has  decreased  their  ranks  appreciably.  Their  number 
is  now  estimated  at  3,500,000.^^  In  his  native  land,  the  Lithuanian 
is  not  on  the  best  of  terms  with  neighboring  peoples.  He  looks 
upon  the  Russian  as  his  political  oppressor  and  upon  the  Pole  as 
his  hereditary  foe.  The  Lett  is  regarded  with  somewhat  less 
animosity  as  a  rival.  The  Letts  spread  inland  from  the  shores  of 
the  Gulf  of  Riga  and  number  about  1,300,000.  Owing  to  Polish 
influences,  many  Lithuanians  are  Catholics,  but,  in  the  main,  both 
Letts  and  Lithuanians  are  stanch  Lutherans.^®  Their  land  is  the 
home  of  religious  free  thought  within  orthodox  Russia.  German 
influence  prevails  among  them  on  this  account,  although  it  is 
doubtful  whether  it  extends  to  the  point  of  their  preferring  Ger- 
man to  Russian  rule.  Evil  memories  of  the  attempts  of  the 
Teutonic  Knights  to  conquer  the  immemorial  seat  of  the  Lettish 
and  Lithuanian  populations  survive  throughout  their  forests  and 
marshes.     Neither  people  has  forgotten  that  its  ancestors  were 

"  The  Russian  census  of  1897  showed  3,094,469. 
"  About  50,000  Letts  belong  to  the  Greek  Church. 


refugees  who  sought  iJio  shelter  of  their  boglands  as  a  hist 
recourse  from  Teutonic  aggression^ 

Prior  to  1870,  the  Baltic  provinces  were  ruled  by  a  semi- 
autonomous  administration  headed  by  a  governor-general  whose 
role  Avas  more  properly  that  of  a  viceroy.  German  was  as  much 
an  ofHcial  language  as  Russian  and  no  restrictions  prevented  its 
use  in  courts.  German  schools  and  a  German  university  were 
widely  attended.  Since  that  date,  however,  the  Letto-Lithuanian 
populations  have  been  deprived  of  the  liberal  regime  they  for- 
merly enjoyed  and  an  otlficial  "Russification"  has  been  directed 
against  them.  Most  of  the  Lutheran  schools  were  closed  by  order 
of  the  government  and  the  teaching  of  German  in  schools 
restricted  or  prohibited.  But  to  this  day  tlie  three  Baltic  prov- 
inces of  Kurland,  Livland  and  Estland  are  considered  by  German 
writers  as  a  domain  of  German  culture  and  Protestant  faith  con- 
trolled by  Russian  political  and  ecclesiastical  power. 

In  the  province  of  Kurland  the  Germans  boast  51,000 
resident  kinsmen.  As  a  rule  this  section  of  the  population  is 
confined  to  the  cities.  Piga,  Reval,  Libau,  Dorpat  and  Mitau 
contain  notable  percentages  of  Germans  among  their  citizens.  The 
first-named  city  counts  65,332  of  these  westerners  in  its  popula- 
tion, or  over  25  i)er  cent  of  the  total. -'^ 

The  Letts  have  settled  mainly  in  the  Kurland  peninsula  and 
southern  Livonia.  They  are  also  found  in  the  governments  of 
Kovno,  Petrograd  and  Mohilev.  Lithuanians  occupy  the  govern- 
ments of  Kovno,  Vilna,  Suvalki  and  Grodno.  No  definite  bound- 
aries between  the  two  peoples  can  be  determined  because  their 
intercourse  is  constant.  The  only  difference  between  the  two 
languages  is  found  in  the  greater  departure  of  Lettic  from  the 
old  Vedic  forms. 

North  of  the  Letto-Lithuanian  group  the  Esthonians,  who  are 
Finns  and  speak  a  Finnish  language,  occupy  a  lake-covered  area 
similar  to  Finland.  In  both  a  granite  tableland  is  the  scene  of 
human   activity.     In   spite    of   the   drawbacks   of   their   natural 

••  H.  Rosen:  Die  ethnographische  Verliftltnisse  in  den  baltischen  Provinzen  und  in 
Litaucn,  Pet.  Milt.,  Sept.   1915,  pp.  329-333. 


environment  the  Estlionians  deiaend  cliiefly  on  agriculture  for 
sustenance.  Tliis  industry  has  attained  a  higli  stage  of  perfection 
in  their  hands  and  few  peoples  know  how  to  make  their  soil  yield 
a  higher  return  than  do  these  virile  northerners. 

The  number  of  Esthonians  is  estimated  at  about  one  million,-^ 
distributed  as  follows:  Esthonia,  365,959;  Livonia,  518,594;  Gov- 
ernment of  St.  Petersburg,  64,116;  Government  of  Pskov,  25j458; 
other  parts  of  Russia  12,855.  Large  colonies  of  Russians,  Ger- 
mans and  Swedes  are  settled  in  the  Esthonian  province.  The 
census  of  1897  showed  Russians,  18,000;  Germans,  16,000; 
Swedes,  5,800. 

The  number  of  Jews  settled  in  the  province  is  not  high.  The 
German  and  Russian  elements  compose  the  nobility.  The  former 
owned  and  farmed  52  per  cent  of  the  land  in  1878.  Since  that 
time,  however,  facilities  have  been  accorded  to  the  peasants  of 
the  province,  mostly  Esthonians,  to  purchase  farms  and  the  pro- 
portion of  native  land  holdings  is  gradually  increasing. 

Confusion  of  racial  minglings  complicates  the  problem  of 
assigning  fixed  ethnic  place  to  the  Esthonians.  That  they  belong 
to  the  Finnish  family  is  unquestionable.  Linguistically  they 
belong  to  the  Turkish-speaking  peoples.  Long-headedness  pre- 
vails among  them."  These  are  also  the  characteristics  of  the 
Livs  or  Livonians,  a  Finnish  tribe  formerly  living  in  Esthonia 
and  north  Livonia,  now  nearly  extinct,  but  still  holding  a  narrow 
strip  of  forest  land  along  the  Baltic  at  the  northern  extremity  of 
Kurland.  These  Livs  are  now  classed  with  the  Baltic  Finns  and 
probably  number  less  than  2,000  individuals.  Their  language  has 
been  almost  entirely  replaced  by  a  Lettish  dialect. 

The  beginning  of  their  history  finds  the  Estlionians  pirates  of 
the  Baltic.  Danish  kings  found  it  hard  to  subdue  them  and  after 
two  centuries  of  struggle  sold  the  Danish  crown's  rights  to  the 
Knights  of  the  Sword  in  1346.  From  this  time  on  German 
influence  was  to  become  paramount  in  the  province.  The  condition 
of  Esthonians  in  relation  to  their  Teutonic  masters  was  that  of 

"  Russian  census  of  1897. 

"  W.  Z.  Ripley:  The  Races  of  Europe,  New  York,  1899. 


serfs.  By  the  terms  of  the  treaty  of  Nystad  in  1721  Esthonia 
was  ceded  to  Peter  the  Great  by  the  Swedes,  who  then  exercised 
control  of  the  land.  Since  then  it  has  remained  a  Russian  prov- 
ince. Lutheranism,  the  religion  of  its  people,  however,  has  been 
the  foundation  of  much  sympathy  for  German  institutions 
throughout  the  province.  To  combat  this  feeling,  as  well  as  to 
eradicate  national  aspirations,  Russian  authorities  have  resorted 
to  those'  harsh  and  repressive  measures  which  both  church 
and  government  have  often  enforced  throughout  the  Czar's 

The  Esthonians  are  noted  for  their  practical  turn  of  mind.  A 
favorite  pastime  among  them  consists  of  conversing  in  verse. 
They  cling  tenaciously  to  their  language,  the  study  of  which  is 
actively  maintained  throughout  the  land.  Two  main  dialects  are 
in  use.  A  northern  form,  known  as  the  Reval  Esthonian,  is  recog- 
nized as  the  literary  language.  Writers  have  succeeded  in  main- 
taining its  perfection  and  beauty.  Through  their  efforts  literature 
that  instills  vigor  into  the  national  consciousness  has  sprung  into 
being  around  the  legends  and  folk-tales  of  the  region. 

With  the  exception  of  the  Finns  all  the  peoples  of  north- 
western Russia  are  being  gradually  absorbed  by  the  Slavic  mass. 
The  Slav's  ability  to  fuse  with  alien  peoples  is  a  conspicuous 
historical  fact.  In  the  Baltic  provinces  he  seldom  holds  aloof  as 
does  his  German  rival.  A  growing  spirit  of  liberalism  in  Russia, 
and  the  gradual  loss  of  influence  of  the  German  nobility,  ever 
ready  to  stir  the  opposition  of  Baltic  peoples  against  Russian 
institutions,  are  two  factors  which  have  promoted  the  consolida- 
tion of  Russian  power  in  its  northwesternmost  territory.  The 
Slav's  achievement  in  Baltic  regions,  during  the  past  three  cen- 
turies, has  consisted  in  steadily  replacing  the  Teutonic  stratum 
by  a  layer  of  his  own  kinsmen.  Swedes  and  Germans  have  either 
fallen  back  or  become  lost  in  the  midst  of  Slavic  populations.  The 
movement  can  hardly  be  called  a  migration,  but  it  is  a  westerly 
expansion  of  most  persistent  and  irresistible  character  although 
never  aggressively  manifested.  As  a  consequence  Russia's  north- 
western boundary  with  a  reconstituted  Poland  may  be  foreseen. 




Population  by  Governments  in  Finland  According  to  Language,  1910  ' 


Nylands    212,315 

Abo  o.  Bjorneborgs   . . .  413,360 

Tavastehus    330,190 

Viborgs    479,120 

St.  Michels   191,137 

Kuopio    324,553 

Vasa    327,828 

Uleaborgs    292,642 



Per  A-T 




































746.4        111,094 








LAND  : 

Population  A 



























867.5        2 
















































Finland  :  Distribution  of  Population  by  Language  and  by  Religion,  December 

31,  1910 ' 












.     2,531,014 







. .        335,496 




















Lapps    . 







Others    . 








.     2,870,179 



*  Statisko  Arsbok  for  Finland  1914,  Helsingfors,  1915,  pp.  45-46. 

'  Bidrag  till  Finlands  Officiella  Statistik,  VI,  Befolkningsstatistik,  45,  Finlands 
Folkmangd  den  31  December,  1910  (enligt  Forsamlingarnas  Kyrkobocker ) ,  Helsingfors, 
1915,  p.  127. 



Finland:  Relative  Distribution  Br  Languages  of  the  Urban  and  Rural 
Population  of  the  Governments  of  Nyland,  Abo  and  Bjorneborg,  and  op 
Vasa,  in  Percentages  ' 






































Abo  and  Bjorneborg 


























































*  Bidrag  till  Finlands  OfSciella  Statistik,  VI,  Befolkningsstatistik,  45,  Finlands 
Folkmangd  den  31  December,  1910  (enligt  Forsamlingarnas  Krykobocker),  Helsingfors, 
1915,  pp.  124-125. 


South  of  the  Baltic  shores  the  unbroken  expanse  now  peopled 
by  Germans  merges  insensibly  into  the  western  part  of  the  great 
Russian  plain.  This  extensive  lowland  is  featureless  and  provides 
no  natural  barriers  between  the  two  empires  it  connects.  The 
area  of  Polish  speech  alone  intervenes  as  a  buffer  product  of  the 
basin  of  the  middle  Vistula.  The  region  is  a  silt-covered  lowland, 
the  bed  of  a  former  glacial  lake.  It  has  been  peopled  by  Slavs 
for  over  a  thousand  years.  Upon  its  open  stretches  there  was  no 
lack  of  food  and  no  reason  therefore  for  migration.  The  develop- 
ment of  Poland  rests  primarily  on  this  physical  foundation. 
Added  advantages  of  good  land  and  water  communication  with  the 
rest  of  the  continent  contributed  powerfully  to  the  spread  of 
Polish  power,  which  at  one  time  extended  from  Baltic  shores  to 
the  Black  sea. 

In  the  ninth  century  the  Slavic  tribes  of  the  Polish  and  western 
Russian  regions  differed  but  slightly  in  language  and  customs. 
Dialects  spoken  in  the  upper  Vistula  basin  and  in  the  upper 
Dnieper  valley  presented  a  degree  of  affinity  which  has  disap- 
peared from  the  Russian  and  Polish  languages  as  spoken  in  our 
time.  Differences  between  the  two  groups  increased  as  they  came 
respectively  under  eastern  and  western  influences.  Intercourse 
between  the  western  group  and  the  Slavs  settled  in  the  upper 
Elbe  region  produced  a  Polish  contingent,  while  contact  of  the 
eastern  body  with  Tatars  created  the  main  Russian  group. 
Religious  differences  helped  to  widen  the  breach  between  these 
two  branches  of  the  Slavic  family.  The  western  body  was  natu- 
rally inclined  to  follow  the  counsels  emanating  from  the  Vatican. 
The  eastern  looked  to  Byzantium  for  spiritual  guidance.  These 
were  strictly  geographical  relations.     Eventual  divergence  into 



separate  nationalities  originated  in  the  conflicts  of  religious  views 
and  material  interests  among  the  leading  members  in  each  group. 

Fig.  38 — Sketch  map  of  eastern  Europe  showing  the  areal  classification  of 
Eussians  into  Little  Russians  (dotted  area),  Great  Russians  (diagonally  ruled)  and 
White  Russians  (cross-ruled  area).  The  black  dots  indicate  Masurian  localities.  The 
dotted  circles  show  Hungarian  cities  peopled  by  Ruthenians. 

The  Polish  language  is  spoken  at  present  within  a  quadri- 
lateral the  angles  of  which  are  found  at  the  Jablunka  pass  in  the 
Carpathians,^  Wissek  north  of  the  Netze  near  the  Posen  boundary, 

*L.  Niederle:  La  race  slave,  Paris,  1911,  pp.  71-74.  A  digest  in  English  of 
his  conclusions  will  be  found  in  Ann.  Kept.  Smiths.  Inst.,  1910,  Washington,  1911, 
pp.  599-612. 


Suwalki  in  the  eastern  Masurian  region  and  Sanok  on  the  San. 
A  northern  extension  is  appended  to  this  linguistic  region  in  the 
form  of  a  narrow  band  which  detaches  itself  from  the  main  mass 
above  Bromberg  and  reaches  the  Baltic  coast  west  of  Danzig.  In 
sum,  the  valley  of  the  Vistula,  from  the  Carpathians  to  the  Baltic, 
constitutes  the  field  of  Polish  humanity  and  institutions.  In 
spite  of  the  remoteness  of  the  period  when  they  first  occu- 
pied the  land,  these  children  of  the  plains  never  attempted 
to  scale  mountainous  slopes.  The  solid  wall  of  the  western 
Carpathians,  between  Jablunka  and  Sanok,  with  its  abrupt 
slopes  facing  the  north,  forms  the  southern  boundary  of  the 

This  region,  in  the  midst  of  the  diversity  of  surface  of  the 
European  continent,  has  produced  a  distinct  language  in  the 
varied  stock  of  European  vernaculars.  Nevertheless  there  is  no 
similarity  of  physical  type  among  individuals  speaking  Polish. 
Marked  anthropological  differences  are  found  between  the  Poles 
of  Russian  Poland  and  of  Galicia.-  They  correspond  to  the 
classification  of  northern  Slavs  into  two  main  groups,  the  north- 
ernmost of  which  comprises  the  Poles  of  Russian  Poland,  together 
with  White  and  Great  Russians.  Traces  of  Finnish  intermixture 
can  still  be  detected  among  them,  in  spite  of  the  process  of 
Slavicization  which  they  have  undergone.  The  Poles  of  Galicia, 
on  the  other  hand,  like  the  Ruthenians  and  Little  Russians,  reveal 
mingling  of  the  autochthonous  populations  w^ith  Asiatic  and 
Mongoloid  invaders  of  Europe.^ 

Delimitation  of  the  area  of  the  Polish  speech  is  more  easily 

*  J.  Talko-Hryncevicz :  Les  Polonais  du  royaume  de  Pologne  d'aprSs  les  donn^es 
anthropologiques  recueilliea  jusqu'a  present,  Bull.  Int.  Acad.  Sc.  Cracovie,  Classe 
des  8c.  Math,  et  Nat.  Bull.  8c.  Nat.,  June  1912,  pp.  574-582. 

3  Southern  Poland  was  overrun  by  Mongolians  during  their  third  invasion  of 
Europe.  The  Asiatics  were  attacked  near  Szydlow  on  March  18,  1241,  by  an  army  of 
Polish  noblemen  recruited  from  Sandomir  and  Cracow.  Tlie  defeat  of  the  Christians 
enabled  the  invaders  to  plunder  the  latter  city,  besides  opening  the  way  for  incursions 
farther  north  in  the  course  of  which  they  penetrated  into  Silesia  by  way  of  Ratibor 
and  marched  toward  Breslau.  Near  Liegnitz  an  army  of  30,000  Europeans  was 
defeated  on  April  9th  of  the  same  year.  These  disasters  were  invariably  followed  by 
a  westerly  spread  of  the  Tatar  scourge.  Traces  of  its  passage  can  still  be  detected 
among  the  Poles. 


made  in  theory  than  on  the  field.  The  transition  to  alien  lan- 
guages is  rarely  well  defined.  Such  detailed  work  as  has  been 
undertaken  in  western  Europe,  where  the  predominant  lan- 
guage in  small  villages  and  hamlets  is  often  determined,  does 
not  exist  for  eastern  sections  of  the  continent.  The  zeal  of 
German  and  Russian  agents  of  nationalist  propaganda  aggra- 
vates the  problem.  Within  Galicia  the  boundary  line  passes 
west  of  Sanok  and  Radymno.*  Its  southern  extension  skirts 
the  foothills  through  Rymanow,  Dukla,  Zmigrod  and  Gry- 
bow.  Thence  to  Jablunka  pass  it  merges  with  the  political 

In  its  western  section  the  physical  boundary  coincides  for  all 
practical  purposes  with  the  ethnographic  line  of  division.  The 
Gorales  mountaineers  have  never  aspired  to  cross  the  divide  of 
the  Beskid  mountains.  The  result  is  that  the  gentler  slopes  of 
the  southern  side  are  peopled  altogether  by  Slovaks,  while  habit 
and  custom  have  prevented  the  Podhalians,  or  Polish  shepherds 
inhabiting  the  high  valley  of  the  Tatra,  from  leading  their  flocks 
to  the  southern  grazing  slopes  which  form  part  of  the  Hungarian 

Changes  in  the  aspect  of  the  land  resulting  from  human 
activity  provide  an  easily  observable  boundary  between  the  terri- 
tory inhabited  by  Poles  and  that  occupied  by  Ruthenians.  The 
former,  proceeding  from  the  Vistulian  lowland,  are  now  scattered 
over  a  territory  in  which  deforestation  and  large  areas  of  tilled 
soil  bespeak  prolonged  occupancy.  The  latter,  coming  from  the 
Pontic  steppes,  reached  the  Carpathian  slopes  much  later  than 
their  western  neighbors.  Consequently  only  20  per  cent  of  the 
surface  of  the  western  Carpathians  is  now  available  as  prairie 
and  pasture  land,  whereas  the  percentage  of  grazing  land  in  the 

*  The  Poles  constitute  the  majority  of  the  population  in  many  cities  of  eastern 
or  Russian  Galicia.  In  Niederle's  list  Bobrka,  Muszyna,  Sanok,  Lisko,  Sambor, 
Peremysl,  Rawaruska,  Belz,  Zolkiew,  Grodek,  Ceshanow,  Stryj,  Kaluaz,  Stanislawoff, 
Kolomya,  Tarnopol,  Husiatyn,  Buczacz,  Sokal  and  Trembowla  are  credited  with  over 
50  per  cent  Poles  in  their  population.  The  predominance  of  German  in  the  cities 
of  Biala,  Sczerzec,  Dolina,  Bolechow,  Nadworna,  Kossow,  Kuty,  Zablotow  and  Brody 
is  attributed  by  the  same  authority  to  the  Jewish  element  present. 

»  E.  Reclus:  G^ogr.  Univ.,  Vol.  3,  Europe  Centrale,  Paris,  1878,  p.  396. 


eastern  section  of  the  mountain  chain  is  twice  as  much.®  The 
area  of  plowed  land  in  the  western  region  covers  between  40  and 
50  per  cent  of  the  surface.  In  the  east  it  barely  varies  between 
5  and  10  per  cent.  Again  the  Polish  section  is  practically  clear 
of  the  forests,  which  cover,  in  contrast,  from  50  to  60  per  cent  of 
the  eastern  Carpathians.  Similar  differences  can  be  noted  in  the 
valleys  up  to  an  altitude  of  about  2,300  feet.  Within  them  the 
proportion  of  plowed  land  constitutes  88  per  cent  of  the  surface 
in  the  Polish  section  while  in  the  Euthenian  valleys  the  propor- 
tion of  plowed  land  does  not  exceed  15  per  cent. 

On  the  southwestern  border  a  number  of  localities  in  the 
Teschen  country  are  claimed  alike  by  Czechs  and  Poles.  The 
increasing  use  of  Polish  and  German,  however,  tends  to  invalidate 
the  claims  of  Bohemians.'^  A  transition  zone  between  Czech  and 
Polish  exists  here  and  is  characterized  by  a  local  dialect  of  mixed 
language.  In  the  western  Beskid  mountains  Polish  and  Moravian 
are  divided  at  the  Jablunka  pass.  The  ancient  duchies  of 
Teschen,  Auschwitz  and  Zator  were  situated  in  this  region  and  at 
the  southern  end  of  the  long  Slavo- Germanic  borderland.  The 
two  last-named  duchies  were  incorporated  with  Poland  in  the 
fifteenth  century.  German  language  and  customs  disappeared 
from  their  territory  soon  after  this  fusion. 

This  important  district  is  in  every  aspect  a  zone  of  transition. 
Its  climate  becomes  alternately  continental  or  oceanic  according 
to  the  prevalence  of  winds  from  east  or  west.  The  change  occurs 
sometimes  in  a  few  weeks.  Occasionally  it  is  sudden  and  atmos- 
pheric conditions  have  been  known  to  have  changed  completely 
from  one  stage  to  the  other  in  the  course  of  a  single  day.*  During 
periods  of  oceanic  climate,  the  temperature  often  rises  above 
0°    C.      Snows    melt    and    spring    temperature    prevails    during 

'  E.  Romer:  Esquisse  climatique  de  I'ancienne  Pologne,  Bui.  de  la  Soc.  Yaud.  des 
Sc.  Nat.,  5e  S^r.,  Vol.  46,  June,  1910,  p.  231. 

^  J.  Zemrich :  Deutsche  und  Slaven  in  den  osterreichischen  Sudetenlandern, 
Deutsche  Erde,  Vol.  2,  1903,  pp.  1-4. 

*  Limite  des  civilisations  dans  les  Beskides  occidentaux,  Ann.  de  G4ogr.,  Vol.  17, 
1908,  Feb.  15,  pp.  130-132.  Cf.  also  E.  Hanslik:  Kulturgrenze  und  Kulturzyklus  in 
den  polnischen  Westbeskiden,  Pet.  Mitt.,  Erganzungsheft  No.  158,  1907. 


January  and  February.  Again  sometimes  the  east  wind  brings 
all  the  signs  of  winter  in  April.  In  summer  western  breezes  bring 
rain  and  dryness  prevails  when  eastern  winds  blow.  As  a  result 
of  this  semi-continental  climate  wheat  crops  on  the  Polish  side 
are  from  three  to  six  weeks  later  than  on  the  Moravian  side. 

German  inunigrants  invaded  this  region  in  the  eighth  century. 
Their  language  held  its  own  until  the  fourteenth,  after  which  it  is 
represented  only  by  linguistic  islands  dotting  here  and  there  the 
sea  of  Slavs.  It  is,  however,  still  possible  to  distinguish  settle- 
ments of  German  origin  from  the  old  Polish  villages.  The  latter 
are  situated  on  high  ground  or  well-protected  sites.  They  are 
generally  characterized  by  the  existence  of  a  central  open  space 
and  the  random  distribution  of  houses  and  lanes.  The  German 
\dllages,  on  the  other  hand,  are  found  at  the  heads  of  valleys  and 
usually  occupy  a  rectangular  site  spreading  over  the  two  banks 
of  a  river.  Each  habitation  has  its  o^vn  land  appurtenance 
extending  rearwards  towards  the  valley  slopes.  The  roads 
follow  natural  depressions.  Taken  as  a  whole,  these  German 
villages  are  admirably  molded  on  the  relief  of  the  sur- 

The  western  linguistic  boundary  of  Poland  extends  through 
the  German  provinces  of  Silesia  and  Posen.  Here  a  gradual 
replacement  of  the  language  by  German  since  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury is  noticeable.  At  that  time  the  Oder  constituted  the  dividing 
line,  south  of  the  point  of  the  confluence  of  the  Nissa  between 
Brieg  and  Oppeln.  As  late  as  1790  the  population  of  Breslau 
was  largely  Polish.  Today  over  75  per  cent  of  the  inhabitants  of 
the  city  and  the  neighboring  towns  and  villages  are  Germans. 
The  district  north  and  south  constitutes  in  fact  an  area  of  lin- 
guistic reclamation. 

The  westernmost  extension  of  Polish  occurs  in  Posen,  at  the 
base  of  the  provincial  projection  into  Brandenburg.  Around 
Bomst  the  percentage  of  Polish  inhabitants  is  as  high  as  75  per 
cent.  The  line  extends  northwards  to  Birnbaum,  after  which  it 
assumes  a  northeasterly  direction.  In  spite  of  this  occidental 
reach,  however,  the  area  of  Polish  speech  within  German  bound- 


aries  is  broken  in  numerous  places  by  German  enclaves  of  vary- 
ing size.® 

In  western  Prussia,  the  Poles  form  compact  inclusions  in  the 
German  mass  and  attain  the  Baltic  shores,  where  they  occupy  the 
entire  western  coast  of  the  Gulf  of  Danzig.  From  Oliva  and 
Danzig  the  line  extends  to  Dirschau  (Tezew)  and  crosses  the 
Vistula  about  six  miles  below  the  city.  It  then  strikes  east  and 
turns  southwards  towards  Marienwerder  (Kwidzyn)  and  Grau- 
denz.  Proceeding  due  east  from  here,  the  boundary  passes  south 
of  Eylau,  the  southern  territory  of  the  Masurian  lakes,  and  on 
into  Eussian  territory,  until  Suwalki  is  reached.  The  eastern 
frontier  begins  at  this  point  and  is  prolonged  southwards,  accord- 
ing to  Slav  authorities,  through  Augustow,  Bielostok,^"  Surash, 
Bielsk,  Sarnaki,  Krsanostaw  and  Tomaschow. 

The  advance  of  the  area  of  Polish  speech,  in  the  form  of  a 
tongue  of  land,  to  the  Baltic  coast,  is  a  proof  of  intimate  depend- 
ence between  Polish  nationality  and  the  basin  of  the  Vistula. 
This  northernmost  section  of  the  territory  in  which  Polish  is 
spoken,  lies  entirely  within  Prussian  territory.  Centuries  of 
Teutonic  influence  failed,  however,  to  eradicate  completely  Slavic 
language  or  customs  in  the  valley  of  the  great  river.  Between 
Thorn  and  Danzig,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Vistula,  it  is  estimated 
that  650,000  Poles  are  scattered.  On  the  right,  the  Prussian 
districts  of  Lobau,  Strassburg  and  Briesen  are  centers  of  intense 
Polish  life  and  culture.  The  city  of  Danzig  itself,  with  a  Polish 
element  of  only  10  per  cent,  still  gives  strong  evidence  of  its 
Polish  institutions.  Its  monuments  are  memorials  of  Poland's 
history,  and  many  of  its  families  bear  Polish  names  even  though 
their  members  use  German  as  a  vernacular. 

Originally  a  free  town,  Danzig  owes  its  predominant  German 
population  to  the  inflow  of  traders  of  this  nationality  who  have 
swarmed  within  its  walls  since  the  sixteenth  century.     The  city, 

•p.  Langhans:  Nationalitatenkarte  der  Provinz  Schlesien,  1:500,000.  Sonder- 
karte  No.  1  in  Deutsche  Erde,  1906;  id.:  Nationalitatenkarte  der  Provinz  Ostpreussen, 
1 :  500,000.     Sonderkarte  No.  1  in  Deutsche  Erde,  1907. 

"  L.  Niederle:  op.  cit.,  p.  73;  but  ef.  H.  Praesent:  Russisch  Polen,  etc.,  Pet.  Mitt., 
Vol.  60,  Dec.  1914,  p.  257. 

■    \ 


standing  like  a  sentinel  at  the  mouth  of  the  Vistula,  is  in  every 
sense  a  creation  of  the  river.  Traffic  from  Poland's  innermost 
districts  flows  towards  the  country's  great  w^aterway  to  be  finally 
landed  on  the  wharves  of  Danzig.  Prior  to  the  partition  of 
Poland,  the  city  was  nominally  a  dependency  of  that  country, 
but  its  inhabitants  had  been  granted  special  trading  privileges  as 
well  as  the  right  of  governing  themselves.  The  city's  commercial 
relations  were  highly  favored  by  such  a  regime  and  business  men 
from  the  surrounding  country  were  not  slow  to  realize  the  excep- 
tional advantages  which  settlement  in  the  city  afforded.  By  the 
end  of  the  seventeenth  century  its  population  consisted  largely  of 
German  merchants  and  their  dependents.  Frederick  11  with  char- 
acteristic far-sightedness  realized  the  extent  to  which  this  seaport, 
together  with  the  river  city  of  Thorn,  controlled  the  traffic  between 
Brandenburg  and  old  Prussia.  He  did  not  succeed  however  in 
annexing  the  two  cities  to  his  dominions,  for  it  is  only  since  1815 
that  they  have  formed  part  of  Prussian  territory. 

The  struggle  for  predominance  between  Poles  and  Germans 
along  Poland's  western  boundary  is  fully  nine  centuries  old.  In 
the  sixteenth  century,  Slavonic  tribes  had  become  widely  dis- 
tributed between  the  Oder  and  Elbe,  in  the  course  of  westerly 
expansions  which  correspond  to  south  and  west  migrations  of 
Teutonic  peoples."  Place  names  bestowed  by  the  early  Germans 
in  the  district  between  these  two  rivers  have  practically  disap- 
peared under  the  layer  of  Slavic  appellations  conferred  betw^een 
the  second  and  fourth  centuries.^-  The  period  between  800  and 
1300  witnessed  the  inception  of  a  slow  and  powerful  Germanic 
drive  directed  towards  the  east.  Convents  and  lay  feudal  estab- 
lishments participated  in  this  historical  movement.  Repeated 
German  aggressions  brought  about  the  earliest  union  of  all  Polish 
tribes  into  one  nation  at  the  beginning  of  the  eleventh  century. 
It  proved,  however,  of  little  avail  before  the  fighting  prowess  of 
the  Knights  of  the  Teutonic  Order,  who,  by  the  first  half  of  the 

**  A.  C.  Haddon:   The  Wanderings  of  Peoples,  Cambridge,  1912,  p.  48. 
**  F.   Curschmann :    Die   deutsche   Ortsnamen   in   nordostdeutschen   Kolonialgcbiet, 
Forsch.  z.  deut.  Landes-  u.  Volksk.,  Vol.  19,  No.  2,  1910,  pp.  91-183. 

The  Am 





The  American  Geographical  Sociefy  of  New  Yorl( 

Frontiers  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  1917.  PI.  IV 


thirteenth  century,  had  succeeded  in  adding  all  Wend  territory  to 
Teutonic  dominions.  This  early  and  northerly  phase  of  the 
''Drang  nach  Osten"  brought  the  Germans  to  the  coast  of  the 
Gulf  of  Finland.  Their  advance  was  rendered  possible  in  part 
by  the  presence  of  Tatar  hordes  menacing  southern  Poland. 
Teutonic  progress  was  also  facilitated  by  the  defenseless  condition 
which  marks  an  open  plain.  Between  the  Oder  and  the  Vistula 
the  slightly  undulating  lowland  is  continuous  and  devoid  of 
barriers  to  communication  which  the  interposition  of  uplifted  or 
uninhabitable  stretches  of  territory  might  have  provided. 

Polish  history  has  been  affected  both  favorably  and  adversely 
by  this  lack  of  natural  bulwarks.  The  former  extension  of  Polish 
sovereignty  to  the  shores  of  the  Baltic  and  Black  seas,  and  to 
within  50  miles  of  Berlin  and  the  central  plateau  of  Eussia,  was 
a  result  of  easy  travel  on  a  plain.  This  advantage  was  more  than 
offset  by  the  evident  facility  with  which  alien  races  were  able  to 
swarm  into  the  vast  featureless  expanse  forming  Polish  territory. 
The  dismemberment  of  the  country  is  in  part  the  result  of  the 
inability  of  the  Poles  to  resort  to  the  protection  of  a  natural 
fortress,  where  a  prolonged  stand  against  the  aggression  of  foes 
might  have  been  made. 

At  the  end  of  the  tenth  century  the  entire  Polish  plain  acknowl- 
edged the  rule  of  Boleslas  the  Great,  a  prince  of  the  Piast 
dynasty.  Kiev  then  paid  a  yearly  tribute  to  the  Polish  crown. 
A  period  of  internal  division  follows  Boleslas 's  rule,  but  in  the 
beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century  Poland  was  once  more  united 
under  the  scepter  of  King  Ladislas.  From  1386  to  1772,  a  period 
of  almost  four  centuries,  Polish  frontiers  remained  remarkably 
stable.  Their  fluctuations  were  slight  when  compared  to  the 
changes  which  occurred  in  other  European  countries  during  the 
same  period. 

At  one  period  of  its  history  Poland  was  barred  from  its  Baltic 
sea  frontier  in  the  north.  In  the  fourteenth  century  the  invasion 
of  the  Teutonic  Knights  temporarily  cut  off  the  country  from  the 
sea;  but  apart  from  this  interruption  Poland  has  always  had 
access  to  the  sea  to  which  the  drainage  of  the  land  naturally  led. 


Under  the  first  members  of  the  Piast  dynasty  the  Poles  had  con- 
trol of  the  Baltic  coast.^^  When,  in  the  thirteenth  century,  the 
Poles  called  upon  the  Knights  of  the  I'eutonic  Order  for  assistance 
in  subjugating  Prussia,  the  two  parties  agreed  to  equal  division 
of  the  conquered  territory.  The  successes  of  the  Teutonic 
Knights,  however,  emboldened  their  leaders  to  claim  more  land 
for  their  share.  A  state  of  war  ensued  between  the  two  former 
allies  until  by  the  treaty  of  Thorn,  in  1466,  the  Teutonic  Knights 
acknowledged  Polish  sovereignty.  This  brought  Pomerelia,  or 
Prussian  Pomerania,  within  Polish  territory.  In  1525  the  Prus- 
sian districts  east  of  the  Vistula  became  part  of  the  duchy  of 
Albert  of  Brandenburg  and  were  thus  surrounded  entirely  by 
Polish  territory;  but  that  part  of  Prussia  which  extends  west 
of  the  Vistula  remained  an  integral  portion  of  Poland  until 

In  the  fighting  which  marked  the  relations  between  Poland 
and  Turkey  in  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  centuries  the  Poles 
succeeded  in  extending  their  southern  frontiers  to  within  a  hun- 
dred miles  of  the  Black  Sea  and  in  carrying  their  sphere  of 
influence  to  the  sea  itself.  The  occupation  of  Kaminiec  by  the 
Turks  was  short-lived.  In  general  Poland's  frontier  on  the  side 
of  the  ancient  Rumanian  principalities  remained  unchanged  dur- 
ing the  last  four  centuries  of  the  country's  sovereign  exist- 

In  the  fifteenth  century,  Poland  was  the  dominating  Slavic 
state.  In  1386  it  had  been  united  to  Lithuania  by  Wladislas 
Jagellon,  the  first  prince  of  the  famous  dynasty  bearing  his  name. 
The  country  at  that  time  was  protected  from  Turkish  attacks 
by  Wallachia,  Moldavia  and  Transylvania.  Russia  was  its  rival 
for  the  possession  of  Lithuania;  Austria  for  that  of  Hungary  and 
Bohemia.  Prussia  and  Livonia  were  also  claimed  by  Poland  from 
the  Order  of  the  Teutonic  Knights.  The  weakness  of  the  country 
lay  in  the  jealousy  of  the  two  peoples  of  diverse  speech  from 
which  its  ruling  body  was  drawn.  The  Jagellons  were  Lithuanian 
princes.    They  favored  the  claims  of  their  countrymen,  who  pre- 

'•  Marquis  de  Noailles:  Les  fronti^res  de  la  Pologne,  Paris,  1915,  p.  21. 


ferred  the  laws  of  their  native  land  to  the  Polish  legislation  which 
was  being  forced  on  them.  The  Poles  likewise  had  their  griev- 
ances against  the  Lithuanians.  During  the  rule  of  Casimir  IV 
he  was  frequently  taken  to  task  by  his  countrymen  for  spending 
''summer,  fall  and  winter  in  Lithuania." 

Poland's  easterly  expansion  with  its  prolonged  and  finally 
disastrous  conflicts  with  Russia  began  after  the  battle  of  Grun- 
wald  in  1410.  Although  the  Poles  then  inflicted  a  decisive  defeat 
on  the  Teutonic  Knights,  the  western  provinces  they  had  lost  could 
not  be  regained.  In  the  eastern  field  the  basin  of  the  Dnieper 
merged  without  abrupt  transition  into  that  of  the  Vistula,  just  as 
the  basin  of  the  Oder  on  the  west  formed  the  western  continuation 
of  the  Baltic  plain.  Four  centuries  of  struggle  with  Russia 
ensued  until  the  Muscovite  Empire  absorbed  the  greater  portion 
of  Poland. 

The  German  element  is  slowly  spreading  eastw^ard  throughout 
the  eastern  provinces  of  Prussia  wiiich  once  formed  part  of  the 
kingdom  of  Poland.  Emigration  of  Poles  to  central  and  western 
Germany  partly  accounts  for  the  German  gain.  From  the  larger 
cities  of  eastern  Germany  and  more  especially  from  Posen, 
Bromberg  and  Danzig,  a  steady  stream  of  emigrants  make  their 
way  towards  the  industrial  centers  of  the  west,  where  they  find 
higher  wages  and  generally  improved  economic  conditions.  The 
German  government  favors  this  expatriation  of  its  Slav  subjects. 
None  of  the  vexations  to  which  the  Poles  are  subjected  by  govern- 
ment officials  on  their  native  plains  are  tolerated  in  the  occidental 
provinces  of  the  Empire.  The  result  is  that  notable  colonies  of 
Poles  have  sprung  up  in  the  vicinity  of  industrial  centers  like 
Dtisseldorf  or  Arnsberg,  in  the  Munster  district  and  the  Rhine 
provinces.  From  a  racial  standpoint,  these  Poles  are  practically 
indistinguishable  from  Teutonic  types.  Their  presence  in  Rhenish 
Prussia  and  Westphalia  is  no  menace  to  German  unity.  They 
are  easily  assimilated;  the  second  generation,  speaking  only 
German,  forgets  its  antecedents  and  becomes  submerged  in  the 
mass  of  the  native  population.  Slav  settlements  are  particularly 
numerous  and  dense  alona:  the  Rhine-Herne  canal  between  Duis- 


burg  and  Dortmund.^*  They  abound  in  the  coal-producing 
Emscher  valley,  where  their  inhabitants  form  one-fifth  of  the 
population.  The  Polish  settlers  favor  the  flatlands  and  occupy 
them  in  preference  to  hilly  regions.  They  do  not  confine  their 
work  to  mining,  but  provide  labor  for  the  industrial  plants 
clustered  around  the  coal-fields.  In  the  beginning  of  1911  the 
number  of  Polish  miners  in  the  19  mining  districts  of  the  ' '  circle ' ' 
of  Dortmund  exceeded  that  of  any  other  nationality. 

The  heavy  preponderance  of  Poles  in  certain  administrative 
divisions  of  eastern  Germany  has,  nevertheless,  been  unimpaired 
by  the  Polish  emigration.  In  the  province  of  Posen  the  German- 
speaking  inhabitants  still  constitute  the  minority.  As  a  inile 
Germans  emigrate  more  readily  than  Poles  or  Masurians  in  East 
Prussia.^''  In  the  city  of  Posen,  Polish  nationality  was  asserting 
itself  with  increasing  vigor  year  by  year,  before  the  European 
war.  The  percentage  of  Poles  grew  from  about  51  in  1890  to  56 
in  1900.  Ten  years  later  it  exceeded  57.  Correspondingly  the 
German  percentage  fell  from  50  in  1890  to  under  42  in  1910. 

Posen,  of  all  German  provinces,  contains  the  largest  number 
of  Poles.  62  per  cent  of  its  2,100,000  inhabitants  belong  to  this 
nationality.  Within  provincial  boundaries  the  process  of  German- 
izing the  people  has  been  carried  on  most  actively  in  the  district 
of  Bromberg.  The  reason  is  obvious.  The  region  is  the  connect- 
ing link  between  Germany  proper  and  the  province  of  Old 
Prussia,  which  forms  an  enclave  of  German  speech  within  the 
territory  of  the  Polish  language.  The  effort  to  connect  the  ancient 
cradle  of  Prussia  with  the  motherland  is  apparent  in  the  figures 
which  reveal  the  percentage  of  Poles  in  the  intermediary  land. 
The  district  of  Bromberg  numbers  53  per  cent  of  Poles  in  a 
population  of  750,000.  In  the  provincial  district  of  Posen,  how- 
ever, the  percentage  of  Poles  attains  68  for  a  population  of 

"  K.  Closterhalfen :  Die  Polen  in  niederrheinisch-westfiilisch  Indiistriebezirk  1905, 
1:200,000.    PI.  16  in  Deutsche  Erde,  Vol.  10,  1911. 

*'A.  Eaahe:  Die  Abwanderungsbewegung  in  den  ostlichen  Provinzen  Preussens. 
Einleitung  und  Teil  I.     Die  Provinz  Ost-Preussen.     Berlin,  1910. 


The  German  element  of  the  province  is  confined  mainly  to  the 
cities,  the  country  being  peopled  largely  by  Poles.  Often  the 
proportion  of  this  native  population  attains  as  high  a  figure  as 
91  per  cent  and  it  is  rare  to  find  it  below  75  per  cent.  Apart 
from  the  German  administration  of  the  province,  Posen  thus 
remains  Polish  to  the  core.  Its  nobility  and  landed  gentry  consist 
mostly  of  Poles  who  have  strenuously  opposed  German  encroach- 
ments by  abstaining  from  commercial  or  financial  intercourse 
with  their  rulers.  They  founded  their  own  banks,  in  order  to  be 
indeiDendent  of  German  institutions;  and  by  means  of  native 
agricultural  associations  they  came  to  the  aid  of  Polish  farmers, 
who  were  thus  saved  from  having  recourse  to  German  colonization 
banks  chartered  for  the  purpose  of  buying  out  Polish  landowners. 
The  influence  of  the  Polish  element  is  best  shown  by  the  fact  that 
eleven  Polish  representatives  are  delegated  by  its  population  to 
the  Reichstag,  out  of  a  body  of  fifteen  sent  by  the  province. 

We  thus  see  that  the  Poles  scattered  in  the  eastern  section  of 
Germany  constitute  the  largest  foreign-speaking  element  in  the 
Empire's  population.  Their  number  is  estimated  by  Niederle  at 
3,450,000.  German  census  returns  for  1900  give  3,086,489.  The 
percentage  of  Jews  in  German  Poland  is  high,  particularly  in  the 
urban  areas.  The  practice  of  census  takers  is  to  classify  them  with 
the  German  or  Polish  population  according  to  their  vernacular. 
In  Russia  the  last  (1897)  available  census  figures  report  the 
existence  of  1,267,194  Jews "  scattered  throughout  the  Polish 
provinces.  This  represents  13.48  per  cent  of  the  population  of 
Russian  Poland.  Here,  as  elsewhere,  they  are  rarely  engaged  in 
agricultural  pursuits  but  show  a  tendency  to  invade  prosperous 
towns  and  cities." 

^*  N.  Troinitsky:  Premier  recensement  g4n6ral  de  la  population  de  I'empire  de  la 
Russie,  1897.     Vols.  1  and  2,  Petrograd,  1905. 

*'  The  Jews  cluster  especially  in  the  eastern  governments  of  Warsaw,  Lomsha  and 
Siedlez,  where  their  percentage  varies  between  15.6  and  16.4.  This  ratio  is  lower  in 
the  southern  and  western  administrative  divisions.  In  Kalish  it  reaches  only  7.2  per 
cent  and  is  reduced  to  6.3  per  cent  in  Petrokow.  In  the  cities  the  Jews  constitute  on 
an  average  slightly  over  a  third  of  the  population,  although  here  again  they  are 
more  numerous  in  the  east.  Cf.  D.  Aitoff:  Peuples  et  langues  de  la  Russie,  Ann.  de 
Geogr.,  Vol.  15,  May  1909,  pp.  9-25. 


Tlio  I'oliHli  ,i(;WH,  Hpeakiiig-  a  vernacular  ol'  ilicir  own,  and 
consciouH  ol"  Mi(!  advantage  derived  from  their  number,  live  apart 
from  the  PoleH,  with  whom  they  ar(;  generally  at  odds  on  economic 
quoHtioiiH.  TIk!  ])i-esence  of  this  jacially  alien  element  has  often 
UHwiHted  JiiiHHiaa  adminiHtrators  in  their  policy  of  holding  Polish 
virbjui  i)()i)ulationH  well  in  hand  by  pitting  one  people  against  the 
otluir.  .IcwiHli  parties  wicild  considerable  influence  in  the  local 
politics  of  I'oiisli  cities.  They  are  openly  anti-Slavic  and  side 
with  the  (Jci-iiian  inhabitants,  from  wiioiii  tlu^y  i-eceive  guidance 
regarding  policy  and  conduct.  The  strength  of  the  Polish  vote 
was  fc^lt  in  lli(^  11)12  elections  for  the  Duma  when  Lodz  sent  a 
Jewisii  representative  to  th(5  national  council,  while  in  Warsaw 
where  they  i'onu  .'}S  per  cent  of  the  [)()pulation  they  succeeded  in 
forcing  the  ehiction  of  a  J'olish  socialist  who  in  that  same  year 
had  failed  to  obtain  a  inajoi-ity  of  tii(5  city's  Polish  votes. 

[V\h)  coMrniciiiciit  of  Jews  witliiii  I  he  pal(^  of  Poland  dates  from 
the  time  of  the  liisi  partition,  when  an  edict  signed  by  Catherine 
11  was  proclaijued,  forbidding  them  to  emigrate  from  the  annexed 
territory  into  Ivussia  j)r<)|)(>r.  Since  then  every  succeeding  Rus- 
sian monanrh  maintained  this  policy  of  segregation  until,  at  the 
time  of  Poland's  last  partition,  the  ten  governments  into  wliich 
tlie  iiMfoilunate  nation  was  (li\i(k'(l  became  the  only  territory  in 
wiiicii    lh(>  .lews   were   tolerated. 

This  arrangenienl  was  made  !arg(>ly  because  of  the  Jew's  well- 
known  ai)tilud(>  for  connnerco  and  through  fear  that  the  unso- 
phisticated and  larg(>-hearted  Ivussian  nnijik  was  no  match  for 
him.  The  siale  of  L*oland  prior  to  its  dismemberment  made  such 
measures  imperative  for  IIk^  l\ussian  government.  The  Poles 
\\(M-(>  eilher  landowners,  iill(>rs  of  Uw  soil  or  soldiers.  Few 
engaged  in  trade.  The  country's  commerce  was  in  the  hands  of 
Germans  or  Jews.  Poland's  weakness  in  the  presence  of  foreign 
aggression  was  due  io  this  state  of  economic  inferiority,  no  less 
than  to  her  lack  of  natural  frontiers  on  the  east  and  west. 

The  large  proportion  of  the  Jewish  element  in  Poland  may 
be  traced  ultimately  to  the  very  circumstances  which  impart  dis- 
tinctiveness to  \ho  Polish  reirion.    It  was  inevitable  that  the  Jew 


should  find  cordial  welcome  in  the  broad  drainage  valley  of  the 
Vistula  and  its  tributaries,  tenanted  by  a  landed  nobility  at  the 
one  end  of  the  social  scale  and  a  retinue  of  serfs  at  the  other. 
Between  these  two  classes  the  Jew  supplied  a  needed  trading 
element  and  thrived.  Polish  kings  accordingly  adopted  the  policy 
of  inviting  and  protecting  Jews  within  their  domains  as  early  as 
in  the  fourteenth  century,  a  time  when  the  Jew^s  were  being 
expelled  in  hundreds  from  other  nations.  Emigration  of  the  Jews 
from  Germany  during  the  period  of  Catholic  persecution  was 
particularly  heavy.  This  movement  helped  to  increase  the  number 
of  Jews  in  Poland. 

The  position  of  the  Jews  in  Poland  varies,  therefore,  according 
to  the  circumstances  which  determined  their  immigration.  They 
may  be  classed  into  two  groups.  The  descendants  of  early  set- 
tlers feel  the  welding  influence  of  time  and  are  united  with  the 
Poles  by  the  bond  of  historical  association  and  of  common  inter- 
ests. The  newcomers,  mostly  refugees  from  Eussian  cities,  form 
an  unassimilated  nucleus  whose  tendencies  and  temper  differ 
materially  from  the  aims  that  actuate  the  native  population, 
whether  Polish  or  Jewish.  Racial  animosity  in  Poland  is  chiefly 
directed  against  these  newcomers.  It  has  reached  an  acute  stage 
in  recent  years,  owing  to  the  strenuous  efforts  of  Poles  to  control 
their  country's  industry  and  commerce  in  face  of  the  menace  of 
German  economic  absorption. 

In  Galicia  the  Jews  are  competitors  of  the  Poles.  Full  advan- 
tage has  been  taken  by  Austrian  statesmen  of  the  existence  of  a 
powerful  clique  of  Jewish  financiers  in  Vienna  in  order  to  obtain 
Jewish  support  against  Slavic  aspirations.  Jewish  capitalists 
were  allowed  to  take  part  in  the  development  of  natural  resources 
as  well  as  to  purchase  large  estates.  At  present  fully  20  per  cent 
of  the  larger  private  domains  in  Galicia  are  owned  by  Jews.^®  In 
the  cities  also  the  Jewish  element  has  acquired  considerable 
influence.  This  is  especially  observable  in  Lemberg  and  Cracow. 
The  bulk  of  Galician  Jews,  however,  are  poor  and  uneducated. 

*•  G.  Bienaim^ :  La  Pologne  6conomique,  Bull.  8oc.  de  Oiogr.  Comm.  de  Paris, 
Vol.  37,  No8.  4-6,  April-June,  1915,  pp.  128-164. 


They  have  little  sympathy  with  the  ideals  of  the  Christian 
element,  from  whom  they  hold  aloof.  In  the  social  relations  of 
the  three  main  elements  of  the  Galician  population,  Poles  and 
Jews  generally  unite  to  exploit  Ruthenians.  The  Jews  appar- 
ently are  unable  to  thrive  on  the  Poles.  In  the  Polish  sections  of 
Galicia  they  constitute  only  7  per  cent  of  the  population,  whereas 
in  Ruthenian  Galicia  this  proportion  rises  to  13  per  cent. 

fGerman  Poland,  from  Upper  Silesia  to  the  Gulf  of  Danzig, 
contains  about  4,000,000  Poles.  In  Upper  Silesia,  they  constitute 
61  per  cent  of  the  population  and  number  about  1,300,000.  This 
majority  has  been  maintained,  in  the  face  of  aggressive  Germani- 
zation,  since  the  first  half  of  the  fourteenth  century.  The  city  of 
Posen  contains  170,000  inhabitants,  of  whom  58  peT  cent  are 
Poles.  The  farming  districts  of  the  province  contain  only  about 
10  per  cent  of  Germans.  Over  900,000  Poles  live  in  East  and 
West  Prussia.  In  this  section  of  Germany,  they  form  a  suffi- 
ciently compact  body  to  be  able  to  send  representatives  chosen 
from  their  own  people  to  the  Landstag  and  Reichstag.  The 
western  coast  of  the  Gulf  of  Danzig  and  the  banlvs  of  the  lower 
Vistula  are  almost  exclusively  Polish.  A  solid  wedge  of  Polish 
humanity  is  here  interposed  between  the  Germans  of  Pomerania 
and  of  East  Prussia.  This  thorough  isolation  of  an  important 
body  of  Germans  may  became  a  thorny  problem  in  any  eventual 
settlement  of  Polish  boundaries. 

Upper  Silesia  is  the  best  endowed  section  of  Polish  territory. 
The  grayish  soil  which  forms  the  surface  of  the  Oder  valley  is 
eminently  fitted  for  cereal  and  beet  cultivation  and  the  farmers 
of  this  soil  are  generally  Poles.  They  often  represent  90  per 
cent  of  the  rural  population.^"  In  the  cities  and  generally  speaking 
in  the  industrial  field  they  are  laborers.  Capital  and  the  manage- 
ment of  factories  and  of  mines  are  in  German  hands. 

The  most  interesting  feature  of  the  clash  between  Germans 
and  Poles  in  Upper  Silesia  is  found  in  the  failure  of  the  Germans 
in  their  efforts  to  force  their  language  upon  an  alien  people. 
Forty  years   ago,   Polish  noblemen  were  apt  to  blush   at  the 

'»G.  Bienaimg:   op.  cit.,  p.   139. 


thought  of  their  Slavic  origin  in  the  presence  of  the  German 
rulers  of  their  land.  But  the  vexations  inflicted  on  them  by 
Prussian  administration,  since  the  formation  of  the  German 
Empire,  have  bred  a  spirit  of  defiance  and  revolt.  As  a  result 
Silesian  Poles  were  never  so  conscious  of  nationality  as  they  are 
today.  They  band  together  in  order  to  resist  Germanization 
more  effectively.  Small  tradesmen,  petty  farmers  and  profes- 
sional men  organize  themselves  into  bodies  to  which  individual 
interests  are  intrusted  whenever  German  methods  become  intol- 
erable. But  the  greatest  asset  of  Polish  nationality  in  this  fight 
against  annihilation  is  its  high  birth  rate.  This  has  also  led  to 
the  emigration  of  Poles  to  the  industrial  districts  of  Westphalia, 
the  coal  districts  of  the  Lens  basin  in  France  and  to  America. 
This  flow  of  Poles  comes  mainly  from  the  provinces  of  Posen  and 
"West  Prussia,  where  sandy  inert  soils  cannot  accommodate  rapidly 
increasing  numbers. 

In  addition  to  drastic  educational  measures,  compelling  study 
of  their  language,  the  Germans  have  resorted  to  wholesale  buying 
of  Polish  estates  in  the  section  of  the  kingdom  of  Poland  which 
fell  to  the  lot  of  Prussia  when  the  country  was  partitioned.  A 
colonization  law  (Ansiedelunggesetz),  decreed  on  April  26,  1886, 
placed  large  funds  at  the  disposal  of  the  German  government  for 
the  purchase  of  land  owned  by  Poles  and  the  establishment  of 
colonies  of  German  settlers.^"  The  measure  was  artificial  and 
proved  valueless  against  economic  conditions  prevailing  in  the 
regions  affected.  A  decrease  in  the  percentage  of  the  Polish 
population  of  the  estates  acquired  by  purchase  was  rarely 
brought  about.  The  new  settlers  could  rarely  compete  with 
natives.  The  most  tangible  result  consisted  in  mere  substitution 
of  German  for  Polish  ownership.  On  most  of  the  large  estates 
the  mass  of  laborers  and  dependents  remained  Poles  as  they  had 
been    before.      The    breach    between    Poles    and    Germans    was 

^^  A  law  passed  in  1908  authorizes  the  State  to  acquire  land  in  the  administrative 
circles  in  which  German  interests  require  development  of  colonization.  B.  Auerbach: 
La  germanisation  de  la  Pologne  Prussienne.  La  loi  d'expropriation,  Rev.  Polit.  et 
Parlem.,  Vol.   57,  July  1908,  pp.   109-125. 


widened  by  the  change  of  masters.  Nevertheless,  although  results 
corresponding  to  the  efforts  and  money  expended  were  not 
obtained,  the  measure  has  contributed  to  the  advance  of  Teu- 
tonism  in  northeastern  Europe.^^ 

The  purpose  of  this  colonization  is  to  redeem  Prussian  soil 
from  Polish  ownership.  The  ''Mittelstandskasse"  of  Breslau, 
and  the  Peasant's  Bank  of  Danzig,  are  financial  institutions 
directly  interested  in  this  work  of  Germanization.  These  banks 
work  hand  in  hand  with  the  state.  Results  of  this  activity  can 
be  observed  in  East  Prussia  where  the  German  element  has 
acquired  preponderance  in  32  communes,  through  the  interven- 
tion of  German  capital.  A  common  practice  of  the  German  loan 
societies  is  to  assume  the  liabilities  of  German  farmers.  In  many 
cases  the  peasants  have  been  provided  with  funds  to  carry  on 
their  agricultural  operations.  In  Western  Prussia  39  estates  with 
about  14,000  inhabitants  have  passed  into  German  hands.^^  Often 
it  has  been  impossible  to  induce  peasants  from  other  parts  of 
Germany  to  settle  in  the  Polish  provinces,  and  the  state  has 
resorted  to  the  importation  of  German  peasants  from  the  old 
German  settlements  in  Russia,  Galicia  and  Bosnia. 

German  colonization  in  Polish  provinces  has  been  accompanied 
by  increase  and  expansion  of  urban  centers.  The  province  of  Posen, 
which  now  claims  151  cities,^^  is  a  typical  instance.  The  colonists' 
cities  founded  by  Germans  are  readily  recognized  by  their 
peculiar  configuration.  Almost  all  have  been  built  on  the  same 
plan.  A  four-sided  market-place  generally  constitutes  the 
nucleus  of  the  urban  tract.  Main  avenues  diverge  from  the 
angles    of    the    central    quadrilateral.      Lateral    streets    extend 

**P.  Langhans:  National itiitenkarte  der  Provinz  Sclilesien,  1:500,000.  Sonder- 
karte  No.  1  in  Deutsche  Erde,  190G.  P.  Langhans:  Nationalitiitenkarte  der  Provinz 
Ostpreussen,  1:500,000.  Sonderkarte  No.  2  in  Deutsche  Erdc,  1907.  Die  Provinzen 
Posen  und  Westpreussen  unter  besonderer  Beriicksichtigung  der  Ansiedlungsgiiter  und 
Ansiedlung,  Staatsdomanen  und  Staatsforsten  nach  dem  Stande  von  1  Januar  1911, 
Deutsche  Erde,  Vol.  10,  Taf.  1,  1911. 

"  M.  Loesener :  Besitzfestigung  in  der  Preussischen  Ostmark.  Deutsche  Erde,  Vol. 
10,  1911,  pp.  3-8. 

"Dalchow:  Die  Stlidte  des  Warthelandes,  I.  Teil,  Ein  Beitrag  zur  Siedlungskunde 
Tind  zur  Landeskunde  der  Provinz  Posen.     Leipzig,  1910. 


parallel  to  the  market  sides  and  at  right  angles  to  the  main 

Against  the  tightening  hold  of  the  Germans  on  their  land,  the 
Poles  can  offer  only  limited  resistance.  But  their  counteracting 
efforts  are  not  devoid  of  value.  They  have  taken  advantage  of 
the  high  prices,  consequent  upon  the  sales  of  the  land  which  the 
government  has  forced  on  them,  to  buy  new  estates.  Thanks  to 
the  high  rate  of  birth  among  Poles,  the  proportion  of  Poles  living 
in  German  Poland  to  the  rest  of  the  population  remains  station- 
ary, in  spite  of  German  immigration  or  Polish  emigration. 
Cooperative  associations  of  farmers,  of  traders  or  industrial 
operators,  present  a  united  front  in  all  dealings  of  their  members 
with  Germans.  In  the  field  of  education,  children  are  taught 
Polish  in  spite  of  German  opposition.^*  The  patriotism  and 
courage  of  the  Polish  press  are  maintained  in  face  of  German 
persecution.  The  return  of  Polish  emigrants  with  a  little  capital, 
accumulated  by  toil  in  foreign  lands,  is  likewise  one  of  the  factors 
which  contribute  to  the  preservation  of  the  people  in  their  home- 
land. Both  from  the  western  industrial  districts  of  Germany  and 
from  overseas,  many  patriotic  Poles  return  to  the  land  of  their 
fathers  and  settle  upon  small  farms  purchased  with  their 
savings,  j 

From  the  east  pressure  corresponding  to  Teutonic  battering, 
although  exerted  with  less  intensity,  is  applied  by  Eussian 
endeavor  to  create  national  homogeneity.  Of  all  the  different 
members  of  the  wide-spread  Slavic  race  Poles  and  Eussians  are 
the  most  closely  related  by  speech.  But  the  affinity  ends  here,  for 
the  formidable  barrier  of  religious  differences  hampers  fusion  of 
the  two  nationalities.  Caught  between  the  hammer  of  Teutonic 
reformation  and  the  Slavic  anvil  of  Eussian  orthodoxy,  the 
Poles  have  remained  stanch  Catholics.  Creed,  in  this  case, 
has  played  a  considerable  part  in  the  preservation  of  national 

**  After  having  been  entirely  banished  from  secondary  schools,  Polish  was  excluded 
from  elementary  schools  by  a  ministerial  decree,  dated  Sept.  7,  1887.  Keligious  in- 
struction alone  could  be  imparted  in  this  language  and  even  this  privilege  was  removed 
in  1905. 


In  Austria  alone  have  the  Poles  been  relatively  free  from  per- 
secution. Even  there,  in  recent  times,  the  Austrian  policy  of 
setting  her  subject  peoples  against  each  other  had  led  to  a  display 
of  favoritism  towards  the  Ruthenian  neighbors  of  the  Poles. 
Both  of  these  Slavic  peoples  inhabit  Galicia  principally.  The 
province  is  the  relic  of  the  old  duchy  of  Halitch,  which  had  Lem- 
berg  for  its  capital.  The  name  Galicia  originated  in  Austria,  at 
the  time  of  the  partition  of  Poland  in  1772,  and  was  applied  to 
that  part  of  the  dismembered  country  which  Austria  annexed. 
The  province  is  peopled  at  present  by  over  three  million 

Western  Galicia,  including  the  important  cities  of  Cracow  and 
Tarnow,  as  well  as  the  Tatra  massif,  is  peopled  almost  exclu- 
sively by  about  2,750,000  Poles  of  whom  7  per  cent  are  Polish- 
speaking  Jews."  Eastern  Galicia  on  the  other  hand  is  the  home 
of  only  1,400,000  Poles,  but  here  the  Ruthenians  make  up  a  solid 
mass  of  3,200,000.  In  the  cities,  however,  the  Poles  form  over- 
whelming majorities,  although  their  number  dwindles  to  insignifi- 
cance as  the  Russian  frontier  is  approached.  Lemberg,  notably, 
contains  a  high  proportion  of  Polish  inhabitants. 

But  the  fact  of  paramount  importance  in  the  condition  of 
Austrian  Poles  is  that  in  spite  of  their  minority  in  the  largest 
part  of  Galicia,  they  represent  the  dominating  element  in  the 
Galician  population.  Vast  estates  and  great  industries  are  almost 
exclusively  in  their  hands.  They  are  also  intellectual  leaders  and 
the  liberal  professions  are  practically  entirely  held  by  them.  The 
Ruthenian 's  lot  throughout  Galicia  is  that  of  the  toiler,  either  in 
the  field  or  in  the  factory.  Descendants  of  Ruthenian  noblemen 
have  been  absorbed  by  the  Polish  nobility,  which  has  become  the 
ruling  class.  This  economic  superiority,  coupled  to  political 
advantages  secured  from  the  Austrian  government  by  the  Galician 
statutes  of  1868,  makes  the  lot  of  the  Austrian  Poles  truly  enviable 
in  comparison  with  that  of  their  German  or  even  their  Russian 
kinsmen.  The  province  is  ruled  by  a  Diet  composed  of  Poles  and 
Ruthenians,  each  speaking  his  own  tongue.    The  authority  of  this 

"  G.  BienaiiiK^:    loc.    cit. 


body,  however,  is  strictly  restricted  to  provincial  affairs.    Extra- 
provincial  matters  are  under  the  direct  control  of  Vienna. 

The  Ruthenian  is  therefore  the  Pole's  great  rival  in  Galicia. 
Although  the  outward  manifestation  of  this  rivalry  assumes  the 
form  of  nationalistic  outbursts,  the  conflict  is,  in  the  main,  social 
and  economic.  The  Ruthenian  proletariat  is  at  odds  with  its 
Polish  rulers.  It  has  begun  to  dream  of  redemption  from  the 
vassalage  borne  for  centuries.  Fortunately  its  endeavors  are  a 
source  of  improvement  in  the  lot  of  both  Ruthenian  and  Polish 
peasants.  A  glimpse  of  the  power  vested  in  the  Ruthenian  mass 
is  thus  afforded.  As  a  people  these  Ruthenes  constitute  the 
w^esternmost  group  of  the  Little  Russian  division  of  the  Slavic 
people.  They  inhabit  the  territory  of  the  ancient  kingdom  of 
Ukraine  and  number  some  30,000,000  souls.  Southwestern  Russia 
is  peopled  by  them  almost  exclusively.  They  form  from  76  to  99 
per  cent  of  the  population  of  the  following  districts :  ^* 

1.  The  Ukraine  of  the  right  bank  of  the  Dnieper,  Podolia, 

Volhynia,  Kiev  and  Kholm. 

2.  The  Ukraine  of  the  left  bank  of  the  Dnieper,  Tcher- 

nihov,  Poltava,  Kharkov,  southwestern  Khursk  and 
Voronezh,  and  the  region  of  the  Don  Cosacks  to  the 
Sea  of  Azov. 

3.  The   steppe    of   Ukraine   lying   on   both    sides    of   the 

Dnieper  and  comprising  Katerynoslav,  Kherson  and 
the  eastern  parts  of  Bessarabia  and  Tauris. 

4.  North   Caucasus,   adjacent   to   the   region   of   the   Don 

Cosacks,  comprising  Kuban  and  the  eastern  parts  of 
the  Stavropolskoi  and  Terskaja  governments. 

In  addition  about  50,000  Ruthenians  reside  in  Bukovina,  while 
700,000  occupy  the  sub-Carpathian  districts  of  Hungary.  About 
2,000,000  are  scattered  in  Siberian  settlements.  In  Austria  the 
Carpathian  mountains  split  the  main  body  of  the  Ruthenians  into 
two  sections,  which  occupy  respectively  Galicia  and  Hungary.    In 

^•B.  Sands:  The  Ukraine,  London,  1914,  p.  8. 


the  latter  kingdom  they  are  distributed  mainly  in  the  northern 
and  northeastern  counties  of  Abanj,  Bereg,  Maramaros,  Saros, 
Ung  and  Zemplin. 

The  Ruthenians  claim  to  be  the  original  Russians.  The  purity 
of  the  Slav  type  is  better  preserved  among  them  than  among  any 
other  group  in  Russia  and  they  show  less  of  the  Asiatic  strain. 
They  represent  the  truly  European  Russians.  Racial  char- 
acteristics set  them  apart  from  the  main  body  of  Russians  on 
the  north  and  east  of  their  land.  Round-headedness  is  very 
pronounced  among  them  and  they  tend  to  be  tall  and  dark- 
complexioned.  Dialectical  differences  between  them  and  the 
Muscovites  of  the  north  and  east  also  exist. 

The  Masurians  of  northeastern  Germany  are  essentially  an 
agricultural  people  who  have  succeeded  in  supporting  themselves 
on  exceedingly  poor  soil.  They  occupy  the  marshy  belt  of  land 
which  has  become  famous  through  the  battles  fought  within  and 
around  its  borders  during  the  Great  European  War.  It  com- 
prises the  nine  districts  of  Allenstein,  Johannisburg,  Loetzen, 
Lyck,  Neidenburg,  Oletzko,  Ortelsburg,  Osterode  and  Sensburg. 
A  Masurian  element  constitutes  the  majority  of  the  inhabitants 
of  Augustov  and  Seiny,  the  two  southernmost  circles  of  the  gov- 
ernments of  Suwalki.  The  German  element  is  strongly  represented 
in  the  entire  region.  It  forms  a  contingent  of  some  70,000  indi- 
viduals in  the  governments  of  Kovno  and  Suwalki."  As  far  as 
can  be  ascertained,  the  earliest  inhabitants  of  the  land  consisted 
of  fishermen  occupying  lacustrine  habitations  resting  on  piles. 
Their  villages  are  disposed  around  the  hillocks  to  which  they 
resorted  for  shelter  from  man  and  the  elements  in  the  early 
period  of  the  settlement  of  the  land.  Locality  names  throughout 
the  region  are  Polish,  even  in  the  settlements  founded  by  the 
Knights  of  the  Teutonic  Order  or  the  Hohenzollerns.  Often  a 
thin  streak  of  Germanization  has  been  imparted  to  names  of 
villages  by  the  addition  of  the  prefix  Neu  or  Klein.^* 

"H.  Rosen:  Pet.  Mitt.,  Vol.  61,  Sept.  1915,  pp.  329-333. 

**  A.   Weinrich :    Bevolkerimgsstatistische   iind   Siedlungsgeographie,   Beitrage   zur 
Kunde  Ost-Masuiieiis,  vornehmlich  der  Kreise  Oletzko  und  Lycke.  Konigsberg,  1911. 

Fig.  40 — A  \Yendish  loghouse  in  the  Spreewald  where  ancient  Slavic  colonies  re- 
tain their  languaKe  and  customs  although  surrounded  by  Germans. 


Within  this  marshy  country,  a  Polish  folk  has  maintained  its 
own  institutions  ever  since  the  consolidation  of  Poles  into  a  dis- 
tinct people  within  the  drainage  area  of  the  Vistula.  The  only 
feature  of  Germanism  which  took  hold  in  the  land  was  the 
Protestant  religion.  The  300,000  Masurians,  therefore,  present 
the  queer  anomaly  of  a  Protestant  Polish  group.  Apart  from  this 
peculiarity  they  are  as  truly  Poles  as  their  land  is  part  of  the 
Vistula  basin.  With  the  revival  of  Polish  ideals  in  recent  years 
the  growth  of  Protestantism  in  the  region  has  been  checkedTI  It 
is  interesting  to  note  that  the  revulsion  of  religious  feeling  had 
its  source  in  the  province  of  Posen,  in  the  full  midst  of  Teutonic 
proselytism,  and  not,  as  might  have  been  expected,  in  Russian 

The  Wends  of  Germany  represent  the  only  intact  remnant  of 
the  Slav  populations  which  once  filled  the  country.  The  whole 
plain  country  of  northern  Germany  extending  from  the  Elbe  to 
the  Vistula  had  been  inhabited  by  the  Wends  since  early  Christian 
times.  The  country  between  the  Sale,  upper  Havel  and  Spree 
valleys  was  probably  their  original  settling  ground.-^  They  now 
occupy  Lusatia  and  are  sometimes  known  as  Lusatian  Serbians. 
In  the  Middle  Ages  the  name  of  Sorabes  was  given  to  them.  The 
Germans  first  began  to  invade  the  region  in  the  eleventh  century. 
In  the  fourteenth,  they  attained  numerical  preponderance.  The 
decline  of  the  Slav  communities  which  was  accelerated  by  the 
Thirty  Years'  War,  begins  about  this  time.  The  union  of 
Lusatia  with  Bohemia  helped  the  Slav  cause  for  a  while,  but  the 
treaty  of  Prague,  in  1635,  by  which  the  country  was  awarded  to 
Saxony  crushed  Slavic  hopes.  At  present,  the  Slavic  language 
has  practically  disappeared  from  the  region,  although  the  appear- 
ance and  customs  of  the  inhabitants  are  more  Slav  than  German. 

As  late  as  the  Middle  Ages  the  Wends  occupied  an  area  con- 
siderably to  the  north  of  their  present  seat.  The  eastern  valley 
of  the  Elbe,  as  well  as  Mecklenburg  territory,  was  settled  by  them 
before  1160.  Charters  of  this  period  such  as  that  of  the  Schwerin 
bishopric  of  1178,  or  of  the  cloister  of  Dargun  of  1174,  show 

*' L.  Niederle:    La  race  slave,  Paris,   1916,  p.  94. 


Slavic  place  names  exclusively.  Among  signs  pointing  to  a  pre- 
German  spread  of  the  Wendish  element  are  the  relics  of  Slavic 
family  names  and  evidences  of  the  old  ''Hakenhufen"  di\dsion 
of  the  land  in  lots  of  15  acres.  This  last  proof  appears  irrefutable 
and  points,  upon  application,   to   the   former   extension   of   the 


Lissa  o 

'^Briix  14 





Fig.  41 — The  area  of  Wend  speech.  The  dotted  patch  shows  that  Kottbus  is  the 
center  of  the  district  in  which  the  majority  of  the  inhabitants  (over  50  per  cent.) 
speak  the  Slav  language.     In  the  ruled  area  the  percentage  of  Wends  is  less  than  50. 

Wendish  element  to  the  very  shores  of  the  Baltic.^"  Germaniza- 
tion  seems  to  have  been  thoroughly  accomplished  by  the  second 
half  of  the  thirteenth  century.  But  even  today  a  great  part  of 
the  area  east  of  the  Elbe  must  be  regarded  as  a  land  of  German- 
spealdng  Slavs. 

Surrounded  by  Germans,  the  Wendish  colony  is  doomed  to 
disappear  in  spite  of  a  literary  renascence  which  helps  to  per- 
petuate national  consciousness  in  its  midst.  According  to 
statistics,  the  number  of  Wends  is  steadily  declining.  The 
progress  of  Germanization  is  particularly  apparent  in  Lower 
Lusatia,  which  is  part  of  the  Prussian  domain.    It  was  estimated 

•"  H.  Witte:  Wendische  Bev6lkerungsreste  in  Mecklenburg,  Forsch.  z.  deut.  Lcmdes- 
u.  Volksk.,  Vol.  16,  No.  2,  1907. 


in  1885  that  this  people  comprised  about  176,000  souls.  Later 
computations  place  this  figure  at  about  156,000.  The  absence  of 
an  intellectual  class  among  them,  compulsory  military  service  in 
German  regiments  and  the  use  of  the  German  language  in  church 
favor  the  progress  of  Teutonism.^^ 

The  want  of  linguistic  unity  among  the  Wends  also  tends  to 
weaken  their  position.  Idiomatic  differences  between  the  lan- 
guages of  Upper  and  Lower  Lusatia  are  such  as  to  prevent  the 
natives  of  the  respective  districts  from  rendering  themselves 
intelligible  to  one  another.  The  literary  language  of  Kottbus 
differs  from  that  of  Bautzen.  Diversity  of  customs  and  institu- 
tions is  also  noticeable  between  the  two  groups.  German  ideas 
increase  this  cultural  split,  the  divergence  from  Slavic  institu- 
tions and  thought  thus  becoming  accentuated.  Unlike  the 
Masurians,  and  because  of  their  isolation,  the  Wends  cannot  look 
to  eventual  incorporation  with  the  Polish  body.  Their  political 
destiny  is  therefore  distinct  from  that  of  the  Poles  J 

We  have  seen  in  this  chapter  that  although  conquered  and 
divided  Poland  still  lives.  A  compact  mass  of  over  20,000,000 
individuals  speaking  the  same  language  is  a  force  which  cannot 
but  make  itself  felt.  This  main  body  of  Poles  resides  within  its 
own  linguistic  boundaries.  Smaller  colonies  are  found  outside 
these  limits.  The  Polish  inhabitants  of  Lithuania  and  Ukraine 
muster  about  2,000,000.  Vilna  alone,  the  capital  of  Lithuania,  has 
a  population  of  70,000  Poles  out  of  a  total  of  170,000  inhabi- 
tants.^^ The  Polish  colonies  of  Ukraine,  of  the  coal-fields  of  the 
Donetz,  and  of  the  Caucasus  comprise  wealthly  landholders, 
manufacturers,  bankers  and  merchants.  These  men  though  living 
outside  the  ethnographic  boundaries  of  their  people  nevertheless 
exercise  the  weight  of  their  influence  on  its  behalf.  Thus  the 
three  groups  into  which  conquest  has  divided  the  Poles  remain 
today  in  intimate  contact  in  spite  of  the  political  boundaries 
which  separate  them.  It  is  mainly  in  the  economic  -field  that  bind- 
ing ties  have  been  established  between  the  three,  for  the  Poles  of 
the  three  continental  empires  have  made  it  a  point  to  promote 

**  Op.  cit.,  pp.  96-97.  ^'  Including  40  per  cent  of  Jews. 


trade  relations  with  one  another.     This  was  forging  a  new  link 
to  their  pre-existing  natural  ties  of  kinship. 

The  problem  of  delimiting  Polish  national  boundaries  is  com- 
plicated on  the  east  and  west,  as  has  been  stated,  by  the  absence 
of  prominent  surface  features.  On  both  sides  the  lines  of  lin- 
guistic parting  provide  the  only  practicable  demarcation.  On  the 
north  and  south,  however,  the  Baltic  and  the  Carpathians  may  be 
utilized  advantageously  as  national  frontiers.  But  the  fate  of 
the  Polish  region  is  strongly  outlined  by  nature,  for  the  entire 
basin  of  the  Vistula  is  a  regional  unit.  Any  partitioning  of  this 
basin  would  probably  be  followed  by  political  conflicts. 


III  the  ninth  century  the  Slavs  occupied  the  eastern  plains  of  Europe  between 
the  valleys  of  the  Elbe  and  the  Dnieper,  Southwai'd  they  spread  to  the  northern 
foothills  of  the  mountains  of  central  Europe.  Although  subdivided  into  tribes  bearing 
different  names,  there  existed  no  essential  differences  among  them  as  to  language  or 
custom.  The  pagan  divinities  worshiped  in  the  drainage  area  of  the  Vistula  were 
the  gods  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Dnieper  valley.  Tribal  authority  was  exercised 
by  a  chief  designated  as  Kniaz  or  Voivod  throughout  these  lowlands.  Intercourse 
between  the  various  groups  was  constant.  A  vague  political  union  is  even  discerned 
by  some  historians.  The  Poles  and  Ruthenians  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  the 
Bohemians,  are  the  best  modern  representatives  of  these  original  Slavs.  All  the 
eastern  Slavs,  however,  have  mixed  more  or  less  with  Asiatic  peoples. 

Some  light  is  thrown  on  the  European  origin  of  the  peoples  of  Aryan  speech 
by  the  gTOwth  of  the  Slavs.  The  Slavs  of  Europe  now  form  by  far  the  most  impor- 
tant ethnic  gTOi;p  of  that  continent.  They  comj^rise  about  160,000,000  individuals 
out  of  a  total  of  400,000,000  inhabitants  of  Europe.  Two-thirds  of  this  Slavic 
element  consists  of  Russians  (66,000,000  Great  Russians,  32,000,000  Little  Russians, 
and  about  8,000,000  White  Russians). ^^  Next  to  the  Russians  in  numerical  impor- 
tance are  the  Poles  (23,000,000).  The  Serbo-Croatian  group  can  only  muster  half 
the  Polish  array.  The  Bohemians  follow,  8,000,000  strong,  while  the  Bulgarian 
group  does  not  quite  attain  6,000,000.  Smaller  groups  are  the  2,000,000  Slovenes, 
the  2,000,000  Slovaks  and  the  less  important  enclave  communities  of  German  lands 
like  the  Wend  in  Lusatia.  J\ 

The  homeland  of  the  primitive  nucleus  of  this  branch  of  the  Indo-European 
family  is  restricted  in  the  main  to  the  plains  extending  from  the  northwestern 

"The  Slavs  are  divided  by  religion  into  a  main  body  of  about  110,000,000  in- 
dividuals belonging  to  the  Russian  Orthodox  Church,  about  37,000,000  Roman  Catho- 
lics, 5,000,000  Raskolniks  or  Sectarians,  between  1,000,000  and  2,000,000  Protestants 
and  over  1,000,000  Mohammedans. 



corner  of  the  Black  Sea  to  the  sandy  delta  of  the  Oder.  The  valleys  of  the  great 
rivers  in  this  lowland  exerted  the  earliest  separative  influence  which  is  known  to  have 
occurred  in  the  primitive  Slav  group.  Niederle  distinguishes  three  main  sub-groups 
which  fit  into  the  frame  of  eastern  European  hydrogi'aphy.^*  A  northwesterly 
branch  attained  the  valleys  of  the  Elbe,  Sale  and  Sumava,  and  gave  birth  to  the 
Bohemian  and  Polish  factions.  A  central  group,  originally  occupying  the  region 
of  the  upper  Vistula,  the  Dniester  and  middle  Danube,  rounded  the  southern  slopes 
of  the  Carpathians  and,  traveling  up-stream  on  the  Danube,  eventually  attained' 
the  valleys  of  the  Save  and  Drave.  The  Slavs  of  southeastern  Europe  are 
descendants  of  this  group.  Originally  pure  Slavs,  they  are  permeated  with  Asiatic 
blood  owing  to  repeated  invasions  from  the  east.  The  third  group  was  destined  to 
form  the  substratum  of  Slavic  Russia.  It  radiated  from  the  basin  of  the  Dnieper 
as  far  noi-th  as  the  Quit  of  Finland  and  eastward  to  the  valleys  of  the  Oka,  the 
Don  and  the  Volga.    | 


Former  Polish  Provinces  Under  German  Rule  at  the  Beginning  of  the 

European  War  ' 

Area  in 
Province  sq.  ml. 

POMERANIA,  regencies  of  Sti'zalow 
(Stralsund),  Szezecin  (Stettin), 
and  Koszalin   (Koslin)    11,751 

West  Prussia,  regencies  of  Gdansk 
(Dantzik)  and  Kwidzyn  (Marien- 
werder)     9,966 

East  Prussia,  regencies  of  Kro- 
lewiec  (Konigsberg),  Glombin 
(Gumbinnen)  and  Olsztyn  (Al- 
lenstein)    14,431 

Population  Period  of  loss 

1910  to  Poland 

1,716,921  Xlllth  century 

1,703,474  1772 

2,064,175  1656  * 

*  L.  Strzembosz :  Tableau  des  divisions  administratives  actuelles  de  la  Pologne, 
Paris,  1915. 

^  Not  including  the  circles  of  Lembork  (Lauenburg),  (479  sq.  mi.,  52,851  inhab.), 
Bytow  (Biitow)  (238  sq.  mi.,  28,151  inhab.),  and  Drahim  land  (Draheim)  (197 
Bq.  mi.,  18,500  inhab.),  which  were  lost  in  the  first  partition  in  1772. 

*  Not  including  the  circle  of  Susz  (Rosenberg)  (407  sq.  mi.,  54,550  inhab.),  and 
half  of  that  of  Kwidzyn  (187  sq.  mi.,  34,213  inhab.),  which  together  made  part  of 
ducal  Prussia  and  were  lost  in   1656. 

*  Given  in  fief  by  the  Polish  kings  to  the  Dukes  of  Brandenburg  and  exonerated 
in  1656  from  the  oath  of  vassalage,  except  the  four  circles  of  Branicwo    (Braunsberg) 

(383  sq.  mi.,  54,613  inhab.),  Licbark   (Heilsberg)    (427  sq.  mi.,  51,912  inhab.),  Olsztyn 
(Allenstein)     (529   sq.  mi.,   90,996   inhab.)    and  Reszel    (Rossel)     (333   sq.  mi.,  50,472 
inhab.),  which   together   under   the   name   of   Duchy   of   Warmie   made   part   of  Royal 
Prussia  and  were  lost  at  the  first  partition. 

La  race  slave,  Paris,  1911,  pp.  3-4. 


TABLE  I— Continued 

Area  in  Population  Period  of  loss 

Province  sq.  mi.  1910  to  Poland 

PosNANiA,     regencies     of     Poznan 

(Posen)    and   Bydgoszcz    (Brom- 

berg)    11,307  2,099,831  1815' 

Regency    of   Frankfurt    (Franc- 

fort-sur-1'Oder)    7,487  1,233,189  Xlllth  century 

Province     of     Silesia,    regencies 

of   LigTiica    (Liegnitz),   Wroclaw 

(Breslau),'  and  Opole  (Oppeln)     15,731  5,225,962  1335 

Saxon     District     of     Budziszyn 

(Bautzen) '    963  443,549  Xlllth  century 

"  Conferred  on  the  king  of  Prussia  under  the  name  of  Grand  Duchy  of  Posen  at 
the  time  of  the  partition  of  the  Duchy  of  Warsaw  by  the  Congress  of  Vienna  in  1815. 

•  Former  appendages  of  a  branch,  extinguished  in  1675,  of  the  royal  Polish  house 
of  Piast. 

'  Part  of  the  former  marquisatc  of  Lusace. 


Polish   Administrative    Divisions   Under   Austro-Hungarian    Rule    at    the 
Beginning  of  the  European  War 

Area  in  Period  of  loss 

Territory  sq.  mi.  Population  to  Poland 

]\Iarquisate  of  Moravia 866  2,622,271  Xlth  century 

Duchy  of  Silesia  '   2,007  756,949                        — 

Kingdom    of    Galicia    with    the 

Grand  Duchy  of  Cracow  '  30,615  8,025,675  1772-1795 

*  Part  of  the  former  Polish  Silesia,  kept  by  Germany. 

*The  territory   of   Cracow,   made    into   a   republic    in    1815    by   the   Congress   of 
Vienna,  was  annexed  by  Austria  in  1846. 


Polish  Administrative  Divisions  Under  Russian  Rule  at  the  Beginning  of 

THE  European  War 

Area  in  Population  in  Period  of  loss 

Territory  sq.  mi.  1910'  to  Poland 

Baltic  Provinces: 

Gov't  of  Esthonia    7,897  471,400              1660 

"      "    Livonia    18,342  1,466,900              1660 

"      "    Courland    10,642  749,100              1795 

Lithuania  : 

Gov't  of  Grodno   15,081  1,974,400  ) 

"      "    Kovno    15,853  1,796,700  Y          1793-1795  = 

"      "    Vihia    16,587  1,957,000  ) 

^  Consisting  of  Poles  and  natives. 

'  The  circle  of  Bialystok,  occupied  by  the  king  of  Prussia  in  1795,  was  ceded  to 
Russia  by  the  treaty  of  Tilsit  in  1807. 



TABLE  111— Co7itinued 

Area   in 

Territory  sq.  mi. 

White  Ruthenia: 

Gov't  of  Smolensk   21,757 

"      "    Minsk   35,649 

"      "   Mohilev    18,738 

"      "    Witebsk    17,615 

Kingdom  op  Poland: 

Gov't  of  Kalisz 4,436 

''       "    Kielce 3,936 

"       "    Lublin 6,567 

"      "   Lom^a 4,119 

"      "    Piotrkow 4,777 

"      "    Ploek    3,684 

"       "    Radom    4,817 

"      "    Siedlce    5,591 

"       "    Suwalki    4,895 

"      "   Warsaw    6,833 

Ruthenia  : 

Gov't  of  Kiovie    19,890 

"      "   Podolia 16,587 

"       "    Volhynia    28,023 

Population  in 


1,183,800  1 


1,981,300    I 


2,547,700  J 


Period  of  loss 
to  Poland 



1815  by  Congress 
of  Vienna 


*  The  city  of  Kijow    (Kiev)    with   its  district    (773   sq.   mi.,   560,000  inhab.)    was 
lost  in  1686. 



German  Census  Figures  ' 

Locality                                             Population  Germans  Poles 

Kreuzburg    51,906  24,363  24,487 

Rosenberg    52,341  8,586  42,234 

Oppeln  (city)    33,907  27,128  5,371 

Oppeln  (district)    117,906  23,740  89,323 

Gross-Strehlitz 73,383  12,616  58,102 

Lublinitz 50,388  7,384  39,969 

Gleiwitz   (city)    66,981  49,543  9,843 

Tost-Gleiwitz   80,515  16,408  61,509 

Tarnowitz 77,583  20,969  51,859 

Beuthen   (city)    67,718  41,071  22,401 

Konigshiitte  (city)   72,641  39,276  24,687 

Beuthen-Land    195,844  59,308  123,016 

Hindenburg   139,810  63,875  81,567 

Kattowitz  (city)   43,173  36,891  5,766 

Kattowitz  (district)    216,807  65,763  140,592 

*  R.  Baumgarten:   Deutsche  und  Polen  in  Oberschlesien,  Deutsche  Erde,  Vol.  13, 
No.  7,  1914-1915,  pp.  175-179. 


TABLE  lY—Continved 

LocAi,iTY  Population 

Pless    122,897 

Rybnik    131,630 

Ratibor  (city)   38,424 

Ratibor    (district)    118,923 

Kosel 75,673 

Leobschutz   82,635 

Neustadt   97,537 

Falkenberg 37,526 

Neisse  (city)   25,938 

Neisse  (district)    75,285 

Grottkau    40,610                   39,589                          825 
























The  Bohemians,  who  with  the  Moravians  form  the  vanguard 
of  the  Slavs  in  Europe,  occupy  the  mountain-girt  plateau  of 
Bohemia  in  the  very  heart  of  the  continent.  Here,  a  steady 
easterly  spread  of  Teutons  has  prevented  expansion  of  these 
Slavs  along  the  eastern  valleys  which  provide  them  with  com- 
munication with  the  rest  of  the  continent.  Bohemians  and 
Moravians  thus  found  themselves  shut  within  the  mountainous 
rim  of  their  land  by  the  Germans  of  Silesia  and  Austria  proper. 

The  German  ring  surrounding  Bohemia  is  composed  of 
groups  belonging  to  various  types  of  the  Teutonic  family.  A 
southwestern  element  consists  of  descendants  of  Bavarian  set- 
tlers. Farmers  and  woodsmen  were  introduced  into  the  Bohmer- 
wald,  as  an  inevitable  phase  of  the  exploitation  of  the  mountain- 
ous area,  by  religious  communities  of  the  thirteenth  century.  The 
end  of  the  Thirty  Years'  War  was  marked  by  a  new  influx  of 
Germans  needed  to  repopulate  the  sorely  devastated  Bohemian 
districts.  The  Bavarians,  however,  never  reached  the  foot  of  the 
eastern  slopes.  Modern  Bohemian  resistance  to  their  spread 
toward  the  plain  persists  unflinchingly.  Northward,  the  Erzge- 
birge  uplift  is  also  a  German  ethnographic  conquest.  For  cen- 
turies its  mineral  wealth  has  attracted  artisans  from  Franconia, 
Thuringia  and  Saxony,  The  mountain  slopes  re-echo  today  to 
the  sound  of  the  dialects  of  these  ancient  countries.  The  Saxon 
element  prevails  particularly  among  the  inhabitants  of  the  Elbe 

Farther  east,  descendants  of  Lusatian  and  Silesian  peasants 
still  use  the  vernacular  of  their  ancestors  in  the  upland  formed 
by  the  Iser  Gebirge  and  the  Eiesen  Gebirge.  In  modern  times 
the  valleys  of  these  mountains  yield  a  steady  stream  of  German- 



speaking  inhabitants  to  the  industrial  towns  of  the  southern 
plain.  The  German  workingman 's  competition  with  his  Bohemian 
fellow  laborer  is  keen  in  this  district,  but  it  has  not  been  marked 
by  a  notable  advance  of  the  Teutonic  idiom. 

rLinguistically  the  Bohemians  and  Moravians  form  a  unit 
hemmed  in  by  Germans  on  all  sides  except  the  east,  where  they 
abut  against  their  Slovak  kinsmen.  Community  of  national  aspi- 
rations, under  the  leadership  of  the  Bohemian  element,  is 
generally  ascribed  to  these  three  Slavic  groups.  The  union  has 
been  fostered  by  the  lack  of  a  literary  language  among  Moravians, 
who  have  adopted  the  Bohemian  alphabet  and  style.  "With  the 
Slovaks  ^  inferiority  of  numbers  helped  the  spread  of  the 
Bohemian  language  and  literature. 

The  Czech  linguistic  area  presents  homogeneity  of  composition 
which  is  seldom  encountered  in  other  parts  of  Austria-Hungary. 
Intermingling  of  Slavic  and  Teutonic  elements  has  been  slight  in 
this  advanced  strip  of  Slavdom.  Overlapping  of  German  is  met 
in  belts  generally  parallel  to  the  political  divide.  It  is  particu- 
larly noticeable  in  the  angle  formed  by  the  junction  of  the 
Bohmerw^ald  and  Erzgebirge  near  the  western  linguistic  divide, 
where  it  almost  attains  the  town  of  Pilsen.^  Beyond,  in  a  north- 
erly direction,  the  volcanic  area  characterized  by  thermal  springs 
lies  within  the  German  line.  Keichenberg,  a  strenuous  center  of 
Teutonism,  maintains  easterly  and  westerly  prongs  of  German 
in  the  Iser-Eiesen  uplifts  and  the  Elbe  valley,  respectively.  The 
German  of  Silesia  spreads  into  Moravia  along  the  Zwittau- 
Olmiitz-Neu  Titschen  line. 

A  short  stretch  of  the  linguistic  boundary  coincides  with  the 
political  frontier  in  the  neighborhood  of  Taus,  but  the  rest  of 
the  southern  Bohmerwald  overlooking  Bohemian  levels  is  German 
in  speech  from  the  crests  to  the  zone  in  which  widening  of  the 
valleys  becomes  established.     The  disappearance  of  this  moun- 

*  Official  Austrian  fibres  estimate  the  number  of  Slovaks  at  slightly  over  2,000,000. 
Slavic  authorities  generally  give  higher  figures. 

*  J.    Zemmich :    Doutsclion    unci    Slawen    in    den    osterrcichischen    Siidetenliindern, 
Deutsche  Erde,  Vol.  2,  1903,  pp.  1-4. 


tainous  chain,  in  southern  Moravia,  coincides  with  a  southerly 
extension  of  Czech  in  the  valley  of  the  March.  Contact  with 
Slovak  dialects  begins  in  the  Beskid  area. 

Celts,  Teutons  and  Slavs  have  occupied  the  Bohemian  lozenge 
in  turn.  The  appellation  Czechs  first  appears  in  the  sixth  cen- 
tury. National  consolidation  began  with  the  country's  conversion 
to  Christianity,  three  hundred  years  later,  and  was  maintained 
with  varying  fortunes  until  1620.  Bohemian  political  freedom 
was  annihilated  in  that  year  on  the  battlefield  of  the  White 
Mountain.  After  this  defeat  the  land  and  its  inhabitants  lapsed 
into  a  state  of  lethargy.  The  high  cultural  attainment  of  a  few 
modern  Bohemians  was  sufficient  to  rouse  the  country  to  a  sense 
of  national  feeling.^  Fortunately  native  poets,  historians  and 
scientists  were  successful  in  infusing  their  patriotic  ideals  in  the 
minds  of  their  countrymen.  In  particular,  the  fire  of  Bohemian 
patriotism  has  been  kept  alive  by  literary  activity. 

Successful  attempts  on  the  part  of  Hungarians  to  assimilate 
the  Slovaks  has  caused  these  mountaineers  to  turn  to  their 
Bohemian  kinsmen  for  assistance  in  the  preservation  of  race  and 
tradition.  Merging  of  national  aspirations  in  this  case,  was 
facilitated  by  close  linguistic  affinity.  A  Czecho-Slovak  body 
consisting  of  8,410,998  individuals  *  thus  came  into  being  within 
the  Dual  Monarchy  in  order  to  maintain  resistance  against  Ger- 
man and  Hungarian  encroachments.   ( 

The  struggle  between  Teuton  and  Slav  in  Bohemia  goes  back 
to  the  obscure  period  of  the  country's  early  history.  As  late  as 
the  middle  of  the  ninth  century  Bohemia  was  mainly  a  pagan 
state.  German  missionaries  at  that  time  were  endeavoring  to 
convert  the  natives  to  Christianity.  But  the  mere  nationality  of 
the  apostles  of  the  new  faith  prevented  them  from  gaining 
adherents.  From  the  heart  of  Europe  the  Bohemians  looked 
eastward  to  the  Christians  of  the  Slavic  race  for  religious  salva- 
tion. We  read  of  envoys  being  sent  to  the  court  of  the  Byzan- 
tine emperor  to  beseech  this  ruler  to  send  Christian  teachers  of 

^  L.  Bourlier:  Leg  Tcheqiies  et  la  Boheme  contemporaine,  Paris,  1897,  pp.  143-220. 
*  Census  returns  for  1910.     New  Inter.  Encyc,  New  York,  1914. 


the  Slavic  faith  to  Bohemia,  as  the  German  missionaries  could 
not  make  themselves  intelligible  to  the  natives.  These  steps 
were  viewed  with  considerable  apprehension  by  German  bisho^js, 
especially  after  the  success  which  attended  the  proselytizing 
efforts  of  Methodus  and  his  colleagues.  The  Byzantine  priests 
had  brought  with  them  a  translation  of  the  Bible  in  the  Slavic 
language  of  Macedonia.  The  replacement  of  Bohemian  by  Ger- 
man was  thus  effectively  prevented.  Bohemia  and  Moravia 
definitely  became  bilingual  countries  in  the  thirteenth  century  as 
a  result  of  the  inflow  of  German  colonists  who  responded  to 
urgent  appeals  for  settlers  made  by  Bohemian  rulers  in  that 
period.  The  belt  of  German  towns  which  completely  encircles 
Bohemia  is  a  consequence  of  this  policy.  The  deforested  zones 
of  the  west  and  northwest  received  the  largest  number  of 

In  western  and  northern  Bohemia  a  struggle  for  supremacy 
between  German  and  Czech  has  been  carried  on  for  years  with 
unabated  vehemence.  The  scene  of  contest  between  the  two 
peoples  is  often  laid  in  individual  communes.  Clerical,  industrial 
and  educational  influences  are  constantly  at  work  for  the  exten- 
sion of  the  linguistic  area  with  which  they  side.  On  the  whole 
the  Bohemians,  being  in  command  of  superior  pecuniary 
resources,  appear  to  be  gaining  ground,  although  from  special 
causes  the  German  element  shows  an  advance  in  certain  districts. 
La  those  parts  where  mixture  has  taken  place  no  definite 
boundary  between  pure  German  and  Bohemian  (i.e.,  in  over  90 
per  cent  of  the  respective  peoples)  can  be  drawn.  As  a  rule,  it 
is  the  Bohemians  who  have  of  late  advanced  their  outposts  into 
the  German  sphere,  the  Germanization  of  which  dates  back  some 
two  hundred  years.  Although  they  have  fallen  back  somewhat 
in  the  tongue  of  land  which  projected  into  German  ground,  north 
of  Mies,  they  have  gained  much  ground  in  Pilsen  and  in  the 
industrial  region  around  Nurschan,  west  of  that  town.  Fifty 
years  ago  only  some  three  or  four  thousand  out  of  a  total  popu- 
lation of  fourteen  thousand  in  Pilsen  were  Bohemians,  but  the 
influx  of  population  which  has  since  taken  place  has  been  almost 


entirely  Bohemian.  In  1890  the  proportion  of  Germans  in  the 
city  only  amounted  to  16.2  per  cent.  Niirschan,  the  chief  center 
of  the  coal-fields  of  western  Bohemia,  boasts  a  Bohemian 
majority  and  if  the  process  now  going  on  is  continued  the 
Bohemian  population  will  probably  in  time  join  hands  with  that 
in  Mies.^ 

Further  to  the  northeast  similar  conditions  prevail,  though  the 
linguistic  frontier  is  in  parts  more  sharply  defined.  In  the  coal- 
fields of  Briix  and  Dux  the  Bohemian  element  has  largely  increased 
on  the  German  side  of  the  normal  frontier  owing  to  the  influx  of 
Czech  miners.  In  Trebnitz  again  the  Czech  language  has  gained 
a  firm  footing,  although  the  toAvn  at  the  end  of  the  nineteenth 
century  was  entirely  German.  In  the  neighboring  town  of 
Lobositz,  however,  which  occupies  an  important  position  at  the 
junction  of  six  lines  of  railway,  the  prospects  from  the  German 
point  of  view  are  brighter.  The  accession  of  Charles  IV  to  the 
throne  of  Bohemia  in  1346  was  an  event  of  the  utmost  impor- 
tance in  the  linguistic  history  of  the  country.®  This  sovereign, 
the  successor  of  German  princes  who  had  never  allowed  Bohemia 
fair  play,  showed  marked  affection  for  the  land  he  was  called 
upon  to  rule  and  set  himself  to  master  its  language  thoroughly. 
For  two  hundred  years  prior  to  his  reign,  Bohemian  stood  in 
danger  of  being  replaced  by  German.  Other  Slav  dialects  were 
fast    disappearing    before    the    vigorous    advance    of    Teutonic 

"  Quoted  from  the  Geogr.  Joitrn.,  Vol.   16,  1900,  p.  553. 

"  According  to  data  gathered  by  Niederle  "  the  Bohemian  boundary  in  the  fourteenth 
century  started  at  Kynwart  and  passed  through  Zdar,  Kralipy  and  Komotan,  the  latter 
being  German.  Thence  it  attained  Most  and  spread  to  Duchcov  and  Dieczin.  Bilin 
and  Teplitz  were  still  Bohemian.  The  frontier  then  reached  the  German  settlement  of 
Benesov  and  extended  to  Jablonna  and  beyond  the  lestred  mountains  until  it  struck 
the  sources  of  the  Iser  river.  Reichenberg  was  a  German  city  in  the  fourteenth  century. 
The  Germans  also  occupied  the  mountainous  land  beyond  Hohenelbe.  This  town  was 
then  peopled  by  Bohemians  mainly,  but  Pilnikov,  Trutnov,  Zaclev  and  Stare  Buky  were 
already  German.  Starkov  was  Bohemian,  but  the  Brunov  region  and  the  Kladsko 
country  was  Germanized.  Olesnica  and  Rokytince  were  Boliemian.  Beyond  Policzka 
and  Litomysl  the  situation  was  similar  to  that  of  our  day.  Nemecky  Brod  contained  a 
German  enclave.  Jindrichuv  Hradec  as  well  as  Budweiss,  Krumlov  and  Prachatice  were 
inhabited  by  both  peoples.  The  Kasperk  mountains  were  mainly  German.  The  boundary 
in  the  Domazlice  country  was  on  Bohemian  soil.  Klatoiy  was  a  mixed  zone,  while 
Tachov  was  German." 


speech.  Through  its  literature  alone  the  Boheraiaii  language  was 
preserved.  This  literary  development  was  an  advantage  which 
was  not  possessed  by  the  Slav  languages,  which  gave  way  before 

As  a  result  of  Charles's  benevolent  policy  Bohemian  became 
the  language  of  the  court.  Furthermore  it  was  used  exclusively 
in  many  courts  of  law,  which  w^ere  re-established  through  the 
same  influence.  It  was  even  decreed  that  speakers  at  the  assem- 
blies of  towTi  magistrates  should  use  the  language  of  their  choice 
and  that  no  one  speaking  only  German  could  be  appointed  a 
judge.  In  this  way  equality  for  the  Bohemian  language  was 
obtained  in  the  districts  in  which  Germans  had  settled.' 

The  creation  of  the  Archbishopric  of  Prague  and  the  founda- 
tion of  the  "new  town"  of  Prague  dated  also  from  the  reign  of 
King  Charles.  Bohemian  clergymen  were  encouraged  to  preach 
in  the  vernacular.  Their  sermons  reached  the  people  and  stirred 
them  to  thought.  The  national  movement  against  the  Roman 
Church  was  thus  facilitated.  But  another  cause  favored  the 
spread  of  Protestantism  in  Bohemia.  Antagonism  to  Catholicism 
was  merely  a  special  form  of  Bohemian  objection  to  German 
influence  in  the  land.  The  Hussite  movement  is  therefore  an 
episode  in  the  prolonged  struggle  between  Teuton  and  Slav. 

The  enlargement  of  Prague  infused  vitality  into  the  Bohemian 
language.  The  new  town  was  Bohemian  in  speech  as  well  as  in 
sentiment.  Slavic  prevailed  exclusively  in  municipal  offices  and 
tribunals.  Venceslas,  who  followed  Charles,  faithfully  main- 
tained his  predecessor's  attitude  towards  Bohemian.  A  notable 
advance  in  favor  of  the  language  of  the  land  was  made  in  his 
reign  by  a  decision  according  to  which  all  decrees  of  the  court 
and  the  government,  which  hitherto  had  been  rendered  in  either 
German  or  Latin,  were  to  be  henceforth  published  in  Bohemian. 

The  University  of  Prague,  which  has  always  been  a  center  of 
Bohemian  intellectual  life,  was  also  affected  by  these  changes. 
In  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  century  the  German  element  in 
Bohemia  had  complete  control  of  the  affairs  of  this  institution. 

'Liitzow:   Bohemia,  New  York,  1910,  pp.  71,  92. 


Its  chairs  were  filled  by  Teutons  and  its  dignities  awarded  to 
their  kinsmen.  In  1385,  swayed  by  national  aspirations  and 
relying  on  the  predilection  shown  them  in  high  quarters, 
Bohemians  began  to  protest  against  the  presence  of  foreigners 
in  their  national  seat  of  learning.  Their  appeal  found  a  response 
with  the  Archbishop  of  Prague,  who  ruled  that  Bohemians  were 
entitled  to  priority  in  appointments  to  university  offices,  and 
that  only  in  case  of  their  unfitness  was  a  German  to  be  selected. 
Complaint  of  this  decision  was  made  by  the  Germans  to  the  Pope 
and  a  compromise  reached  in  virtue  of  which  predominance  of 
Bohemian  rights  was  obtained.  The  appearance  of  John  Huss 
on  the  scene  of  this  struggle  was  the  next  step  in  the  task  of 
completely  emancipating  Bohemia  from  German  rule. 

The  national  movement  fostered  in  this  manner  was  to  end 
disastrously  at  the  battle  of  the  White  Mountain  in  1620.  The 
treaty  of  Westphalia  removed  all  probability  of  the  establishment 
of  an  autonomous  Bohemian  nation.  But  Bohemian  patriots 
have  a  saying  that  ''as  long  as  the  language  lives  the  nation  is 
not  dead,"  and  through  all  the  dark  days  of  the  country's  his- 
tory, in  the  very  heart  of  continental  Europe,  cut  off  from  the 
surrounding  lands  by  a  wall  of  forested  slopes,  the  Bohemian 
language  has  held  its  own,  not  merely  as  a  vernacular  but  as  a 
literary  language  worthy  of  the  nation's  pride. 

A  period  of  marked  decline  intervened,  however,  between  the 
seventeenth  and  nineteenth  centuries.  The  crushing  blow  inflicted 
on  Bohemian  nationalism  in  1620  was  speedily  followed  by  a  rigid 
German  oversight  of  the  country.  Seven  years  later,  Ferdinand 
inaugurated  a  series  of  measures  aimed  at  destroying  the  cause 
for  which  Bohemians  had  sacrificed  their  lives.  The  German 
language  began  to  supplant  the  Bohemian.  The  ''renewed 
ordinance  of  the  land,'.'  issued  in  1627,  contained  provisions  for 
the  recognition  of  German  in  tribunals  and  government  offices  on 
the  same  terms  as  Bohemian.  The  appointment  of  Germans  to 
important  offices  was  a  policy  which  marked  this  period.  Its 
effects  became  perceptible  in  the  growing  use  of  the  conquerors^ 
language.    The  seventeenth  century  is  marked  by  a  rapid  growth 


of  the  Teutonic  belt  encircling  Boliemia.  Luditz  and  Saaz  were 
lost  to  tlie  Bohemian  language  in  that  period.  So  were  the 
districts  of  Rokytince  and  Vichlaby  ^  in  the  eastern  section 
of  the  country.  But  since  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century 
little  change  has  taken  place  in  the  German-Bohemian  linguistic 

Among  the  causes  which  contributed  to  the  decline  of  the 
Bohemian  language  about  this  time  were  the  land  confiscations 
which  were  carried  out  on  an  extensive  scale  by  the  Imperialists.® 
Most  of  the  noblemen  of  Bohemia  were  deprived  of  their  estates. 
As  a  result  about  half  the  landed  property  of  the  country  was 
taken  away  from  its  Slav  owners.  This  spoliation  was  carried 
on  by  the  Catholics,  the  despoiled  and  exiled  Hussites  being 
replaced  by  Germans,  Spaniards,  Walloons  and  even  Irish.  This 
foreign  element  naturally  adopted  the  German  language  and 
Bohemian  was  abandoned  to  serfs  and  peasants. 

The  humble  tillers  of  Bohemian  soil  proved  faithful  custo- 
dians of  their  native  speech.  They  stored  the  language  during 
two  centuries  as  though  they  had  been  gifted  with  the  fore- 
knowledge of  the  splendid  literary  revival  which  was  to  mark  its 
renaissance  at  the  magic  touch  of  Kolar,  Sofarik  and  Palacky. 
Coincident  with  this  movement  national  consciousness  was  reborn 
among  Bohemians.  Writers  and  poets  naturally  took  the  past 
greatness  of  their  native  land  as  the  theme  of  their  compositions. 
They  told  their  countrymen  of  the  glorious  days  of  Bohemian 
history.  The  movement  fortunately  took  place  when  the  w^ave  of 
liberalism  set  in  motion  by  the  French  Revolution  was  still 
advancing  into  the  recesses  of  central  Europe.  By  the  year  1840 
all  Bohemia  had  awakened  to  the  idea  of  national  independence. 
Attempts  to  secure  partial  autonomy  proved  abortive,  however. 
Revolutionary  outbreaks  in  1848  were  quickly  repressed  by  Aus- 
trian troops,  but  the  struggle  between  the  two  elements  increased 
in  bitterness  as  years  went  by. 

At   present   two-thirds    of   the   inhabitants    of   Bohemia    are 

"  L.  Niederle:    La  race  slave,  Paris,   1916,  p.   10f». 
•Liitzow:  op.  cit.,  p.  294. 


Bohemians,  and  this  Slavic  element  is  gradually  forcing  its  way 
into  districts  which  were  formerly  occupied  exclusively  by  Ger- 
mans. The  causes  of  this  shifting  are  economic.  The  German 
element,  controlling  industry  and  vested  with  authority,  has 
attained  a  state  of  relative  prosperity.  Even  its  poorest  mem- 
bers are  not  attracted  by  the  prospect  of  work  held  out  by 
Bohemia's  growing  industry.  The  less  advanced  Bohemians, 
however,  not  so  content  with  their  lot,  are  attracted  by  certain 
kinds  of  labor  which  the  German  element  spurns.  Having  fewer 
local  ties  than  their  Teutonic  countrymen,  they  easily  move  from 
place  to  place.  It  thus  happens  that  out  of  the  thirty-six  German 
districts  of  Bohemia,  twenty-two  are  now  fully  5  per  cent 

The  inhabitants  of  the  Margravate  of  Moravia  are  also  true 
Bohemians.  This  state  is  a  crown-land  of  Bohemia,  to  the  east 
of  which  it  lies.  Its  population  consists  of  1,870,000  Bohemians 
and  720,000  Germans.  Close  affiliation  with  the  kingdom  of 
Bohemia  is  revealed  in  Moravia's  past  history.  The  two  states 
formed  the  nucleus  of  the  Bohemian  nation.  At  present  Moravia 
is  even  more  truly  Bohemian  than  her  larger  sister  state,  since 
three-fourths  of  the  landowners  of  Moravia  are  Bohemians,  while 
in  Bohemia  that  element  holds  only  about  three-fifths  of  the  soil. 
In  spite  of  the  mountainous  character  of  the  country,  and  the 
isolation  produced  by  it,  very  slight  traces  of  early  tribal  differ- 
ences can  be  detected  among  these  Bohemians.  In  Moravia  alone 
three  distinct  types  can  be  distinguished  by  their  dialects  and 
their  physical  or  ethnographic  features.  Dress  in  the  last  case 
plays  an  important  part." 

The  northeastern  section  of  Moravia  is  known  as  the  Lassko 
country  and  is  peopled  by  Lassi  Moravians.  This  group  occupies 
districts  mainly  around  the  towns  of  Moravska-Ostrava  and 
Frydland.  South  of  them  a  number  of  Slovak  villages  are  found 
within  the  Moravian  border.  Their  inhabitants,  sometimes  known 
as  Moravian  Slovaks,  are  emigrants  from  the  Hungarian  moun- 

*' V.   Gayda:    Modern  Austria,  New  York,   1915. 

*^  L.   Niederle:    La   race   slave,   Paris,    1911,   p.    127. 


tains  who  reached  the  western  Carpathians  in  the  eleventh  and 
twelfth  centuries.  Although  they  speak  Bohemian,  their  customs 
differ  considerably  from  Bohemian  usages.  The  balance  of 
Moravia  is  peopled  by  Hanaks,  who  are  easily  distinguished  by 
temperamental  differences  from  the  previous  two  groups.  The 
Hanaks  as  a  rule  are  calm  and  inclined  to  ponderous  ways  of 
thought  and  action,  whereas  both  the  Lassi  and  Slovaks  are 
quick-minded  and  lively. 

German  expansion  into  Moravia  is  facilitated  by  the  valley  of 
the  March,  which  penetrates  into  the  heart  of  the  Margravate. 
The  Elbe  and  Moldau  in  Bohemia  play  a  similar  part  as  agents 
of  Germanization.  As  in  Bohemia,  the  Germans  are  confined  to 
the  border  heights  or  the  towns.  In  the  thirteenth  century  many 
German  fortified  towns  existed  in  Moravia.  The  rise  of  a  pow- 
erful German  middle  class  dates  from  this  period.  Intellectually 
as  well  as  industrially  the  Teuton  element  is  the  more  advanced. 
Bacial  and  linguistic  differences  are  accentuated  by  religious 
antagonism,  the  German  element  being  Roman  in  creed.  The 
clergy  in  fact  have  acted  as  a  powerful  agent  of  Germanization 
in  Moravia. 

The  Slovaks  are  dwellers  of  the  northern  highland  border  of 
Hungary  who  reached  Europe  in  the  sixth  century  b.c.  They  are 
closely  related  by  racial  and  linguistic  affinity  to  the  Bohemians 
and  Moravians.  The  course  of  centuries  has  failed  to  change 
their  customs  or  the  mode  of  life  they  led  in  the  western  Car- 
pathians. The  Hungarian  plain  spread  out  below  their  rocky 
habitation  without  tempting  them  to  forsake  the  huddled  condi- 
tions of  their  native  valleys.  Their  language  holds  its  o^\ti  as 
far  east  as  the  Laborec  valley.  Junction  with  Polish  is  effected 
in  the  Tatra. 

Once  onW  in  their  history  did  the  Slovaks  succeed  in  creating 
a  great  nation.  In  870  a.d.,  under  the  leadership  of  Svatopuk, 
they  established  the  short-lived  Great  Moravian  Empire.  Unfor- 
tunately his  successors  were  unable  to  maintain  the  independence 
of  the  nation  he  founded  and  the  empire  crumbled  to  pieces 
before  the  repeated  attacks  of  the  Hungarians.     By  the  tenth 


century  the  political  ties  between  Bohemians  and  Slovaks  were 
completely  severed. 

In  the  fifteenth  century  the  two  peoples  were  drawn  to  each 
other  by  ties  of  religion.  An  enthusiastic  reception  had  been 
given  to  the  teachings  of  John  Huss  by  the  Slovaks.  They 
adopted  the  Bohemian  translation  of  the  Bible.  Religious  refor- 
mation was  followed  by  a  literary  revival  and  Bohemian  became 
the  language  of  culture  among  them.  It  was  mainly  among 
Protestant  Slovaks,  however,  that  the  influence  of  Bohemian 
prevailed.  The  Catholic  clergy  opposed  the  movement  by  encour- 
aging literary  development  of  Slovakian.  This  linguistic  struggle 
is  maintained  to  the  present  day.  In  spite  of  opposition,  however^ 
Bohemian  remains  the  literary  language  of  the  Slovak  people. 
John  KoUar,  one  of  the  greatest  writers  of  Bohemian  poetry,  was 
a  Slovak. 

The  Slovaks  number  approximately  two  million  souls  spread 
over  ten  of  the  '^comitats"  of  northern  Hungary.  Their  occu- 
pation of  this  region  antedates  the  coming  of  the  Magyars. 
Survivals  of  ancient  Slovak  populations  are  still  met  in  the 
villages  of  central  and  southern  Hungary.  Bohemian  refugees 
of  kindred  speech  and  religion  reinforced  this  autochthonous 
element  after  the  battle  of  the  White  Mountain  in  1620.  These 
circumstances  perhaps  have  prevented  their  assimilation  by  the 
conquering  race.  The  aristocracy  alone  has  intermarried  with 
the  Hungarians.  The  masses  have  no  more  intercourse  with  the 
rulers  than  they  can  help.  Linguistic  and  religious  differences 
intensify  the  breach. 

While  the  Slovaks  form  compact  populations  in  the  moun- 
tains of  northern  Hungary,  their  colonies  are  found  scattered 
throughout  the  southern  parts  of  this  country  except  in  the 
Transylvanian  districts.  The  campaign  waged  by  Hungarians  to 
suppress  Slovak  national  ■  aims  renders  the  lot  of  these  Slavs 
particularly  trying.  The  ancient  names  of  their  villages  and 
towTis  are  being  officially  replaced  by  Magyar  names,  even  where 
most  of  the  inhabitants  use  Slovakian  as  their  vernacular. 

Although  Slovak-land  is  an  integral  part  of  the  Hungarian 


kingdom,  it  lias  proved  an  attractive  field  for  German  coloni- 
zation since  the  ninth  century.  The  comitat  of  Zips  was  settled 
by  a  large  colony  of  Germans  in  the  middle  of  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury. Fifty  years  later  the  Teutons  began  to  invade  the  comitats 
of  Pressburg  and  Neutra ''  by  advancing  from  the  west.  In  Bars 
and  Hont,  to  both  of  which  they  proceeded  from  the  south,  they 
were  not  known  before  the  thirteenth  century.  The  Germani- 
zation  of  Slovak  districts  was  particularly  intense  during  the 
Tatar  invasion  of  this  period.  Hungary  had  been  grievously 
affected  by  this  eastern  scourge,  and  its  kings  offered  special 
inducements  to  repopulate  their  devastated  provinces.  Their  call 
was  heeded  by  numerous  families  of  German  peasants.  In  the 
first  half  of  the  sixteenth  century  almost  every  town  within 
Slovak  boundaries  contained  one  or  two  German  families  at  least. 
The  heart  of  this  German  colonization  was  situated  in  the  mining 
districts  of  the  country.  Kremnitz  and  Nemecke  Prava,  as  w^ell 
as  adjoining  districts,  attracted  heavy  contingents  of  Teuton 
workers.  This  movement  ended  in  the  seventeenth  century  when 
the  inflow  of  German  colonists  was  checked  by  special  legislation 
and  the  foreign  element  was  absorbed  by  either  the  Slovaks  or 
the  Hungarians, 

The  modern  boundary  of  Slovakian  language  in  Hungary 
starts  according  to  Niederle  at  Devinska  Novaves  near  the 
confluence  of  the  Morva"  and  Danube.  From  this  point  it 
extends  southeastward  to  Novezansky  and  Leva.  Thence  it  is 
continued  south  of  Abanj  as  far  as  Huta,  which  is  the  eastern- 
most Slovak  village.  The  line  now  turns  westward  and  skirts  the 
Galician  frontier  as  far  as  the  German  border. 

The  area  included  within  these  confines  is  not  altogether 
homogeneous.  The  comitats  of  Neutra,  Turocz,  Bars  and  Gomo 
contain  enclaves  of  Germans.  Polish  and  Hungarian  settlements 
are  also  known  between  Vrable  and  Neutra  as  well  as  at  Abanj, 
west  of  Kashau.  ]\Iany  Slovak  communities  exist,  however, 
beyond  the  region  outlined  above.    These  extra-territorial  nuclei 

**  L.  Niederle:   La  race  slave,  Paris,  1916,  p.  106. 
*'  The  ]\Iarch  acquires  this  name  in  its  last  stretch. 


more  than  counterbalance  numerically  the  alien  total  in  Slovak- 

The  most  important  localities  inhabited  by  Slovaks  outside  of 
their  native  land  are  Gran,  in  the  comitat  of  Esztergom,  and 
Budapest.  The  Hungarian  capital  probably  contains  between 
25,000  and  40,000  Slovaks.  Their  number  in  Vienna  is  estimated 
at  50,000.  In  other  parts  of  Hungary,  as  for  instance  at  Kerepes 
and  Pilis,  highly  ancient  Slovak  communities  are  believed  to 
represent  survivals  of  the  people  who  lived  in  Hungary  prior  to 
the  appearance  of  the  Hungarians. 

Bohemia's  national  enfranchisement,  if  carried  out  on  a 
linguistic  basis,  will  rescue  the  old  lands  of  the  Bohemian  cro^vn, 
namely  Bohemia,  Moravia  and  the  Slovak  districts  of  north- 
western Hungary,  from  Teutonic  rule.  The  historical  validity  of 
Bohemia's  claims  to  independence  and  the  failure  of  centuries  of 
Germanization  to  deprive  the  Bohemian  of  his  individuality 
establish  the  country's  right  to  a  distinct  place  in  a  Europe  of 
free  and  harmonious  nations.  The  Bohemian  has  his  own  objects 
in  self-development  and  the  achievement  of  his  independence 
should  be  no  disparagement  of  the  aims  and  pursuits  of  other 



The  presence  in  Europe  oi'  Hungarians,  a  race  bearing  strong- 
linguistic  and  piiysical  affinity  to  Turki  tribesmen,  is  perliaps 
best  explained  by  the  prolilic  harvests  yielded  by  the  broad 
valleys  oi'  the  Danube  and  Theiss.  Huns,  Avars  and  Magyars, 
one  and  all  Asiatics  wandering  into  Europe,  were  induced  to 
abandon  nomadism  by  the  fertility  of  the  boundless  Alfold. 
Western  influences  took  solid  root  among  these  descendants  of 
eastern  ancestors  after  their  conversion  to  Christianity  and  the 
adoption  of  the  Latin  alphabet.  So  strongly  did  they  become 
permeated  by  the  spirit  of  occidental  civilization,  that  the  menace 
of  absorption  by  the  Turks  was  rendered  abortive  whenever  the 
Sultan's  hordes  made  successful  advances  towards  Vienna.  At 
the  same  time,  fusion  with  the  Germans  was  prevented  by  the 
oriental  origin  of  the  race.  The  foundation  of  a  separate 
European  nation  was  thus  laid  in  the  Hungarian  plains. 

Language  to  the  Magyar  has  always  represented  nationality. 
AVhen  in  1527  St.  Stephen's  crown  was  offered  to  Ferdinand  of 
Austria  in  order  to  strengthen  Hungary's  resistance  against  the 
Turk,  the  new  ruler  pledged  himself  not  to  destroy  this  sacred 
token  of  Hungarian  political  independence.  ''Nationem  et 
linguam  vestram  servaro  non  perdere  intendimus"  was  his 
solemn  promise.  The  germ  of  a  dual  form  of  government  was 
thus  created  in  the  presence  of  the  Sultan's  barbarous  hordes, 
but  Hungary  always  preserved  its  individuality,  for  at  no  time 
did  the  kingdom  form  part  of  the  Holy  Roman  Empire.  Closer 
union  with  Austria  towards  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century 
when  the  right  of  succession  to  the  Hungarian  throne  became 
hereditary  in  the  Hapsburg  family,  failed  to  Germanize  the  land 



during  all  the  eighteenth  century.  Later,  up  to  1867,  the 
persistent  struggle  of  the  Magyar  against  the  Austrian  was  kept 
up.  Attempts  to  replace  German  by  Hungarian  in  the  govern- 
ing bodies  of  counties  and  muncipalities  were  merely  the  outward 
expression  of  the  contest. 

When,  in  1825,  the  Hungarian  Academy  of  Science  was 
founded  by  a  group  of  patriotic  leaders,  the  movement  was  little 
more  than  an  attempt  to  revive  the  Magyar  tongue.  Count 
Stephen  Szechenyi's  words  on  this  occasion  betray  the  conscious- 
ness of  the  intimate  relation  between  language  and  nationality 
which  is  felt  in  every  country  during  periods  of  actual  danger. 
^'I  am  not  here,"  he  said,  "as  a  great  dignitary  of  the  kingdom; 
but  I  am  an  opulent  landowner,  and  if  an  institution  be  estab- 
lished that  will  develop  the  Magyar  language  and,  by  so  doing, 
advance  the  national  education  of  our  countrymen,  I  will  sacrifice 
the  revenues  of  my  estates  for  one  year."  The  impetus  given  by 
this  statesman,  and  a  few  equally  earnest  compatriots,  to  the 
cultivation  of  national  literature  in  Hungary  became  a  potent 
factor  in  the  shaping  of  the  country's  modern  political  destiny. 
It  liberated  the  Magyar  from  the  Germanizing  influences  of 
Austrian  rule  and  ultimately  paved  the  way  to  the  establishment 
of  a  dual  government  in  the  Empire. 

The  linguistic  boundary  between  Hungarian  and  German  is 
found  in  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  Austrian  Alps.  The 
southern  side  of  the  valley  of  the  Danube  between  Pressburg  and 
Raab  is  German.  Magyar  spreads  however  to  the  north  to  meet 
the  Slovak  area.  South  of  Pressburg  the  shores  of  Lake 
Neusiedler  are  included  in  the  German  area.  The  line  then 
crosses  the  upper  valle}^  of  the  Raab  and  attains  the  Drave,  which 
forms  the  linguistic  boundary  between  Croatian  and  Hungarian. 
East  of  the  Theiss,  contact  with  the  Rumanian  of  Transylvania 
begins  in  the  vicinity  of  Arad,  on  the  Maros  river,  and  extends 
northward  in  an  irregular  line,  hugging  the  western  outliers  of  the 
Transylvanian  Alps  and  attaining  the  sources  of  the  Theiss.  In  the 
northeastern  valley  of  this  river,  Hungarian  and  Ruthenian  lan- 
guages replace  each  other.    The  area  of  Magyar  speech  thus  defined 


lacks  homogeneity  in  its  western  section  lying  west  of  the  Danube. 
Important  enclaves  of  Germans  are  solidly  intrenched  in  this 
portion  of  the  Hungarian  domain.  The  central  portion  of  the 
monotonous  expanse  unfolding  itself  between  the  Danube  and  the 
Theiss  is,  on  the  other  hand,  characterized  by  uniformity  of  the 
Hungarian  population  it  supports.  Enclaves  however  exist  all 
along  the  border  of  this  eastern  area. 

Hungarian  nationality  asserted  itself  definitely  in  the  nine- 
teenth century  in  the  face  of  strenuous  effort  on  the  part  of 
Germans  to  assimilate  the  Magyars.  The  latter  took  advantage 
of  the  defeat  of  the  Austrians  at  Sadowa  in  1867  to  reach  a 
compromise  with  their  masters.  The  Hapsburg  Empire  was  then 
converted  into  a  Dual  Monarchy.  For  a  time  the  economic 
advantages  of  this  union  lay  entirely  with  Austria.  The  Hun- 
garian plain,  vast  and  fecund,  bestowed  the  wealth  of  its  fertility 
on  Austria.  A  land  of  farmers  it  also  became  an  important 
market  for  the  industrial  output  of  its  German  partner-state. 
This  economic  relation  was  maintained  until  the  beginning  of  the 
twentieth  century,  when  Hungary  made  rapid  progress  in 
industry  and  forced  Austria  to  seek  Balkan  markets  for  the  dis- 
posal of  its  manufactured  goods. 

Austria's  unsuccessful  attempt  to  dominate  Hungary's  eco- 
nomic life  accelerated  the  growth  of  the  germ  of  dissension 
between  the  two  countries.  The  tie  that  links  Budapest  to 
Vienna,  at  present,  is  strengthened  by  Hungarian  dread  of 
the  Slav.  It  might  have  given  way  long  ago  otherwise,  for 
in  truth  Hungary  has  to  face  the  menace  of  Pan-Germanism 
as  well.  The  percentage  of  native  Hungarians  in  their  own 
country  is  under  55  per  cent  and  gives  them  a  bare  majority 
over  the  combined  alien  peoples.'  The  number  of  Germans  scat- 
tered in  Hungarian  districts  is  2,000,000.  The  only  advantage 
which  the  natives  of  the  soil  possess  lies  in  their  occupation  of 
the  richest  lands  in  their  country. 

*  An  increase  in  the  percentage  of  the  Hungarian  element  in  Hungary  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  other  nationalities  and  particularly  of  the  Germans  is  shown  by  officiar 
figures.     The  following  table  is  instructive: 


A  minor  group  of  Hungarians  have  settled  on  the  eastern 
edge  of  the  Transylvania  mountains.  Here  they  live  surrounded 
by  Rumanians  on  all  sides  except  on  the  west  where  a  lone  out- 
post of  Saxons  brings  Teutonic  customs  and  speech  to  the  east. 
The  name  of  Szekler,  meaning  frontier  guardsmen,  applied  to 
this  body  of  Magyars  is  indicative  of  their  origin.  Their  pres- 
ence on  the  heights  overlooking  the  Rumanian  plain  bespeaks  the 
desire  of  Hungarian  sovereigns  to  control  the  site  of  a  natural 
rampart  dominating  their  plains.  At  the  end  of  the  thirteenth 
century  this  Hungarian  colony  was  in  full  development.  Its 
soldiers  distinguished  themselves  during  the  period  of  war  with 
the  Turks.  Prestige  acquired  on  battlefields  strengthened  the 
separate  and  semi-independent  existence  of  the  community.  The 
region  occupied  by  these  Hungarians  is  situated  along  the  east- 
ernmost border  of  the  Austrian-Hungarian  Empire.  It  extends 
west  of  the  uninliabited  mountain-frontier  district  between 
Tolgyes  Pass  and  Crasna.  The  towns  of  Schassburg  and  Maros 
Vasarhely  lie  on  its  western  border.  But  the  area  of  Rumanian 
speech  situated  between  the  land  of  the  Szekler  and  the  main 
Hungarian  district  is  studded  with  numerous  colonies  of  Magj^ars, 
thereby  rendering  delimitation  of  a  linguistic  boundary  in  the 
region  almost  impossible. 

The  Saxon  colony  adjoining  the  Szekler  area  on  the  west  is 
also  a  relic  of  medieval  strategic  necessities.  In  spite  of  the 
name  by  which  this  German  settlement  is  designated,  its  original 
members  appear  to  have  been  recruited  from  different  sections 
of  western  European  regions  occupied  by  Teutons.^    Colonization 

Percentages  of  the  Population  of  Hungary,  without  Croatia  (after  Wallis). 

1880  1910 

Magyars     46.7  54.5 

Germans    13.6  10.4 

Slovaks 13.5  10.7 

Rumanians    17.5  16.1 

Ruthenians    2.6  2.5 

Serbs  and  Croats  4.6  3.6 

Others 1.5  2.2 

But  cf.  in  this  connection  B.  C.  Wallis:  Distribution  of  Nationalities  in  Hungary, 
Geogr.  Jovrn.,  Vol.  47,  1916,  No.  3,  pp.  183-186. 

"  F.  Tcutsch:  Die  Art  der  Ansiedelung  der  Siebenbiirger  Sachsen,  Forsch.  z.  deut. 


hud  alrcfudy  been  Hiui'led  wlitiii  King  Gchu  ii  oi"  Hungary  gave  it 
a  TrcHli  inipulH<!,  in  tliu  middle;  oi"  iJio  Iweli'lii  century,  by  inducing 
j)eusants  oi"  Hk;  iniddli!  Ivliine  and  Moselle  valleys  to  exchange 
servitude  in  IJK'ir  iiaiiv(;  villages  i'or  land  ownership  in  the 
Transylvania  urea.' 

'i'o  i)roniote  the  eiriciency  of  these  colonists  as  frontier  guards- 
j  lie  1 1  an  unusual  degree  of  political  latitude  was  accorded  them. 
Ill  iiuK!  ilicir  deputies  sat  in  the  Hungarian  diet  on  terms  of 
equality  willi  representatives  oi'  tlu;  nobility.  Prolonged  warfare 
with  (lie  Tatar  populations  who  attempted  to  force  entrance  into 
llic  Hungarian  plains,  led  to  the  selection  of  strategical  sites  as 
nuclei  of  oi-iginal  scdtlenients.  These  facts  account  for  ihe  sur- 
vival of  the  Teutonic  groups  in  the  midst  of  Uunianians  and 
Hungarians.  ^Poday  the  so-called  Saxon  area  does  not  constitute 
a  single  group,  but  ('onsists  of  separate  agglomerations  clustered 
in  the  vicinity  of  Uk;  passes  and  deliies  wliicii  the  ancestors  of 
the  Teutons  were  called  upon  to  dereiid.  TIk;  upper  valley  of 
the  OItu  and  its  mountain  allluents,  in  the  rectangle  inclosed 
between  tlu;  town  of  H(>rmannsla(lt,  Fogaras,  Mediascli  and 
Schiissburg,  conlain  at  present  the  bulk  oi'  this  Austrian  colonj 
of  (lernian  ancestry. 

Tin;  K'umanian  i)robl(>ni  in  Hungary  is  mainly  economic.  The 
chief  aim  of  Hungarians  is  to  nuiintain  political  supremacy  in 
the  proNinces  containing  a  majority  of  the  llomance-speaking 
ch'menl.  ^i'lie  Rumanian  coimnnnilies  are  scattered  over  an  ar(»a 
""1%^^^  of  about  715,000  square  miles  (12:i,278  sq.  kms.)  which  comprises 

Transylvania  and  its  old  ''exterior"  counties  as  well  as  the 
Banat.  'JMiis  region  is  peopled  by  (),305,()(;(i  inhabitants  according 
to  recent  c(>nsus  figures.  Of  those  87.8  per  cent  consist  of 
peasants.     The   minilxM-  of   Ivimianians   is  ollicially  estimated  at 

iMiiilis-  u.  \olhsl:..  Vol.  9.  1S!)(i.  pp.  1-22.  CI",  also  O.  Wittstock:  Volkstilnilichos  dcr 
Slolu'iiMlrgtM-  Snchsoii.  in  <1u>  siuno  volume.  Tho  name  "Saxon"  appears  to  have  been 
apjilleil  indiseriniinately  in  tho  Middle  Ages  to  settlera  of  C.ernmn  apeeeh  in  the  Balkan 
peninsula.  "  Saxon  "  minora  and  "  Saxon  "  luHly}:;uarda  were  also  known  in  Serbian 
eounlrioH  in  (hat.  i)eriod. 

"  l,ii\fml>iirg   ami    (lie    re^jions    comprised    between    Treves,    Dilsseldorf   and    .\ix  la- 
Chapello  furnialied  German  eoloniata  during  tho  middle  of  the  twelfth  century. 


2,932,214.  Rumanian  students,  however,  point  to  official  Austrian 
returns  for  the  year  1840  which  placed  the  number  of  their  coun- 
trymen at  2,202,000  *  and  lay  stress  on  the  coefficient  of  increase 
for  the  period  1870  to  1910,  which  is  15.5  per  thousand  in 
Rumania  and  10.8  per  thousand  in  Hungary.  Applying  the 
Rumanian  rate  to  the  Rumanian  subjects  of  the  Hapsburgs  they 
find  that  their  kinsmen  in  Hungary  ought  to  number  approxi- 
mately 3,536,000.  Otherwise  it  is  necessary  to  admit  that  between 
1840  and  1890  Magyars  increased  54  per  cent,  and  Rumanians 
only  17  per  cent,  in  spite  of  the  recognized  fact  that  Rumanian 
peasants  have  larger  families  than  their  Hungarian  masters.® 

Social  grouping  in  Transylvania  shows  that  the  dominating 
Hungarian  class  consists  largely  of  city  dwellers  and  government 
employees.  These  are  the  characteristics  of  an  immigrant  popu- 
lation which  is  not  solidly  rooted  to  the  land.  The  Szekler  alone 
among  Magyars  are  tillers  of  the  soil  and  in  intimate  contact 
with  the  land  on  which  they  live.  Few  of  the  Rumanians  are  land- 
owners. The  estates  held  by  an  insignificant  nmnber  of  their 
kinsmen  generally  form  part  of  ecclesiastical  domains  and  are  of 
restricted  size.  They  own  however  a  relatively  large  proportion 
of  Transylvania's  forested  areas,  which  the  Hungarian  ruling 
class  is  endeavoring  to  acquire  by  imitating  Prussian  methods  of 
absorption  of  Polish  lands. 

The  Germans  and  Hungarians  who  founded  settlements  on  the 
Transylvanian  plateau  were  unable  to  impose  their  language  on 
the  inhabitants  of  the  mountainous  region.  Rumanian,  repre- 
senting the  easternmost  expansion  of  Latin  speech,  is  in  use 
today  on  the  greatest  portion  of  this  highland  ^  as  well  as  in  the 
fertile  valleys  and  plains  surrounding  it  between  the  Dniester 
and  the  Danube.  A  portion  of  Hungary  and  the  Russian  province 
of  Bessarabia  is  therefore  included  in  this  linguistic  unit  outside 

'Hungarian  statistics  show  2,470,000  in  1870;  2,403,000  in  1880  and  2,589,000 
in  1890. 

"  Cf.  V.  Merutiu:  Romlnii  intre  Tisa  §i  Carpa^i,  raporturl  etnografice,  TZei;.  Stiinti- 
flcd  Vasile  Adamachi,  Vol,  6,  No.  2,  1015. 

)®  N.  Mazere:  Harta  etnografiea  a  Transilvanei,  1:340,000,  Inst.  Geogr.    al  Armatei,     \ 
,     lasi,  1909.    Voiii^T-  ' 


of  the  kingdom  of  Rumania.^  Beyond  the  limits  of  this  continuous 
area,  the  only  important  colony  of  Rumanians  is  found  around 
Metsovo  in  Greece  where,  in  the  recesses  of  the  Pindus  moun- 
tains and  surrounded  by  the  Greeks,  Albanians  and  Bulgarians 
of  the  plains,  almost  half  a  million  Rumanians  *  have  managed  to 
maintain  the  predominant  Latin  character  of  their  language." 

Rumanian  is  derived  directly  from  the  low  Latin  spoken  in  the 
Imperial  era.  In  syntax  and  grammar  it  reproduces  Latin  forms 
of  striking  purity.  Words  dealing  with  agricultural  pursuits, 
however,  are  generally  of  Slavic  origin.  The  closeness  of 
Rumanian  to  Latin  can  be  gathered  from  the  following  two 
specimens  of  Wallachian  verse  and  their  Latin  rendering: 


Bela  in  large  valle  ambla 
Erba  verde  lin  calca; 
Canta,  qui  cantand  plangea, 
Quod  todi  munti  resuna; 
Ea  in  genunchi  se  punea, 
Ochi  in  sus  indirepta ; 
Ecce,  asi  vorbe  facea; 
"  Domne,  domne,  bune  domne." 

Nucu,  fagu,  frassinu 
Mult  se  eerta  intra  sene. 
"  Nuce,"  dice  frassinu, 
"  Quine  vine,  nuci  college, 
"  Cullegend  si  ramuri  frange 
"  Vaide  dar  de  pelle  a  tua; 
"  Dar  tu  fage,  mi  veeine, 
"  Que  voi  spune  in  mente  tens: 
"  Multe  fere  saturasi; 
"  Qui  prebene  nu  amblasi ; 
"  Quum  se  au  geru  apropiat 
"  La  pament  te  au  si  culcat, 
"  Si  in  focu  te  au  si  aruncat,  .  . 

Puella  in  larga  valle  ambulabat, 
Herbam  viridem  leniter  calcabat, 
Cantabat  et  cantando  plangebat, 
Ut  omnes  montes  resonarent : 
Ilia  in  genua  se  ponebat, 
Oculos  sursum  dirigebat; 
Ecce,  sic  verba  faeiebat: 
"  Domine,  domine,  bone  domine." 

Nux,  fagus,  fraxinus, 
Multum  certant  inter  se. 
"  Nux,"  dicit  fraxinus 
"  Quisquis  venit,  nuces  legit, 
"  CoUigendo  ramos  frangit: 
"  Vae  itaque  pelli  tuae ! 
"  At  tu  fage,  mi  vicine, 
"  Quae  exponam  mente  tene? 
"  Multas  feras  saturasti, 
"  At  baud  bene  ambulasti ; 
"  Quum  gelu  appropinquat 
"  Ad  pavimentum  de  deculcant 
"  Ad  focum  averruncant,  .    .    . 

'  G.  Weigand :  Linguistischer  Atlaa  des  dacorumanischen  Sprachgebietes,  Leipzig, 

•  Their  number  is  given  at  750,000  by  G.  Murgocfi  and  P.  Papahagi  in  "  Turcia  cu 
privire  speciala  auspra  Macedoniei,"  Bucarest,  1911. 

•  The  total  number  of  Rumanians  in  the  Balkan  peninsula  is  estimated  at  about 
10,300,000,  distributed  as  follows:  Rumania,  5,489,296  or  92.5  per  cent  of  the  popula- 
tion; Russia,  1,121, CO!),  of  whom  920,919  are  in  Bessarabia;  Austria-Hungary,  3,224,147, 
of  whom  2,949,032  are  in  Transylvania;  Greece,  373,520;  Serbia,  90,000. 


The  prevalence  of  Latin  in  an  eastern  land,  and  in  a  form 
which  is  stated  to  present  closer  analogies  with  the  language  of 
the  Roman  period  than  with  any  of  its  western  derivatives,  had 
its  origin  in  the  Roman  conquest  of  southeastern  Europe  in  the 
early  part  of  the  first  Christian  millennium.  Occupation  of  the 
land  by  important  bodies  of  legionaries  and  a  host  of  civil 
administrators,  their  intermarriage  with  the  natives,  the  advan- 
tages conferred  by  Roman  citizenship,  all  combined  to  force 
Latin  into  current  use.  And  when  in  275  Aurelian  recalled 
Roman  troops  from  the  eastern  provinces  of  the  empire,  the 
vernacular  of  Rome  had  taken  too  solid  a  footing  on  Dacian  soil 
to  be  extirpated. 

Abandonment  of  the  region  by  the  Romans  is  cited  for 
political  reasons  by  the  Magyar  rulers  of  Transylvania  to  refute 
Rumanian  claims  to  this  Hungarian  province.  Rumanian  his- 
torians, however,  have  been  able  to  demonstrate  the  untenability 
of  this  assumption.^"  They  have  shown  that  many  of  the  customs 
of  their  country  are  distinctly  reminiscent  of  Latin  Italy.  It  is 
still  customary  in  many  Rumanian  villages  to  attach  a  small  coin 
to  the  finger  of  the  dead  after  an  ancient  Roman  custom  of 
providing  the  soul  with  its  fare  across  the  Styx.  Bands  of 
traveling  musicians  in  Balkan  or  Hungarian  cities  are  known  to 
be  composed  of  Rumanians  whenever  their  members  carry  an 
instrument  which  is  a  faithful  imitation  of  the  pipes  of  Pan  as 
sculptured  upon  Roman  and  Gallo-Roman  monuments.  Rumania 's 
national  dance,  the  Calusare,  commemorates  the  rape  of  the 
Sabines  to  this  day.  Neither  does  the  list  of  these  analogies  end 
with  the  examples  given  here.  Furthermore  the  evidence  afforded 
by  geography  tends  also  to  validate  Rumanian  claims. 

From  the  valley  of  the  Dniester  to  the  basin  of  the  Theiss  the 
steppes  of  southern  Russia  spread  in  unvarying  uniformity  save 
where  the  tableland  of  the  Transylvanian  Alps  breaks  their  con- 
tinuity. The  entire  region  was  the  Dacia  colonized  by  the 
Romans.^^    Unity  of  life,  in  this  home  of  Rumanian  nationality, 

'"A.  D.  X*5nopo]:  Les  Roumains  au  Moyen-Age,  Paris,  1885. 

"W.  R.  Shepherd:  Historical  Atlas,  New  York,  1911,  pp.  34,  35,  39. 


has  been  unalfected  by  the  sharp  physical  diversity  afforded  by 
the  iiiclosure  of  iiiouiitain  and  phiin  within  the  same  linguistic 
boundary.  The  thoroughness  with  which  Rumanians  have  adapted 
themselves  to  the  peculiarities  of  their  land  is  evinced  by  the 
combination  of  the  twin  occupations  of  herder  and  husbandman 
characteristic  of  Moldavians  and  Wallachians.  Cattle  and 
flocks  are  led  every  summer  to  the  rich  grazing  lands  of  the 
Transylvania  valleys.  In  winter  man  and  beast  seek  the  pastures 
of  the  Danubian  steppes  and  prairies.  Rumanians  thus  maintain 
mountain  and  plain  residences,  which  they  occupy  alternately.^^ 
This  mode  of  life  is  the  transformation  which  the  nomadism  of 
the  Asiatic  steppe  received  on  Rumanian  soil.  It  is  a  true  relic 
of  past  habitat.  These  seasonal  migrations  also  account  for  the 
intimacy  between  highlanders  and  lowlanders  in  Rumania,  besides 
affording  adequate  explanation  of  the  peopling  of  the  region  by 
a  single  nationality. '•' 

There  was  a  time,  however,  when  Rumanian  nationality  was 
entirely  confined  to  the  mountain  zone.  Invasions  which  followed 
the  retirement  of  the  Romans  had  driven  Rumanians  to  the 
shelter  of  the  Transylvanian  ranges.  Perched  on  this  natural 
fortress,  they  beheld  the  irruption  of  Slavs  and  Tatars  in  the 
broad  valleys  which  they  once  held  in  undisputed  sway.  Only 
after  the  flow  of  southeastern  migrations  had  abated  did  they 
venture  to  reoccupy  the  plains  and  resume  their  agricultural  life 
and  seasonal  wanderings. 

The  outstanding  fact  in  these  historical  vicissitudes  is  that 
the  mountain  saved  the  Latin  character  of  Rumanian  speech. 
Had  the  Romanized  Dacians  boon  unable  to  find  refuge  in  the 
Transylvanian  Alps  their  language  would  probably  have  been 
submerged  by  the  Slavic  or  Tatar  flood.  As  it  is,  the  life  of 
Rumanians    is    strongly    impregnated    with    eastern    influences. 

"  Typical  cxaniplos  of  seasonal  migration  are  found  in  Switzerland,  where  condi- 
tions in-ovailing  in  the  higher  and  the  lower  valleys  of  the  Alps  have  induced  the 
inhahitants  (o  shift   their   residence  with  the  seasons. 

"  A  similar  nomadism  is  observable  among  the  Rumanians  of  the  Pindus  moun- 
tains. Cf.  A.  J.  B.  Wade  and  M.  S.  Thompson:  The  Nomads  of  the  Balkans:  An 
Account  of  Life  and  Customs  among  the  Vlachs  of  Northern  Pindus,  London,  1914. 


Oddly  enough  its  Christianity  was  derived  from  Byzantium 
instead  of  from  Rome  and,  were  it  not  for  a  veritable  renaissance 
of  Latinism  about  1860,  its  afhnity  with  the  Slavic  world  would 
be  manifest  with  greater  intensity  than  is  apparent  in  the  present 

The  preservation  of  Roman  speech  was  not  confined  to  the 
Transylvanian  mountain  area.  In  spite  of  Rome's  waning  power 
in  the  Balkans,  her  language  had  taken  such  solid  root  in  the 
peninsula  that  it  has  maintained  itself  to  this  day  in  the  Pindus 
mountain  region  intervening  between  Epirus  and  Macedonia. 
Here  the  Kutzo-Vlachs  of  the  region  speak  a  language  identical 
with  that  spoken  in  the  last  stretches  of  the  valley  of  the  Danube. 
In  Albania  also  the  same  cultural  heritage  has  been  treasured  to 
this  day  in  the  mountainous  tangle  of  the  land.  Albanian  how- 
ever is  further  removed  from  Latin  than  Rumanian,  probably  on 
account  of  less  intercourse  with  the  Roman  world.'* 

The  name  of  Kutzo-Wallachians  or  Aromunes  is  given  to  the 
mountaineers  of  Rumanian  speech  peopling  parts  of  Macedonia, 
Albania  and  Thessaly.  This  detached  band  of  Rumanians  occu- 
pies mainly  the  region  between  the  mountains  of  the  Pindus 
range  and  the  Serbian  boundary.  In  Albania  they  are  found 
scattered  along  the  upper  reaches  of  the  Semeni  and  Devoli 
rivers.  In  Greece,  the  channels  of  the  Voyussa,  the  Arta,  the 
Aspropotamos,  the  Bistritza  and  the  lower  Vardar  likewise  con- 
stitute their  favorite  tramping  grounds.  A  shepherd  people, 
roaming  with  their  flocks,  their  life  is  spent  either  in  the  valleys 
of  their  summer  mountain  resorts  or  in  the  plains  which  they 
favor  in  winter.  Tribes  or  clans  among  which  dialectical  differ- 
ences can  be  found  occur  according  to  locality,  but  they  never- 
theless compose  when  taken  together  a  comy)act  mass  of  Ruma- 
nians settled  far  from  the  main  body  of  their  kinsmen  by  speech. 

A  group  5,000  to  6,000  strong  live  near  the  sources  of  the 
Aspropotamos  around  Siracu,  and  between  Kalarites  and  Malakasi. 
Northwards   this   clan  extends   to   Metsovo.^^     In   the   Olympus 

..^-'    **  About  one-third  of  the  words  in  Albanian  are  of  Romanic  origin.    '""' 
^^  Bull,  pour  Vitude  de  I'Europe  Sud-Orientale,  June,  1915,  p.  112. 


mountains  liumanians  are  known  at  Vlaklio-Livadi  and  adjoining 
districts.  Eastwards,  the  Veria  Rumanians  are  found  in  the 
villages  of  Sella,  Doliani  and  Kirolivadi.  West  of  the  latter 
locality,  the  settlements  of  Vlakho-Klissura,  Blatza  and  Sisani 
are  likewise  composed  entirely  of  Rumanian  inhabitants.  The 
same  is  true  of  the  villages  of  Nevesca,  Belcamen  and  Pisuderi 
as  well  as  of  Gramosta,  in  the  recesses  of  the  Grammos  moun- 
tains and  of  Koritza  and  Sipiska.  Other  colonies  exist  at  Okrida, 
Gopes,  Krushevo,  Molovista,  Tirnova,  Magarevo  and  Monastir. 
The  Struga  and  Geala  settlements  are  also  part  of  the  preceding 

Within  Albanian  territory  the  village  of  Frasheri  is  the  most 
important  Rumanian  settlement.  Its  name  has  passed  to  the 
Frashcrist  group  of  western  Rumanians.  Around  Berat,  a  strong 
contingent  occupies  about  40  villages  and  can  muster  ten  thou- 
sand men.  In  the  Vardar  valley  various  settlements  aggregating 
14,000  individuals,  all  farmers,  are  distributed  near  Guevgueli  as 
well  as  in  localities  north  and  south  of  this  town.  Many  of  these 
peasants  are  Mohammedans  and  speak  a  dialect  of  their  own. 
A  Rumanian  settlement  is  also  found  in  the  Jumaya  Pass  south 
of  Sofia  and  along  the  old  Turco-Bulgarian  frontier. 

The  nomadic  character  of  these  isolated  adherents  of  a  Latin 
language  is  shown  in  many  of  their  villages,  which  are  occupied 
during  part  of  the  year  only.  As  an  example  the  villages  in  the 
vicinity  of  Frasheri,  the  ancient  ''Little  Wallachia,"  are 
inhabited  during  winter  alone.  Many  Frasherists  can  be  met 
along  the  Albanian  coast  between  Kimara  and  the  bay  of  Valona, 
as  well  as  along  the  eastern  coast  of  Corfu  and  in  villages  of 
the  Moskopolis  and  Koritza  districts.  As  a  rule  they  are  ped- 
dlers and  confine  their  commercial  nomadism  to  profitable  routes 
just  as  pastoral  nomads,  who  are  their  kinsmen,  seesaw  back  and 
forth  between  the  mountain  districts  nearest  their  plains. 

The  three  areas  of  Romance  language  in  the  Balkans  attest, 
by  implication,  the  powerful  influence  attained  by  Rome  in  the 
peninsula  prior  to  the  rise  of  the  Slavic  flood.  The  presence  of 
the  Slavs  began  to  be  felt  about  the  seventh  century  and  two 


imndred  years  later  the  Balkan  peninsula  had  become  heavily 
Slavicized.  Before  that  period,  however,  every  nook  and  corner 
of  the  land  area  between  the  Adriatic  and  the  Black  and  ^gean 
seas  must  have  been  under  effective  Roman  jurisdiction.  Lanes 
of  travel  from  the  coasts  of  Albania  to  the  famous  Thracian 
rendezvous  were  frequented  by  Roman  traders  and  colonists  with 
increasing  regularity  in  the  early  centuries  of  the  Christian  era. 
The  growing  estrangement  of  Byzantium  from  the  west,  Slavic 
inroads  and  later  Turkish  advances  all  but  destroyed  the  social 
unity  which  must  have  characterized  the  Balkan  region  in  Roman 
times.  Of  this  unity,  the  Rumanian  and  Albanian  languages 
alone  have  survived  along  different  coasts.  Both  languages  are 
knit  together  structurally  as  well  as  by  outward  harmony. 

Through  the  survival  of  Romanic  languages  in  the  Balkan 
peninsula  an  excellent  glimpse  is  obtained  of  the  conditions  pre- 
ceding the  Slavic  migrations  which,  beginning  at  the  end  of  the 
third  century,  burst  into  full  strength  at  the  opening  of  the  sixth. 
The  Slavic  flood  was  both  heavy  and  prolonged.  Its  strength 
can  be  surmised  from  the  survival  of  Slavic  place  names  in  the 
sections  of  Balkan  territory  under  Greek,  Rumanian  or  Albanian 
control.  But  the  Slavs  mastered  only  the  drainage  area  of  the 
Danube  and  its  tributaries.  The  twin  basins  of  the  Save  and 
Drave  afforded  them  westerly  routes  of  penetration  without, 
however,  providing  channels  of  southerly  advance.  The  water- 
shed coinciding  roughly  with  easterly  longitude  21°  in  Albania 
and  attaining  the  Pindus  mountains  therefore  remained  closed 
land  to  the  Slavs.  As  a  result  Albania  and  Macedonia  are  to 
be  considered  as  areas  in  which  Romance  speech  once  prevailed. 
The  signs  of  this  linguistic  relation  are  numerous  in  Albania 
because  the  country  is  less  open  to  invasion  than  the  Macedonian 

A  territory  of  Romance  languages  extending  continuously 
from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Black  Sea  probably  existed  prior  to  the 
immigration  of  Slavs  into  southeastern  Europe.  The  areas  of 
Romansh,  Friulian,  Ladin,  Albanian  and  Rumanian  are  remnants 
of  this  ancient  language  zone.    Even  the  Slavic  language  of  the 


Macedonian  peasant  is  a  layer  superimposed  on  the  linguistic 
stratum  prevailing  before  the  period  of  Slavic  invasion.  It  is 
therefore  about  thirteen  centuries  old.  The  changes  undergone 
by  the  earlier  form  of  Macedonian  in  this  span  of  centuries  have 
been  so  sweeping  as  to  obliterate  altogether  the  character  of  the 
pre-Slavic  tongue.  Rumanian  vernaculars  of  the  Pindus  extended 
therefore  to  the  east  and  not  improbably  into  Thrace.    A  claim 

Fig.  43 — The  easterly  sweep  of  Romance  languages.  The  dotted  areas  are  low- 
lands. Romance  languages  are  spoken  in  the  diagonally  ruled  areas.  Cross-ruling 
represents  the  connecting  areas  between  eastern  and  western  Romance  languages. 
Pindus  localities  in  which  Rumanian  is  spoken  are  indicated  by  R.     Scale,  1 :  12,500,000. 

upon  Macedonia  based   on  this   assumption  has   even  been  put 
forward  by  Rumanians.^'' 

No  fair  conception  of  the  character  of  the  Rumanian  popula- 
tion can  be  attained  without  thorough  realization  of  the  extent 
to  which  the  land  has  been  open  to  the  invasions  of  Asiatic 
nomads  of  the  steppes.  The  intensity  of  this  movement  can  be 
ascertained  for  the  historical  period.  Back  of  that  time,  ho\vever, 
the  interminable  stretch  of  centuries  must  have  been  character- 
ized by  the  same  inflow  from  the  east,  else  the  Rumanian 
population  w^ould  not  betray  today  such  distinctly  Tatar  ear- 
marks.    The  eastern  sections  of  the  country,  those  nearest  to, 

^' A.  A.  C.  Stourdza:  L'H^roisme  des  Roumains  au  Moyen-Age  et  le  caractere  de 
leurs  anciennes  institutions,  Paris,  1911. 


and  forming  practically  a  continuation  of  Russia,  teem  with 
settlements  of  pure  Tatars. 

The  earliest  inhabitants  of  Rumania  are  tall,  dark  brachycephs 
— the  Cevenoles  of  Deniker's  classification.  This  original  element 
has  been  repeatedly  diluted  by  Slavic  and  Tatar  percolation. 
The  Roman  conquest,  which  together  with  the  "pax  Romana" 
brought  civilization  to  the  land,  was  not  an  ethnical  victory.  The 
Romans,  a  mere  minority  of  leaders,  ruled  in  the  land  much 
after  the  fashion  in  which  the  British  govern  India  at  present. 
But  this  occupation  of  the  land  by  men  representing  a  superior 
civilization  sufficed  to  stamp  the  speech  of  Rome  upon  Rumania. 

Rumania's  past  differed  from  that  of  the  other  Balkan 
nations.  During  the  centuries  in  which  the  destiny  of  the  ancient 
world  was  controlled  largely  by  Byzantine  statesmen,  Moldavia 
and  Wallachia  seldom  took  part  in  the  quarrels  that  pitted  Slavs 
against  Greeks.  Balkan  conflicts  seemed  then  to  be  restricted  to 
the  populations  living  south  of  the  Danube.  Excellent  relations 
were  maintained  between  the  rulers  of  Rumanian  principalities 
and  the  Byzantine  court.  It  was  always  felt  at  Constantinople, 
throughout  the  centuries  of  bitter  struggle  against  Islam's  wax- 
ing might,  that  the  voivodes'  aid  against  the  Turks  was  assured. 

After  the  terrible  blow  inflicted  on  Christendom  by  the  fall 
of  Constantinople,  the  two  principalities  of  the  northern  Danubian 
bank  managed  to  preserve  autonomy.  This  is  a  highly  significant 
fact  in  Rumanian  history,  for  it  meant  that  the  country  was 
spared  the  effects  of  racial  blendings  or  upheavals  consequent  to 
the  Ottoman  occupation  of  southeastern  Europe.  Religious  and 
national  antagonism  between  the  various  elements  of  the  Chris- 
tian populations  under  the  Sultan's  rule  were  incessantly  fostered 
by  the  Turks  as  a  means  of  consolidating  their  owti  sovereignty. 

The  role  played  by  Rumania  during  the  long  period  of 
Christian  servitude  entitles  the  country  to  the  gratitude  of  the 
other  Balkan  states.  The  land  beyond  the  Danube  became  a 
haven  to  which  victims  of  Mohammedan  persecution  repaired 
whenever  possible.  Noblemen  despoiled  of  their  estates,  traders 
menaced  with  execution  for  having  claimed  payment  of  debts 


incurred  towards  them  by  the  followers  of  the  Prophet,  students 
whose  only  crime  consisted  of  having  interpreted  Christian 
doctrines  to  their  co-religionists,  all  found  refuge  under  the 
banner  of  the  cross  flying  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Danube. 
Hungary  itself  has  incurred  a  heavy  debt  of  obligation  to 
Rumania,  for  both  Moldavia  and  Wallachia  served  as  a  buffer 
against  which  Turkish  blows  directed  at  Magyar  power  spent 
themselves  in  vain. 

The  province  of  Bukovina,  once  the  borderland  between 
Rumanians  and  Ruthenians,  has  become  in  modern  times  the 
meeting  place  of  both  peoples.  According  to  recent  Austrian 
statistics  its  population  is  as  follows: 

1900  1910 

Germans    159,486  168,851 

Bohemians  and  Slovakians  596  1,005 

Poles    26,857  26,210 

Ruthenians    297,798  305,101 

Slovenes 108  80 

Serbo-Croatians   6  1 

Italians    119  36 

Rumanians 229,018  273,254 

Hungarians 9,516  10,391 

Total    723,504  784,929'' 

The  Rumanians  and  Ruthenians  are  the  oldest  and  most 
numerous  inhabitants  of  Bukovina.  The  former  are  generally 
confined  to  the  southeastern  districts  of  the  province  while  the 
majority  of  the  Ruthenians  inhabit  the  northwest.  The  moun- 
tainous sections  are  peopled  by  the  Huzuli,  a  folk  whose  speech 
and  customs  contain  traces  of  Slavic  influence.     The  remainder 

**  Divided  according  to  religion,  the  census  of  1910  shows  the  following  figures; 

Roman  Catholics    98,565 

Greek  Catholics 26,182 

Armenian   Catholics    657 

Orthodox  Greeks    547,603 

Gregorian  Armenians    341 

Lipps    3,232 

Protestant  sects   20,518 

Jews   102,919 

Unaccounted    86 

Total    800,103 



of  the  inhabitants  of  Bukovina  consists  of  descendants  of  immi- 
grants who  settled  in  the  province  about  five  or  six  centuries  ago. 
Germans,  mostly  traders  and  artisans  from  Transylvania  and 
Galicia,  made  their  first  appearance  in  Bukovina  in  the  four- 
teenth   century.      Occasionally    German    priests    and    warriors 

Fig.  44 — Sketch  map  of  the  Rumanian  area  (diagonally  ruled)  in  Bukovina  and 
Hungary.  The  blank  area  is  overwhelmingly  Slavic  (Little  Russians  or  Ruthenians). 
The  dotted  patches  in  Hungary  represent  areas  of  Hungarian  speech. 

would  also  find  their  way  into  the  province  and  decide  to  settle 
permanently  within  its  borders.  A  fresh  impetus  to  German 
colonization  was  given  by  the  fall  of  Bukovina  into  Austrian 
hands  in  1774.  Under  the  rule  of  Maria  Theresa  and  Emperor 
Joseph  II  Germans  of  all  classes  and  conditions  were  induced  to 
seek   the   province   and   Germanize    the   land.     They   came   as 


officials,  teachers,  soldiers  and  merchants  and  took  up  their  abode 
generally  in  special  cities.^® 

This  German  element  was  derived  chiefly  from  Swabia, 
Bohemia  and  German  Austria.  The  Swabians  were  the  earliest 
colonists  and  are  found  scattered  in  the  best  farming  districts  of 
the  province.^''  The  Zips  of  northern  Hungary  are  generally 
found  in  the  mountains  of  southwestern  Bukovina  which  they 
had  occupied  originally  as  miners. -° 

The  Hungarians  of  Bukovina  are  not  descendants  of  inmii- 
grants  from  Hungary  but  from  Rumania.  Their  ancestors  were 
the  Magyars  and  Szeklers  who  had  been  dispatched  by  Hungarian 
kings  to  defend  the  passes  of  Transylvania.  After  Bukovina 's 
annexation  to  Austria,  efforts  were  made  to  induce  the  descend- 
ants of  the  old  frontier  guardsmen  to  live  within  Austrian 
boundaries.  The  call  was  heeded  by  many  who  as  a  result 
selected  Bukovina  as  residence.  One  of  the  earliest  colonies  was 
founded  at  Istensegitz,  while  Hadikfalva  and  Andreasfalva 
became  sites  of  their  settlements  during  the .  reign  of  Emperor 

The  Poles  emigrated  to  the  province  mainly  from  Galicia 
between  the  years  1786  and  1849.  They  are  found  scattered  in 
the  larger  cities,  notably  at  Czernowitz.  The  Slovaks  came  later. 
Prior  to  the  nineteenth  century  they  had  no  colonies  of  any 
importance  in  Bukovina.  In  1803  they  appear  around  the  glass 
factories  near  Crasna,  where  they  were  employed  as  woodcutters. 
Between  1830  and  1840  they  founded  the  settlements  of  Neusolo- 
netz  and  Pojana-Mikuli. 

Many  Bukovinan  localities  are  inhabited  by  Lippowans,  who 
are  Great  Russians  and  who  on  the  basis  of  language  are  con- 
sidered as  Ruthenians  by  Austrian  census-takers.   The  Lippowans 

*'  Czernowitz,  Storozynetz,  Sftreth,  Suczava,  Radautz,  Gurahumora,  Kimpolung 
were  among  the  cities  most  often  selected. 

*•  Their  colonies  are  found  at  Rosh,  Molodia,  Tereblestie,  Hliboka,  St.  Onufri, 
Altfratanz,  Milleschoutz,  Arbora,  Itzkani,  Ilischestie,  Unterstanestie,  Storozynetz, 

"^  Their  settlements  are  found  at  Jakobeny,  Kirlibaba,  Luisenthal,  Pozoritta, 
Eisenau,  Freudenthal,  Bukschoja  and  Stulpikani. 


belong  to  the  sect  of  Old  Believers  which  seceded  from  the 
Russian  Orthodox  Church  in  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury. Persecution  forced  them  to  flee  to  neighboring  countries 
and  they  flocked  in  large  numbers  into  Bukovina.  Their  descend- 
ants now  inhabit  principally  the  towns  of  Mitoka-Dragomirna 
and  Klimutz  as  well  as  neighboring  villages. 

By  the  acquisition  of  Bukovina  in  1777  the  Hapsburgs 
increased  their  territory  by  about  6,200  sq.  m.  (10,000  sq.  km.) 
and  a  population  of  75,000  inhabitants,  consisting  largely  of 
Rumanians.-^  Nistor  estimates  the  population  at  the  time  of  this 
annexation  at  56,700  Rumanians,  about  15,000  Ruthenians  at  the 
most  and  5,000  Huzulis,  who,  from  the  border  bandits  that  they 
were,  settled  finally  in  western  Bukovina."'  According  to 
Rumanian  historians  the  Slavic  element  of  Bukovina  was 
negligible  in  the  fourteenth  century.  It  was  a  common  occurrence 
for  Ruthenian  peasants  to  escape  from  Polish  serfdom  and  settle 
in  Moldavia,  the  land  of  free  farmers.  The  fugitives,  dribbling 
on  Rumanian  soil  in  small  numbers,  became  merged  in  the  mass 
of  the  native  population.  The  consolidation  of  large  estates  in 
the  seventeenth  century  and  the  resulting  agricultural  boom 
obliged  landowners  to  induce  peasants  of  neighboring  countries 
to  settle  in  Bukovina.  The  emigration  of  many  Ruthenians  can 
be  accounted  for  by  this  economic  change. 

After  the  Turkish  conquest  of  Kamieniec-Podolski  the  new 
provinces  of  the  Dniester  valley  were  populated  by  Slavs  drawoi 
from  among  Little  Russians.  The  district  of  Hotin  in  eastern 
Bukovina  was  colonized  at  that  time.  Again  Sobieski's  victories 
over  the  Turks  were  followed  by  a  temporary  Polish  occupation 
of  northern  and  western  Moldavia  and  a  renewed  inflow  of  Slavs. 

Ruthenian  invasion  of  the  soil  of  Bukovina  persisted  steadily 
from  the  eighteenth  century  on.  Galician  serfs  were  driven  by 
oppression  to  this  hitherto  unexploited  territory.     In  1779  the 

^*  Today  the  predominance  of  Ruthenians  in  Bukovina  is  contested  by  Rumanians 
who  claim  that  Austrian  statistics  are  deliberately  padded. 

"^  I.  Nistor:  Romanfi  si  Rutenii  in  Bucovina,  studiu  istoric  si  statistu,  Bucarest, 
1915,  p.  72. 


number  of  Ruthenians  in  Bukovina  was  estimated  at  21,114. 
Tombstones  of  that  date  found  between  the  Dniester  and  the 
Pruth  are  almost  entirely  in  Rumanian.  In  1848  the  Ruthenian 
element  in  the  province  numbered  108,907  against  208,293 
Rumanians.  The  census  of  1910  places  the  number  of  Russian- 
speaking  inhabitants  at  305,101,  while  the  users  of  Rumanian  are 
placed  at  273,254.  Rumanian  authorities,  however,  call  attention 
to  the  fact  that  these  figures  are  determined  on  the  basis  of  the 
language  most  commonly  used  and  not  on  that  of  the  inherited 
mother  tongue. 

Rumanian  also  holds  easy  predominance  in  the  strange 
medley  of  languages  which  can  be  heard  in  the  Russian  province 
of  Bessarabia.  The  region  forms  a  natural  extension  of  Mol- 
davia, east  of  the  Pruth  furrow,  and  has  always  been  intimately 
connected  with  Rumanian  life.  It  became  part  of  the  Czar's 
dominion  in  1812,  after  the  treaty  of  Bucarest  of  May  28  of 
that  year,  but  the  southern  part  was  reincorporated  with  the 
principality  of  Moldavia  after  the  Crimean  war.  This  section 
was  restored,  however,  to  Russia  by  a  decision  of  the  Congress 
which  met  in  Berlin  in  June  1878.  It  has  since  remained  Russian 
territory.  These  changes,  no  less  than  its  position  as  the  narrow 
corridor  between  the  Asiatic  steppeland  and  southern  Europe, 
have  made  it  the  meeting  land  of  Europe's  most  untutored 

The  broad  hilly  spurs  bounded  by  the  Dniester  and  the  Pruth 
contain  the  bulk  of  these  Bessarabian  Rumanians,  who  make  up 
half  the  population  of  the  province  or  nearly  one  million  souls. 
Interspersed  with  this  native  element,  German  colonists  and  Bul- 
garian immigrants, — the  latter  brought  wholesale  in  the  course  of 
Turkey's  European  recessional, — and  Serbian  or  Greek  culti- 
vators are  to  be  found  in  many  of  the  villages  that  nestle  in  the 
broad  and  smiling  valleys  of  the  low  plateau.  The  flat  marshy 
tracts  along  the  Pruth  and  at  the  mouth  of  the  Danube  are  occu- 
pied by  Cosacks  and  Tatars,  while  a  numerous  gipsy  element 
manages  to  subsist  on  the  rest  of  the  inhabitants  by  juggling  or 
fortune  telling,  or  frequently  by  pilfering. 


The  national  consolidation  of  the  Rumanians  of  Bukovina,  the 
Banat  and  Bessarabia  with  the  main  body  would  supply  a  non- 
Slavic  linguistic  wedge  between  Russians  and  Balkan  Slavs.  But 
apart  from  this  linguistic  difference,  Rumanian  life  and  institu- 
tions present  close  analogies  with  their  Russian  counterparts. 
From  the  standpoint  of  the  anthropologist  both  countries  contain 
a  Slavic  substratum  strongly  diluted  by  Tatar  infiltration. 
Religious  views  nursed  and  cherished  in  the  Kremlin  hold 
spiritual  sway  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  Rumania. 
And  yet,  in  spite  of  such  strong  bonds,  and  that  of  immediate 
neighborhood,  language  with  nationality  remains  sharply  distinct 
in  the  two  kingdoms. 


The  Balkan  peninsula  presents  in  its  physical  features  a  clue 
to  our  understanding  of  the  development  of  separate  languages 
and  nationalities  within  its  area.  Its  mountainous  center  has 
always  exerted  a  centrifugal  action  on  Balkan  peoples.  This 
influence  has  been  strengthened  by  the  existence  of  important 
routes  to  the  mainland  of  Europe  and  of  Asia.  Throughout  his- 
torical times  the  region  formed,  with  Asia  Minor,  a  natural 
bridge  joining  the  east  with  the  west.  Before  mankind  had 
begun  to  record  its  past,  it  had  afforded  a  natural  passage  for 
the  westerly  migrations  of  Asiatic  peoples.  Today  the  region 
bids  fair  to  maintain  the  same  connecting  role.  But  in  future 
the  human  stream  appears  destined  to  be  directed  towards  the 

Physical  enviromnent  forced  Asiatic  tribes  to  rove  because  the 
barren  steppes  of  their  birthplace  failed  to  provide  more  than 
could  be  harvested  at  a  single  halt.  These  ancestors  of  the 
modern  Khirgiz  poured  into  Europe  from  protohistoric  times. 
They  were  herded  along  by  nature  toward  that  most  favored  par- 
allel of  latitude,  the  fortieth,  near  which  civilization  has  flourished 
preeminently.  In  their  quest  for  sustenance  they  wandered  along 
a  path  that  led  far  into  Europe  as  well  as  toward  the  smiling 
regions  bordering  the  Mediterranean  basin.  Here  fertility  of  soil 
and  propitious  climate  rendered  settlement  possible. 

How  readily  the  peninsula  affords  easy  access  between  Europe 
and  Asia  can  be  gathered  from  the  map.  The  narrow  water- 
course which  begins  at  the  ^gean  mouth  of  the  Dardanelles  and 
extends  to  the  Black  Sea  entrance  of  the  Bosporus  provides,  at 
both  its  extremities,  the  shortest  fording  places  between  the  two 
continents.     At  Chanak,  on  the  Dardanelles,  about  one  mile  and 


Fig.  46— a  bit  of  Sarajevo  with  ample  evidence  of  former  Tiirkish  rule  over  the 
Serbians  of  Bosnia. 


a  half  of  channel  separates  the  peninsula  of  Gallipoli  from  the 
Anatolian  coast.  The  very  outline  of  the  European  shore  is 
symbolical,  for  in  the  Thracian  and  Gallipoli  promontories  the 
Balkan  peninsula  seems  to  stretch  out  two  welcoming  arms  to 
Asia  and  thus  invite  intercourse.  South  of  the  straits,  the  deeply 
indented  coast  lines  of  Greece  and  of  Asia  Minor  teemed  with 
matchless  harbors.  Their  shores  became  the  birthplace  of  adven- 
turous sailors.  The  ^gean  itself,  with  its  numerous  islands, 
provided  so  many  stepping-stones  jutting  out  of  its  choppy 
waters  to  aid  daring  pioneers  in  their  expeditions. 

[Every  race  of  Europe  and  of  western  Asia  has  marched  at 
some  time  or  other  through  the  valleys  that  extend  in  varying 
width  between  the  uplifts  rising  south  of  the  Danube  and  the 
Save.  The  attempt  to  determine  the  original  element  is  almost 
futile  in  the  face  of  the  constant  stream  of  invaders.  To  go  back 
only  to  the  iDcriod  following  the  one  in  which  the  Thracians 
dotted  the  southeastern  area  with  their  quaint  tumuli  we  find  the 
peninsula  already  settled  by  Illyrians  on  its  western  border.  The 
Albanians  are  supposed  to  be  direct  descendants  of  this  ancient 
people.  Secluded  in  their  mountain  fastnesses  from  contact  with 
subsequent  invaders  of  the  peninsula,  they  best  represent  today 
the  type  of  the  peninsular  inhabitant  of  about  2000  b.c.  To  the 
east  the  basin  of  the  Danube  was  peopled  subsequently  by 
Dacians  and  Gaetes,  who  presumably  were  the  ancestors  of  the 
peasants  now  occupying  the  DobrudjaT) 

North  of  the  boundary-defining  rivers  dwelt  the  Scythians  and 
the  Sarmatians.  The  story  of  their  migrations  is  the  same  for 
different  epochs.  It  tells  either  of  the  appearance  of  sturdy  bar- 
barians before  whose  dash  the  settlers,  somewhat  effete  on 
account  of  acquired  comfort,  give  way.  Or  else  it  is  the  tale  of 
the  settler  who  has  had  time  to  organize  his  forces  into  orderly 
fighters  and  whose  disciplined  bands  go  forth  to  conquer  new  ter- 
ritory at  the  behest  of  his  civilization.  Thus  did  Roman  legions 
sweep  away  the  barriers  to  the  acquisition  of  new  colonies. 

Following  the  Roman  occupation  of  the  peninsula  a  steady 
flow  of  uncouth  northerners  began  to  appear.    Under  the  names 


of  Sarmatians,  Goths  of  various  sorts,  Huns,  Bulgarians  to 
whom  the  Byzantines  gave  their  appellation  because  they  came 
from  the  banks  of  the  Volga,  and  Avars,  they  spread  havoc  far 
beyond  the  western  limits  of  the  Adriatic.  These  barbarians 
were  followed  by  Slavs.  The  eastbound  journeys  of  the  Cru- 
saders next  intervene;  then  a  final  mighty  onslaught  of  Turkish 
hordes  whose  savage  fury  seemed  for  a  moment  to  obliterate 
the  laboriously-reared  western  civilization. 

To  this  bewildering  succession  of  human  types  the  extraor- 
dinary complexity  of  stock  characterizing  the  present  population 
of  the  peninsula  is  directly  ascribable,  each  race  or  people  having 
left  some  trace  of  its  passage.  The  compilation  of  an  ethno- 
graphical map  of  the  region  results  in  the  representation  of  the 
most  mosaic-like  surface  imaginable.  Nor  are  the  actual  evi- 
dences of  these  ancient  invasions  lacking  to  the  observant  eye. 
Take,  for  instance,  the  fair-haired,  blue-eyed  Greeks,  totally  devoid 
of  traces  of  nigrescence,  who  are  by  no  means  uncommon  in 
Macedonia.^  In  them  the  Nordic  type,  due  in  part  to  the  Achrean 
conquerors,  has  survived.  To  this  day  the  tourist,  wandering  in 
any  town  formerly  occupied  by  the  Turks,  may  suddenly  behold 
in  the  streets  as  pure  a  Mongolian  type  as  is  to  be  found  on  the 
highlands  of  western  central  China.  In  the  Bosnian  town  of 
Sarajevo,  as  in  the  Macedonian  villages  north  of  the  ^gean,  the 
ugly  features  of  these  Asiatics  often  reveal  but  too  plainly  their 

Traces  of  these  wanderings  have  lingered  in  the  relics  of 
former  habitat  observable  in  Balkan  countries.  Any  one  whom 
fate  has  made  the  guest  of  Turkish  hosts  will  remember  how 
toward  bedtime  rolled  bundles  leaning  vertically  against  the 
corners  of  the  rooms  are  brought  out  and  laid  open  on  the  floor. 
These  are  the  beds  which  the  members  of  the  household  use. 
They  consist  of  a  mattress,  sheets  and  blankets  which  had  been 
removed  during  the  day  from  the  mat  over  which  it  is  customary 
to  spread  them  at  night.    Although  it  is  centuries  since  the  Turk 

•  I  have  also  seen  this  type  among  Anatolian  Greeks.  It  is  observable  among 
Greeks  living  in  New  York. 


has  ceased  living  in  tents,  lie  still  adheres  to  this  custom  of  his 
nomad  forefathers.  The  fact  is  observable  in  the  two-storied 
dwellings  of  the  Mohammedan  sections  of  Adrianople  or  Con- 
stantinople. But  the  practical  conversion  of  bedrooms  into  sitting 
rooms  is  only  one  of  the  many  phases  of  Turkish  indoor  life 
which  recall  tent  life.  Rooms  altogether  destitute  of  furniture 
are  quite  usual.  I  am  now  referring  to  the  average  Turkish  home 
— not  to  the  relatively  few  in  which  European  customs  are 
observed.  In  the  majority  of  cases  the  only  furniture  consists 
of  rugs  spread  on  the  walls  and  floors.  Articles  of  household  use 
are  kept  in  closets.  No  chairs  or  tables  help  to  relieve  the  bare- 
ness. At  meals  the  family  will  squat  in  groups  around  circular 
trays  supported  on  low  stools.  A  bowl  of  ''yoghurt,"  or  curdled 
milk,  is  the  invariable  accompaniment  of  each  repast.  Indul- 
gence in  this  preparation  is  observable  with  similar  frequency  in 
a  broad  belt  which  begins  in  the  Balkan  peninsula  and  extends 
eastward  between  parallels  45°  and  35°  of  latitude  to  Mongolia. 
Signs  pointing  to  Asiatic  origins  can  likewise  be  witnessed  out- 
side the  houses  in  Turkish  cities.  The  national  coat  of  arms, 
conspicuously  displayed  over  the  gates  of  government  buildings, 
bears  two  horsetails  surmounting  the  Prophet's  coat.  In  this 
emblem  we  see  Tatar  chieftains '  insignia  of  rank  which  have  been 
coupled  to  Mohammedan  symbolism. 

In  this  same  line  of  thought  we  find  that  traditions  furnish 
evidence  of  a  remarkably  significant  character.  A  tradition 
flourishes  to  this  day  among  the  Turks  that  their  occupation  of 
European  territory  could  not  be  permanent.  Often  have  I  heard 
this  voiced  by  Turks  who  simultaneously  added  by  way  of 
explanation  that  it  could  not  be  otherwise,  since  they  were 
Asiatics.  It  is  this  feeling  which  lies  at  the  root  of  the  Turk's 
unwillingness  to  be  buried  on  the  European  side  of  the  Bosporus 
or  the  Dardanelles.  The  same  sentiment  accounts  for  their  rela- 
tively larger  burying  grounds  along  the  Asiatic  shores  bordering 
the  peninsula,  as  compared  with  those  on  the  European  coast. 

In  the  present  era  of  world-wide  industrial  expansion,  the 
Balkan  region  retains  its  place  as  one  of  the  most  notable  of 

178        I'ltOiN'ril^llS  OF   LAN(illA(iK   v\Nl)  NATION ALI'IV 

iiit(!ni;iii()iwil  Jii^liwuys.  So  ccnlrally  is  tliu  poiiiiisula  .situalod 
wiili  roJ'(!rciice  to  i*]ur()i)o,  Asia  and  Al'iica  tliat  its  valleys  afford 
llic  inosi  convcniciil,  o\crl;iii(l  j)assago  for  llie  i)ro(lucis  of 
Miii()])(';iii  iiii^ciiiiily  and  Hciciicc  on  ilicir  way  to  market  in  the 
populous  ceiitci's  ol"  Asin  ;ni(l  Al'iiea.  I^jVcii  llic  air  lino  connecting 
central  lOurojje  and  India  passes  over  the  Balkans.  The  supe- 
riority of  the  Mediterranean  Jved  Sea  i'out(;  over  tlu!  other 
avenues  of  trallic  leading  from  west  to  cast  led  to  the  construction 
of  the  Suez  Canal.  ^IMie  advantages  of  this  line  still  exist.  With 
the  march  of  cxciils,  iiowcx'er,  I  lie  main  (iommercial  thoroughfare 
from  Mill-ope  to  tli(!  Orient  is  shifting  gradually  from  the  waters 
between  the  Eurasian  and  African  continents  to  a  more  easterly 
and  at  tlu^  same  time  far  spcsedier  overland  route.  The  tracks  of 
the  Oriental,  Anatolian  and  J3agdad  railroad  companies  form  at 
present  the  northern  section  of  the  trunk  of  this  system.  Inci- 
dentally, it  should  be  noted  that  nature's  provision  for  this  world 
route  is  so  well  marked  in  the  Balkan  peninsula  that  the  luxurious 
cars  of  tile  Oi'ient  lOxpress  roll  ovor  a  steel-clad  path  which  coin- 
cides remarkably  with  the  trail  followed  by  the  first  crusade— 
the  one  which  Godfi-ey  de  Bouillon  led  along  a  path  marked  by 
nature.  The  jirolongaticm  of  these  railroads  to  Delhi  and  the 
shores  of  the  Indian  Ocean  by  junction  with  the  railroads  of 
Brilish  India  advancing  loward  llu!  northwest  is  now  economically 

Through  connection  with  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  by  way  of 
Ma 'an  and  the  Egyptian  frontier,  over  the  Sinai  peninsula  and 
the  Cape-to-Cairo  line,  will  probably  be  exacted  by  the  require- 
ments of  trade.  In  that  case  railroad  ferries  over  the  Bosporus 
will  enable  the  same  car  to  be  hauled  directly  from  the  coast 
of  Ihe  r>allic  S(>a  to  the  shores  of  the  Indian  Ocean  or  to 
cities  at  the  southernmost  points  of  Africa.  There  is  reason  to 
believe,  however,  the  Bosporus  will  be  crossed  by  a  bridge  over 
the  half  mile  of  sea  that  separates  the  European  and  Asiatic 
fortresses  facing  each  other  at  Rumeli  ITissar. 

AVithin  the  Balkan  peninsula  every  economic  need  which  has 
determined  the  foreign  policy  of  the  several  states  is  related  to 



a  given  feature  of  the  laud.  Tlie  seaward  thrust  of  Serbia 
towards  the  Adriatic  is  naturally  directed  along  the  narrow  Drin 
valley,  cutting  across  the  long  chain  of  the  Dinaric  Alps.  But 
the  country's  elforts  to  obtain  mastery  of  this  important  gap 
were  blocked  by  the  creation  of  an  independent  Albania.  Bul- 
garia's trade  and  industrial  development  is  likewise  hampered 
by  the  lack  of  a  favorable  issue  towards  southern  seas.  At 
present  the  connection  between  the  east-west  mountainous  country 
formed  by  the  Balkan  ranges  and  the  lowland  extending  to  the 
^gean  involves  the  climbing  of  steep  slopes.  Bulgarians  there- 
fore naturally  coveted  the  Struma  valley  which  runs  in  Greek 
territory  to  the  west  of  the  Chalcidic  peninsula.  The  Montene- 
grins living  in  a  rocky  land  which  cannot  support  its  inhabitants 
look  covetously  on  the  narrow  defiles  which  lead  towards  the 
Adriatic  and  their  longing  for  Scutari  is  merely  for  the  posses- 
sion of  agricultural  lands.  War  with  the  Turks  once  forced 
them  to  retreat  into  their  mountains.  Now  that  that  danger  is 
over  they  are  coming  out  of  their  fastnesses  and  endeavoring  to 
resume  intercourse  with  the  outside  world. 

Geography  is  therefore  stamping  its  impress  on  the  political 
status  of  the  modern  inhabitants  of  the  Balkan  peninsula.  We 
have  just  seen  how  this  region  forms  a  section  of  a  great  inter- 
national commercial  route.  Coupling  this  fact  with  industrial 
requirements  which  find  expression  in  the  demand  for  unham- 
pered right  of  way  for  products  of  toil  and  thought  in  transit  to 
market,  it  can  be  understood  how  great  European  powers  keenly 
desire  to  secure  control,  or  at  least  maintenance  of  equal  rights 
of  passage,  over  an  avenue  so  happily  situated.  The  matter  is 
vital  because  it  is  based  on  economic  grounds.  Continued  opera- 
tion of  many  Old  World  factories,  or  their  shut-down,  often 
depends  on  conditions  prevailing  on  the  site  of  that  battle  royal 
of  diplomacy  kno^vn  as  the  Eastern  Question.  The  matter  of 
Serbia's  access  to  the  Adriatic  or  the  withholding  of  Austria's 
acquiescence  to  Montenegrin  occupation  of  Scutari  must,  there- 
fore, be  ultimately  explained  by  the  geographical  causes  which 
have  converted  the  peninsula  into  a  highway  of  such  importance 


that  the  paramount  influence  of  a  single  nation  over  its  extension 
cannot  be  tolerated  by  the  others.  A  clear  view  of  this  funda- 
mental ijrinciple  leads  us  to  realize  that  the  presentation  of  an 
ultimatum  to  Serbia  by  Austria  on  July  23,  1914,  was  the  pre- 
liminary step  toward  opening  a  pathway  for  Germany  and 
Austria  to  Salonica  and  Constantinople.  Then,  as  soon  as 
Austro-German  power  should  be  solidly  established  athwart  the 
Bosporus,  the  intention  was  to  secure  control  of  the  land  routes 
to  Egypt,  the  Persian  Gulf  and  India. 

As  matters  stand  at  present  the  balance  of  power  oscillates 
between  two  groups  represented  by  Teutonic  and  Slavonic  ele- 
ments respectively.  Their  clashing  zone  is  the  Balkan  peninsula. 
The  "Drang  nach  Osten"  of  Pan-Germanism  found  concrete 
geographical  expression  on  the  map,  in  1908,  by  Austria's  final 
absorption  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina.  A  further  step  in  the 
same  direction  was  marked  by  the  creation  of  a  new  Balkan 
nation,  Albania.  All  this  was  a  result  of  efforts  to  obtain  control 
of  the  remarkable  highway  we  have  been  considering.  This 
easterly  spread  was  hampered,  however,  by  the  steady  southerly 
progress  made  by  the  Balkan  countries.  Their  victories  in  1912 
and  1913  lengthened  perceptibly  Russia's  southwesterly  strides 
toward  ice-free  coasts.  The  process  taken  as  a  whole  is  one  of 
recurrence.  Time  has  converted  the  stream  of  early  Asiatic 
invaders  into  these  two  opposing  currents.  The  Teutons  are  now 
repeating  the  exploits  of  the  Greeks,  the  Macedonians,  the 
Byzantines  and  the  Crusaders.  The  Slavs,  whose  differentiation 
from  Altaic  ancestors  has  not  been  as  thorough  as  that  of  their 
western  neighbors,  are  likewise  playing  anew  the  part  of  their 
forefathers  seeking  milder  regions  by  way  of  the  Balkan 

jSouth  of  the  Hungarian  and  Slovene  linguistic  zones  the 
Austro-Hungarian  domain  comprises  a  large  portion  of  the  area 
of  Serbian  speech.  The  language  predominates  everywhere  from 
the  Adriatic  coast  to  the  Drave  and  Morava  rivers  as  well  as  up 
to  the  section  of  the  Danube  comprised  between  its  points  of  con- 
fluence with  these  two  rivers.     Serbian  in  fact  extends  slightly 


east  of  the  Morava  valley  towards  the  Balkan  slopes  lying  north  of 
the  Timok  river,  where  Rumanian  prevails  as  the  language  of 
the  upland.'^  To  the  south  contact  with  Albanian  is  obtained. 
The  area  of  Serbian  speech  thus  delimited  includes  the  inde- 
pendent kingdoms  of  Montenegro '  and  Serbia.  Within  the  terri- 
tory of  the  Dual  Monarchy  it  is  spoken  in  the  provinces  of 
Croatia,  Slavonia,  Bosnia,  Herzegovina  and  Dalmatia.  The 
language  is  therefore  essentially  that  of  the  region  of  uplift 
which  connects  the  Alps  and  the  Balkans  or  which  intervenes 
between  the  Hungarian  plain  and  the  Adriatic. 

Union  between  the  inhabitants  of  this  linguistic  area  is  some- 
what hampered  by  the  scission  of  Serbians  into  three  religious 
groups.  The  westernmost  Serbs,  who  are  also  known  as  Croats, 
adhere  to  the  Roman  Catholic  faith  in  common  with  all  their 
kinsmen  the  western  Slavs.  Followers  of  this  group  are  rarely 
met  east  of  the  19th  meridian.  A  Mohammedan  body  consisting 
of  descendants  of  Serbs  who  had  embraced  Islam  after  the 
Turkish  conquest  clusters  round  Sarajevo  as  a  center.  The  bulk 
of  Serbians  belong,  however,  to  the  Greek  Orthodox  Church. 
Cultural  analogies  between  the  Mohammedan  and  orthodox 
groups  are  numerous.  Both  use  the  Russian  alphabet,  whereas 
the  Croats  have  adopted  Latin  letters. 

Much  has  been  made  in  interested  quarters  of  the  difference 
between  Catholic  Croat  and  Orthodox  Serb.  Intrigues  directed 
from  Vienna  and  Budapest  have  sought  to  accentuate  these  differ- 
ences and  to  foment  hatred  where  Christian  charity  would 
speedily  have  produced  concord  and  understanding.  Even  in 
Russia,  there  have  been  fears  lest  close  political  contact  between 
Serb  and  Croat  dilute  the  purity  of  Serb  orthodoxy.  In  other 
quarters  political  ambition  has  made  use  of  divergence  of  creed 
as  a  pretext  for  seeking  to  perpetuate  political  division  between 

*  Serbian  authorities  usually  extend  the  zone  of  their  vernacular  to  points  farther 
east.  Cf.  J.  Cvijii:  Die  ethnoprraphische  Abspreuzung  der  Volkcr  auf  der  Balkan- 
halbinsel,  Pet.  Mitt.,  Vol.  59,  1013,  No.   1,  pp.   11.3-118, 

•  Montenegro  is  peopled  by  descendants  of  Serbians  who  took  refuge  in  its  moun- 
tains after  the  crushing  defeat  of  Serbia  by  Turkey  on  the  battlefield  of  Kossovo  in 


y'V^V  lirnx   -V\         ^VA 

y/,  Li/oraviun, 


y]  Slovene 

2.  Serbo-Croatian 


w    Mohammedan  Serbs 

+    liomanCaiholic  Serbs 

(ot her  Serbs  Or//iodu.\, 

ALBANIA      ^"S^ 
■y - — *%<>< 

Fig.  48 — Sketch  map  of  Austria  showing  westernmost  extension  of  Slavs  and  their 
languages  in  Europe.  The  German-Hungarian  wedge  between  northern  and  southern 
Slav8  is  shown.     The  small  cross-ruled  patches  are  areas  of  Rumanian  language. 


the  two  main  branches  of  the  southern  Slav  race.  But  a  Ser- 
bian saying,  which  can  be  heard  in  Bosnia,  Croatia  or  Monte- 
negro, is  the  best  refutation  of  the  existence  of  any  political 
differences  between  Serbs  of  different  creeds.  ''Brat  yay  mio 
Koye  vieray  bio,"  ''A  brother  is  always  dear  whatever 
his  religion. ' '  A  simple  phrase,  but  one  with  national  signifi- 

The  Serbo-Croatian  group  made  its  appearance  in  the  Balkan 
peninsula  at  the  time  of  the  general  westerly  advance  of  Slavs 
in  the  fifth  and  sixth  centuries.  A  northwestern  body  of  this 
people,  wandering  along  the  river  valleys  leading  to  the  eastern 
Alpine  foreland,  settled  in  the  regions  now  known  as  Croatia 
and  Slavonia.  Here  the  sea  and  inland  watercourses  provided 
natural  communication  with  western  Europe.  Evolution  of  this 
northwestern  body  of  Serbians  into  the  Croatians  of  our  day  was 
facilitated  by  the  infiltration  of  western  ideas.  But  the  great 
body  of  Serbians,  occupying  the  mountainous  area  immediately 
to  the  south,  had  their  foreign  intercourse  necessarily  confined  to 
eastern  avenues  of  communication.  They  therefore  became  per- 
meated with  an  eastern  civilization  in  which  Byzantine  strains 
can  be  easily  detected. 

In  spite  of  these  cultural  divergences,  the  linguistic  differ- 
entiation of  the  Croat  from  the  Serbian  element  has  been  slight. 
The  Serbian  sound  of  "ay"  is  generally  pronounced  "yay"  by 
Bosnians  and  "a"  by  Dalmatians.  The  Croatian  "tcha"  cor- 
responds to  the  "chto"  of  the  Serbian.  As  a  rule  variations  are 
slight,  and  natives  of  the  different  districts  not  only  understand 
each  other,  but  can  also  detect  respective  home  districts  quite 
readily  on  hearing  each  other. 

Today  the  political  aspirations  of  this  compact  mass  of 
Serbians  are  centered  around  the  independent  kingdom  of  Serbia, 
which  is  regarded  as  the  nucleus  around  which  a  greater  Serbia 
comprising  all  the  Serbian- speaking  inliabitants  of  the  Balkan 
peninsula  will  group.  This  Serbo-Croatian  element  is  estimated 
to  comprise  at  least  10,300,000  individuals."    The  southern  Slav 

*  J.  Erdeljanovic:   Broj  Srba  i  Khrvata,  Belgrade,  1911.  . 


question  centers  chiefly  around  the  fate  of  those  unredeemed 
populations.  The  Near  Eastern  Question  cannot  be  settled  with- 
out cutting  away  from  Austria-Hungary,  and  uniting  mth  Serbia 
and  Montenegro,  all  the  southern  Slav  provinces  of  the  Haps- 
burg  crown.  It  is  stated  of  Metternich  that  he  had  openly  pro- 
claimed his  belief  in  the  necessity  of  annexing  Serbia  to  either 
Turkey  or  Austria.  That  was  in  the  day,  however,  when  popular 
claims  counted  for  little. 

Southern  Slav  unity  and  independence  are  both  necessary  to 
Europe.  Serbia,  or  rather  Serbo-Croatia  or  "Jugoslavia,"  is 
reared  on  a  land-gap  that  provides  Europe  with  a  gateway  to 
the  east.  The  freedom  of  Balkan  peoples  and  to  a  great  extent 
the  freedom  of  Europe  depend  upon  the  power  of  the  southern 
Slavs  to  hold  the  gate.  It  is  therefore  to  the  advantage  of 
European  countries  to  strengthen  the  southern  Slavs  by  every 
means  in  their  power.  A  partial  unity  that  would  leave  any 
considerable  portion  of  Jugoslavia  unredeemed  would  but  divert 
southern  Slav  energy  into  irredentist  channels  and  deflect  it  from 
its  chief  mission. 

The  ties  which  unite  Serbians  and  Croatians  have  led  writers 
to  consider  the  two  peoples  as  one  under  the  name  of  Serbo- 
Croatians.®  In  the  eleventh  century  Skilitzer,  a  Byzantine  writer, 
alludes  to  the  "Croatians,  who  are  called  Serbians."  Little  dis- 
tinction was  made  between  their  tribes  when  they  first  made  their 
appearance  in  Balkan  lands.  Both  peoples  are  Slavs  and  it  is 
not  unlikely  that  they  are  derived  from  a  common  stock.  The 
location  of  the  territory  they  occupied  affords  a  clue  to  the  origin 
of  differences  between  them.  Their  homelands  lie  on  the  confines 
of  the  two  Roman  empires  which  ruled  respectively  over  eastern 
and  western  Europe.  It  was  natural  that  some  groups  of  the 
Serbo-Croatian  element  should  follow  the  religious  leadership  of 
Rome  while  others  rallied  to  the  Orthodox  teachings  of  Byzan- 
tium. The  main  distinction  between  Serbians  and  Croatians  is 
found  in  this  diversity  of  religious  views. 

*  E.  Haumant:  La  nationality  serbo-croate,  Ann.  de  Geogr.,  No.  127,  Vol.  23, 
Jan.   15,   1914,  pp.  45-59. 


From  a  geographical  standpoint  the  area  of  Serbian  speech 
presents  excessive  diversity  of  features.  National  unity  within 
its  bounds  is  therefore  apt  to  be  sorely  hampered.  Dalmatia, 
teeming  with  islands  and  fiords,  enjoys  the  advantage  of  easy 
access  to  all  its  districts  by  way  of  the  sea.  The  Dinaric  Alps 
separate  it,  however,  from  the  land  of  the  ancient  kingdom  of 
Serbia  which  arose  on  the  basins  of  the  Save  and  Morava.  The 
two  areas  form  in  reality  isolated  compartments.  A  capital 
suitable  to  both  cannot  be  located.  Belgrade  or  Nish  is  appro- 
priate enough  for  the  valley  of  the  Danube,  Spalato  or  Eagusa 
for  the  coastland.  Uskub  is  perhaps  more  centrally  situated  on 
the  road  connecting  the  Danube  to  the  Adriatic.  But  this  city 
also  belongs  to  the  eastern  watershed  of  the  isolating  mountains. 
"Whatever  be  the  political  destiny  of  this  linguistic  area,  it  is 
bound  to  be  divided  into  two  parts  with  outlets  respectively  on 
the  Adriatic  and  the  Danube. 

Between  the  sixth  and  thirteenth  centuries,  the  Serbian 
invaders  of  the  Balkan  peninsula  grouped  themselves  into  a 
number  of  independent  tribes.  The  Serbian  state  to  which  the 
smaller  units  adhered  politically  came  into  being  in  the  thirteenth 
century.  That  it  was  inhabited  by  a  prosperous  people  is  proven 
by  numerous  works  of  art  which  are  still  preserved  in  the 
churches  of  the  land.  A  hundred  years  later  the  kingdom  of 
Serbia  attains  its  widest  extension.  Under  Stephen  Dushan,  the 
country  spreads  from  the  Black  Sea  to  the  Adriatic  and  from  the 
Danube  and  Save  valleys  to  the  JEgean.  In  1346  Dushan  is 
cro\vned  emperor  at  Uskub.  He  is  about  to  march  on  Constan- 
tinople, but  death  puts  an  end  to  this  project.  Henceforth 
Serbian  power  is  to  be  on  the  wane.  The  appearance  of  the  Turks 
in  the  Balkans  in  the  last  decade  of  the  fourteenth  century  marks 
the  end  of  Serbian  independence.  In  the  ensuing  four  hundred 
years,  Serbian  lands  and  their  inhabitants  are  the  prey  of 
merciless  Asiatics.  The  devastating  grip  of  Turkish  oppression 
begins  to  be  relaxed  in  1815  when,  under  the  leadership  of 
Miloch  Obrenovitch,  the  Serbians  laid  the  foundation  of  their 
modern   independence  by  forcing  the   Turks   to   grant   them    a 


partial  self-government.  Thence  to  the  year  1867  political 
emancipation  from  Turkey  progressed  steadily. 

The  Adriatic  Sea  alone  provides  the  Serbo-Croatian  peoples 
with  a  definite  boundary.  The  line  of  the  Drave  on  the  north 
once  formed  a  frontier  for  the  twin  group.  In  modern  times  a 
number  of  Croatian  settlements  have  pushed  forward  along  the 
Kaab  valley  toward  Slovak  territory.  Here  they  stand  in  danger 
of  becoming  lost  in  the  midst  of  the  Hungarian  population,  as 
were  the  Serbian  settlements  which  in  the  seventeenth  century 
were  scattered  as  far  as  Budapest.  On  the  southwest,  the 
boundary  of  the  Serbian  linguistic  area  presents  many  obstacles 
to  accurate  delimitation.  There  was  a  time  when  all  northern 
Albania  was  part  of  the  Serbian  empire.  In  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury the  Serbian  kingdom,  established  in  the  Lake  Scutari 
district,  comprised  Albanian  populations  within  its  boundaries. 
Immediately  before  the  Turkish  conquest  Serbian  language  and 
customs  had  advanced  as  far  south  as  Epirus.  The  coming  of 
the  Asiatics  caused  profound  changes  in  the  distribution  of 
Balkan  populations  through  the  conversions  to  Mohammedanism 
by  which  it  was  attended.  Many  Serbians  who  had  penetrated 
to  the  south  and  a  large  number  of  Albanians  became  followers 
of  the  Prophet.  Their  descendants  became  ''Turks"  and  as  such 
endured  the  vicissitudes  which  marked  the  decline  of  Ottoman 
power.  The  Serbian  element  lost  its  individuality  in  the  midst 
of  Albanians.  A  record  of  its  former  advance  in  northern 
Albania  subsists  in  the  Serbian  villages  which  are  scattered  in 
the  region. 

Small  areas  of  Serbian  are  found  at  Zumberak  and  Mariondol 
on  the  southern  slope  of  the  Uskok  mountains  in  Croatia  near 
the  Carniola  boundary.  These  Serbian  groups  occur  on  the  border 
line  separating  Croats  from  Slovenes.  They  were  founded  by 
refugees  from  the  south  and  east  who  had  settled  in  the  military 
confines  of  the  Empire  previous  to  1871.  In  1900  the  population 
of  Mariondol  consisted  of  a  few  hundred  inhabitants,  many  of 
whom  have  since  emigrated  to  the  United  States.  In  Zumberak 
for  the  same  year  the  number  of  inhabitants  was  estimated  at 


11,842,  of  whom  7,151  were  ''imiats"  and  4,691  Catholics.'  The 
conversion  of  these  Serbians  from  Greek  orthodoxy  was  accom- 
plished in  the  eighteenth  century. 

Scattered  Serbian  settlements  are  found  between  the  Danube 
and  Theiss  valleys  as  far  north  as  Maria-Theresiopel  and  farther 
south  at  Zombor  and  Neusatz.  The  rich  corn-growing  districts 
southeast  of  Ftinfkirchen  (Pechui)  contain  some  of  the  most 
important  Serbian  centers  in  Hungary.  Serbian  is  the  language 
of  the  entire  district  of  confluence  of  the  Theiss  and  Danube  as 
well  as  of  many  colonies  in  the  Banat  of  Temesvar.  Religious 
diversity  alone  has  prevented  fusion  of  these  Serbians  with  the 
Hungarian  majority  of  the  land.  Whenever  they  come  into  con- 
tact with  Rumanians  of  the  same  religion  the  Serbians  lose 
ground  and  become  merged  in  the  bosom  of  the  Latin  population. 
*'A  Rumanian  woman  in  the  house,"  says  the  Serbian  proverb, 
"means  a  Rumanian  home."  Such  Rumanian  households  are 
now  solidly  established  north  and  south  of  the  Danube  valley  in 
the  northeastern  angle  of  Serbia  where  a  century  ago  they  were 
practically  non-existent.' 

Among  these  Serbian  settlements  of  southern  Hungary  those 
in  the  Banat  of  Temesvar  are  the  most  important.  Temesvar 
itself  although  an  ancient  seat  of  Serbian  voivodes  ^  contains 
fewer  Serbians  than  Germans  and  Hungarians.  The  Slavs 
however  occupy  the  w^estern  part  of  the  Banat  and  form 
majorities  between  Zombor  and  Temesvar,  Becherek  and  Pan- 
chova.  Around  Maria-Theresiopel  (also  known  as  Subotica  or 
Szabadka)  the  Serbian  element  contains  many  Roman  Catholics 
— the  so-called  Bunjevci,  who  were  emigrants  from  former 
Turkish  provinces,  mainly  Herzegovina. 

[  The  old  sanjak  of  Novibazar,  which  became  part  of  Serbia 
after   the  last   Balkan  war,   is   largely   Serbian  in   people   and 

•  N.  Zupanic :  Znmbercani  i  Marindolci,  prilog  antropologii  i  etnografiji  Srba  u 
Kranjskoj  Prosvetni  Glasnik,  Belgrade,  1912. 

*  E.  Haumant:  La  nationality  serbo-croate,  Ann.  de  G4ogr.,  No.  127,  Vol.  23, 
Jan.  15,  1914,  p.  48. 

» A.  Evans :  The  Adriatic  Slavs  and  the  Overland  Route  to  Constantinople,  Geogr. 
Journ.,  Vol.  47,  No.  4,  April  1916,  p.  251. 

Fig.  49. 

Fig.  .50. 

Fig.   49 — The  broken  aspect  of  tlie   Dalmatian  coastland   is   strongly   represented 
in  this  view  of  Lussinpiccolo  and  surrounding  islets. 

Fig.  .50 — Usual  landscape  in  mountainous  Montenegro. 


speech.  In  the  long  centuries  oi'  Mohammedan  rule  the  Turks 
had  become  possessors  of  the  majority  of  cultivated  lands.  But 
the  task  of  farming  was  left  entirely  in  the  hands  of  the  Serbian 
jjeasants — whether  of  Mohammedan  creed  and  known  as  Bosh- 
naks,  or  Christians.  The  Moslem  element  as  a  rule  resided  in 
the  towns  which  grew  around  a  castle  or  fortress, 

From  the  twelfth  to  the  fourteenth  century  the  great  com- 
mercial route  which  led  from  the  Adriatic  at  liagusa  to  Nish  and 
Byzantium  passed  through  Sienitza  and  Novibazar.  Prosperity 
never  since  equaled  flowed  with  the  commerce  from  Venetian 
cities  and  the  Dalmatian  coast  to  the  Orient.  The  districts  of 
the  sanjak  then  boasted  of  denser  and  wealthier  populations. 
The  Turkish  conquest,  however,  diverted  this  trade  route  into 
the  Morava  valley  with  the  result  that  the  erstwhile  frequented 
sanjak  became  almost  completely  isolated  and  neglected.  West 
of  the  Lim  the  sanjak  has  always  been  predominantly  Serbian. 
East  of  this  river  the  pure  Serbian  type  is  preserved  in  the  dis- 
tricts of  Stari  Vlah,  Novi  Varosh  and  Berane.  The  region's 
earliest  inhabitants  are  found  in  the  secluded  gorges  of  the  Tara 
and  the  Ograyevitza  tableland.  Albanian  settlements  are  met 
in  Peshtera  and  Roshai. 

Like  Albania,  Bosnia  was  originally  peopled  by  Illyrians,  a 
people  of  Alpine  race  whose  living  representatives  are  found 
among  the  Skipetars  or  rockmen  of  Albania.  Although  the  land 
was  conquered  by  the  Romans,  its  inhabitants  were  never  thor- 
oughly Romanized.  The  mountainous  character  of  Bosnia  accounts 
for  this  failure  of  Latinism.  Many  traces  of  the  Roman  invasion 
are  being  continually  discovered  on  the  sites  of  ancient  military 
camps  and  in  inscriptional  remains  which  are  frequently  unearthed 
in  the  territory  comprised  between  the  Adriatic  and  the  Danube. 
Dalmatia  and  Pannonia  were  the  two  provinces  into  which  the 
Romans  had  subdivided  the  region  for  administrative  purposes. 
The  Slavs  who  began  to  appear  in  the  middle  of  the  sixth  cen- 
tury left  a  deep  impress  on  the  inhabitants.  The  influence  of 
these  latest  comers  is  the  only  one  that  has  prevailed  to  our  day.  J 

The  coming  of .  Hungarians  in  Europe  may  be  likened  to  a 


wudgc  drivcu  into  tlie  mass  oi'  {Slavic  pojjulations.  The  success 
of  tliese  Asiatics  brought  about  the  separation  of  the  southern 
yiavs  from  their  northern  Ivinsmen.  In  the  course  of  these 
adjustments  Bosnia  and  its  inhabitants  became  part  of  the 
kingdom  of  Croatia  wliich  originated  in  the  valleys  of  the  Drave 
and  JSave.  The  provijice  was  administered  by  a  Ban,  who, 
though  a  vassal  of  the  Croatian  crown,  always  managed  to  retain 
a  certain  measure  of  independence." 

After  the  Hungarian  conquest  of  Croatia,  the  Bans  were 
allowed  to  maintain  their  rule.  Their  policy  consisted  in  culti- 
vating friendly  relations  with  the  ruling  element  and  at  the  same 
time  in  drawing  closer  to  the  Serbian  populations  in  the  east. 
The  intimate  connection  between  Serbia  and  Bosnia  dates  from 
the  end  of  the  twelfth  century.  Two  hundred  years  later  Stephen 
Turtko,  the  son  of  Serbia's  greatest  monarch,  was  crowned  king 
of  Serbia,  Bosnia  and  the  Littoral  provinces  at  the  shrine  of 
Saint  Sava.  But  the  independence  of  Greater  Serbia  was  short- 
lived. Hungarian  arms  were  soon  in  the  ascendant  and  Bosnia 
became  a  prey  of  feudal  lords — a  land  divided  against  itself. 

The  Turks  found  it  in  this  condition  in  the  fifteenth  century 
and  easily  subdued  its  petty  princes.  They  used  their  rights  of 
conquest  to  force  Mohammedanism  on  the  Bosnians.  The  mass 
of  the  landed  gentry  accepted  the  Arabic  faith  in  order  to  retain 
possession  of  their  i)roperty.  Many  of  the  Bosnian  Moham- 
medans are  descended  from  adlierents  of  Bogomil  heresies 
who  welcomed  this  method  of  finding  relief  from  persecution. 
The  fanaticism  of  these  converts  and  that  of  their  descendants 
became  noteworthy  even  in  the  midst  of  Turkish  religious 
intolerance.  It  has  delayed  the  expulsion  of  the  Turks  from  this 
region,  prevented  the  consolidation  of  Bosnia  with  Serbia  in  the 
early  years  of  the  nineteenth  century  and  finally  paved  the  way 
for  the  Teutonic  advance  towards  eastern  lands. 

The  Austrian  occupation  of  Bosnia  in  1879  was  followed  by 
a  current  of  German  immigration.  The  new  settlers  came  from 
Germany  and  the  German-speaking  provinces  of  Austria.     To 

•  G.  Blondcl:  La  Bosnie,  Bttll.  800.  Norm,  de  Odogr.,  Jan.-Murch  1912,  p.  18. 


weaken  Serbian  influence  in  liie  land  tlie  How  of  this  human  tide 
was  lavored  by  the  government.  Engaging  terma  were  oITered 
to  the  colonists.  The  land  they  took  up  was  turned  into  home- 
steads which  became  the  property  oi"  the  settler  on  easy  terms, 
and  after  ten  years'  occupation  Bohemians,  Poles  and  Kuthenians 
were  also  lured  to  iJosnia.  The  Posavina  district  teems  with 
these  Slav  immigrants.  German  jjeasants  however  were  con- 
sidered the  most  desirable  element  in  the  eyes  of  Austrian 
oilicials.  Through  this  migration  Windhorst  is  now  ijeojjled 
mainly  by  Clermans  from  the  Rhine  provinces  and  Rudolf  thai  by 
Tyrolese.  Swabians  from  Hungary  founded  a  large  colony  at 
Franz-Josefsfeld,  while  Germans  from  the  same  country  created 
settlements  at  JJranjevo  and  Dugopolje.  Altliough  these  German 
emigrants  constitute  a  numerically  unimportant  fraction  of  the 
Bosnian  jjopulation,  their  presence  has  sufficed  to  warrant  them 
the  solicitude  of  Pan-Germanist  writers  in  whose  works  they  are 
referred  to  as  ''Our  German  brothers  of  Bosnia."  '" 

By  its  geography,  no  less  than  racially,  Bosnia  is  an  integral 
portion  of  Serbia.  1^'or  over  a  thousand  years  Bosnians  and 
Serbians  have  had  a  mutually  common  civilization.  The  same 
historical  and  political  vicissitudes  have  been  shared  by  the  two 
peoxjles.  Common  economic  aims  and  the  identity  of  inhabited 
territory  have  furthermore  acted  as  unifying  factors.  Whatever 
be  the  name  applied  to  Croats,  Dalmatians,  Slavonians,  Bosnians 
or  Serbs,  all  speak  the  Serbian  language.  All  have  striven  for 
centuries  to  promote  their  individuality  as  a  nation.  To  help 
them  realize  themselves  as  a  political  unit  merely  implies  fur- 
thering the  process  begun  by  nature.  *~] 

"C.  DIeM:  En  Arz-diU-rranr-e,  Paris,  1912. 


The  Serbian  linguistic  area,  noticed  in  the  preceding  chapter, 
is  l)()ili  the  political  and  physical  link  connecting  central  Europe 
with  the  Balkan  peninsula.  Beyond  Serbia,  to  the  south  or  south- 
east, the  true  Balkan  domain  is  reached.  This  region  is  occupied 
chiefly  by  Greeks  and  Bulgarians.  The  Albanian  and  Kumanian 
poi)ulatioiis  of  its  western  section,  although  distinct  in  speech, 
nevertheless  lack  the  cultural  and  historical  background  required 
in  the  formation  of  nationality. 

The  Albanians  inhabit  the  rugged  lands  which  were  known  as 
Illyricuni  and  Epirus  in  classical  times.  1  Secluded  within  the 
narrow,  trough-shaped  relics  of  ancient  mountain  folding,  the 
natives  had  no  immediate  contact  with  their  Greek  neighbors  on 
the  south,  or  with  Serbians  on  the  north.  Hence  Albanian  has 
survived  in  the  most  inaccessible  portions  of  the  Dinaric  rocky 
country.  In  its  grammar  Skip  or  Modern  Albanian  is  exclusively 
Aryan  in  form.  Nevertheless  only  four  hundred  entries  out  of 
a  total  of  5,140  listed  in  G.  Meyers'  Etymological  Dictionary  of 
Albanian  can  bo  classified  as  unalloyed  old  Indo-European.  The 
intrusion  of  Tatar  modified  into  Turkish  words  is  considerable 
and  amounts  to  no  less  than  1,180  words.  Komanic  enters  into 
the  total  to  the  extent  of  1,420  forms,  thus  predominating.  Some 
840  words  are  Greek,  while  540  are  of  Slavic  origin. 

In  the  belief  of  some  etymologists  the  name  Albania  is  related 
to  the  old  Celtic  form  Alb  or  Alp,  which  means  mountain.  Com- 
parison with  the  Celtic  form  ''Albanach,"  used  in  Scotch 
v(M-nacular  to  name  the  mountainous  section  of  Scotland,  is  of 
utmost  interest  and  significance.  The  Albanians,  however,  do  not 
call  themselves  by  this  name.  They  designate  themselves  as 
Skipetars  or  rockmen,  and  apply  this  appellation  indiscriminatelr 



to  all  the  inhabitants  of  Upper  and  Lower  Albania  who  do  not 
use  Greek,  Serbian  or  Eumanian  as  a  vernacular.  Many  resem- 
blances in  the  language  spoken  by  Albanians  and  Rumanians 
I3oint  to  a  probable  early  association  of  the  two  peoples. 

Albania  is  still  a  land  of  mystery.  Few  European  travelers 
have  ventured  within  its  inhospitable  confines.  It  is  a  country 
without  a  master,  a  country  where  the  head  of  every  family  is 
sole  ruler  of  his  inherited  plot  of  land.  It  is  scantily  populated. 
Its  inhabitants  are  divided  into  hostile  groups  by  religion  and 
tribal  rivalry.  No  common  aim  on  which  to  found  nationality 
exists  among  them.  The  only  bond  that  holds  them  together  is 
perhaps  their  intolerance  of  alien  authority. 

Latitude  divides  the  Skipetars  into  two  main  groups.  A 
northern  branch  is  known  by  the  name  of  Gheks,  while  the  dwellers 
of  southern  Albania  go  by  the  name  of  Tosks.  The  Skumbi 
river  valley,  running  at  right  angles  to  the  Adriatic,  separates 
the  country  into  the  two  sections  inhabited  by  each  of  these 
peoples.  Each  of  these  branches  is  further  divided  by  religion 
into  Mohammedans  and  Christians.  The  Christian  Gheks  inhabit 
principally  the  valleys  of  the  Drin  and  the  Mati.  The  powerful 
Mirdite  clan  draws  its  adherents  from  this  group.  They  are 
Roman  Catholics  and  strongly  under  Italian  influence,  which 
dates  back  to  the  beginnings  of  Venetian  trading  on  the  eastern 
shores  of  the  Mediterranean.  The  Christian  Tosks  have  been 
affected  by  the  views  of  the  Eastern  Church.  Almost  all 
recognize  the  religious  authority  of  the  Phanariot  clergy.  The 
Mirdites  form  a  compact  community  to  the  south  of  the  Drin. 
The  group  consists  of  some  300,000  individuals  scattered  over  a 
territory  about  375  sq.  m.  in  extent.  An  hereditary  chief  is 
acknowledged  head  of  the  clan,  his  authority  being  even  recog- 
nized by  many  non-Mirdite  tribes.  With  their  allies  the  Mirdites 
number  approximately  half  a  million  souls  while  the  clan's 
sphere  of  influence  extends  over  a  territory  about  1,000  sq.  m. 
in  area. 

Both  of  the  Christian  groups  of  the  Albanian  people  have 
been  mercilessly  persecuted  by  the  Mohammedan  element,  which 

JDl.        J<'U()N'1'11':RS  OI'   LANCilJACil-:  AND  NAJJONALI'IV 

rci»r(iH(!iilH  Uio  luiidcd  goiilry  and  Jiohilily  (ji'  Uio  couiiiiy.  TJhj 
iiaiiK!  ol'  Ai'JJuut  uj)j>li(!H  g<!i)()niily  to  Uio  JVIolijunrrKjdaii  y\ll),'iniiui.s. 
All  iiro  (i(:H(;(!ii(|jiiitH  ol'  c-oiivcti'l.H  wlio  ciiiIjijuuuJ  IhIjuii  ;iI,  tlic  iijiio 
ol'  llir  'I'lirKinli  iiiviinioii.  \'>y  ;i(l()j>l,iii;.';  llu;  lailli  of  llicir  i;(>n- 
•  liiciorH,  l.liry  vvcro  nllowcd  l.o  I'claiii  poHHObHioii  ol'  llicir  rai'iiib 
and  jHopt'i'l.y.  '.I'lio  (  liiiHi.iaiiH  bccaiiitj  HurJH,  and  wore  Bot  to 
work  on  Iho  landH  nndcr  a  HyHlcni  ol'  loudal  Hcrvitudt!  wliicjj  was 
(ixcuodingly  oniirouH. 

'Vhii  inliahilanl.H  of  Albania  aro  totally  dcivoid  ol"  nalional 
foolinK-'  V^ai-ioNH  canHCH  HiililatcuigainHt  national  niiily.  i'rini(!val 
patriol.iHin,  oxpruHHcd  by  love  of  liilx;  i-atli<!i'  than  of  couniry,  in 
our  of  llicni.  Ii'nrllicruiorc  tlat  jx-.cnliai'  nliajxt  ol'  ili(;ir  couniry 
l.ranHronn.s  il.  inio  a  nnnihcir  ol'  c!orni)arini(jnt-]ik(3  aruaH  Ixjyoiid 
wliicli  Irihid  aclivil.y  I'arcly  cxh^ndH.  [VUo  H(!tiing  up  of  an  indo- 
j)(^nd(!nt  Hlal.(i  in  l!>l.'?  vvhh  a  j)nr(!ly  [)()lilic-al  movo  un(k!rtidv(5ii  by 
AuHlrinn  HinlcHincn  lo  pn^vcnt  S(vr})inn  (expansion  to  tho  Adriatic. 
VVilliin  I  lie  lioundaricM  dclciiiiincd  l»y  IIk!  ambaHHadorial  (M)nr(;r- 
cncc  held  in  London  in  llial.  ycaf  slfirc  and  di.ssonHion.s  piMivail 
now  an  inl<'n,s«'ly  aM  during';  llir  Tnilsisli  i-cL'/mic.  NalivcH  ol*  tho 
norl.lnu'n  Hc^c.l.ioiiH  of  (In!  (tonid.ry  HpcaU  Sdi'bian  dlalcds  and  favor 
nnion  willi  Serbia  or  MonliMicji^ro  ratlu'r  Hum  in(l((i)cndeiico. 
MaliHori  irib(»Hni(ii  lonj^Id-  Hi(l(^  by  Hido  with  Mont('no<i^rin  troops 
in  IIk^  fall  (d'  IIM'J  as  Ihcir  auccHlorH  had  done  in  ilio  camyiaiji^n 
of  171  1  ngainsl  Ihc  'rniks.  'The  Allianiann  (»!'  Ipck,  however,  ^avo 
aHHiMJanee  lo  'rnrkish  r(»gubirH.  The  inhabilanis  of  I  he  \alley  of 
Ihe  upper  Moraxa  H(Md.  Hiii)plieH  lo  Serbian  troops  against  wliicli 
the  chicriains  of  eiMilral   Albania   led  llieir  men.     Tho  purest  typO 

'  lu'llalilo  cmI  ininli'M  111'  lln-  |iii|iiiliil  ion  of  AllmMiii  iiit>  j^ivfii  liy  I'ft  lovicli  in  "  St^rviil: 

1I(«r   l'f(i|i|(>,  lliHiiiry  iunl   AH|»irM(  iniin,"  l.niulnii,  n>ir>,  i>.    175.     Accnnlinir  (<>  IIi'im  imtlior 
lli<\  i-iMinli'v    Ih    Inlinliil I'll    liy: 

AiiiMiiln   (  Mi.liimmiiMlMiiH)    afiO.OOO 

'I'uMkH  (driiioiinx)     :ir)0.ono 

'MInllli'H   (Kninitii  ('iitliollcH)  .'tOD.OOO 

Sorim   (Ordiotlox)  'j:r)(»,()()() 

(h-oolvH    (OrlliiMlox)  ir)0.(){m 

UiilKiirliiiiH    (Orllioilox^  f.O.OOO 

'I'lirkH    ( M(i|iiuniiit<ilui>H)     fiO.OOO 

TotHl    1. 

1.500,000        I 



h'Ki.  rA. 

1  ji,.  :> 

Figs.  51  and  ;')2— AlbanianH  in  native;  cohtuine.  The  men  nJiown  in  the  up[>er 
pliotograpii  are  ''  Arnaudw "  or  Mohainmedanw.  Tiie  lower  illuHtration  hhowB  two 
AlhanianH  of  the  whepherd  claBs. 


of  Albanian  found  in  the  vicinity  of  Elbassan,  Koritza  and 
Valona^  is  practically  submerged  in  a  sea  of  Greeks.  Under 
these  circumstances,  partition  of  the  country  between  Greece  and 
Serbia  might  not  be  incompatible  mth  native  aspirations. 
Political  stability  could  be  obtained  in  this  case  without  paying 
attention  to  linguistic  unity.  Nevertheless  Albania  is  not  with- 
out national  boundaries.  The  valley  of  the  Drin  and  the  range 
of  the  Pindus  have  left  their  mark  in  the  development  of  the 
Albanian  people,  while  the  sea  on  the  west  provides  the  country 
with  a  most  desirable  confine. 

On  the  east  and  south,  the  limits  of  Albanian  language  and 
nationality  become  indefinite  owing  to  the  intermingling  of 
foreign  populations.  In  the  Ipek  district,  along  the  northeast 
corner  of  the  country,  two  centuries  of  Albanian  invasions  have 
failed  to  insure  preponderance  of  the  Albanian  over  the  Serbian 
element.  Nevertheless  at  the  London  ambassadorial  conference 
in  1913  Albania  was  awarded  the  only  available  road  between 
Montenegro  and  Serbia.  The  route,  cut  in  the  mountainous 
tangle  which  characterizes  this  region,  follows  the  Clementi  gap, 
a  district  settled  by  shepherds  of  the  tribe  of  the  same  name. 
The  Prokleita  mountains  allotted  to  Albania  form  here  a  natural 
boundary.  The  inclusion  of  this  uplift  within  Serbian  territory 
would  have  enabled  the  Serbians  to  maintain  communication 
with  their  ]\Iontenegrin  kinsmen.  Albanians  would  ha\'e  lost 
little  in  the  transaction,  as  can  well  be  inferred  from  the  name 
of  the  mountain,  which  is  Serbian  for  ''accursed," 

[a  small  strip  of  Montenegrin  territory  Vvhich  extends  from 
Podgoritza  to  the  sea  at  Antivari  and  Dulcigno  is  peopled  almost 
exclusively  by  about  10,000  Albanians.  This  district  was  annexed 
to  Montenegro  by  the  treaty  of  Berlin  in  exchange  for  the  dis- 
tricts of  Plava  and  Gusinje  which  were  then  awarded  to  Turkey 
in  view  of  the  predominantly  Mohammedan  religion  of  th?ir 

Montenegrin  covetings  of  the  Lake  Scutari  area  are  based  on 
economic  grounds.    The  eastern  shore  of  this  inland  body  of  water 

^  G.  Gravier:  L'Albanie  et  ses  limites,  Rev.  de  Paris,  Jan.  1,  1913,  pp.  200-224. 

io(;      I'lioN  rii:i{s  oi'  LANdUACiK  and  nationality 

coniaiiiH  hroiul  a^riciillwrul  iraci.s  vvliicli  can  8ui)i)ly  ilio  Hmall 
Hiai(^  willi  food  prodnclH  ini()})i,ainablo  from  its  rocky  Hurfacc;. 
Tlic  award  of  a  Huiall  ship  of  I  lie  old  saiijak  and  ji  portion  of 
(lie  Ipck  (li,slri('.l,  al,  I  Ik;  end  of  I  lie  Halkaii  wai's  of  1!)12  and 
11)1.'!,  Tailed  lo  niccl,  M()iil(iii(\u;r-iM  i"('(|nir(!m(3ntH.  'V\\(\  ii(!W  dis- 
triclH  arc  Hcpa rated  froiii  (lie  coniiiry  pi'opc^r  l)y  a  tangle  of  wcll- 
nigli  inipon(^tral)lc  nioiinlaiiis.  At  IVxlgorit/a,  tli(^  commercial 
c(Uit('r  of  Montenegro,  it  is  still  possible  to  bay  cor'oals  from 
Albania  nioiv^  advaidageonsly  than  from  I  lie  Ipek  I'egicm.  Fur- 
tlierinore  the  a('.<|nired  tei'ritoi'y  is  relatively  densely  populated 
and  hence  nnlit  I'oi'  settlement  or  colonization.  Under  Ihe  circum- 
siances  the  ecoiioniic  advaid.ages  Hccured  by  Montenegro  by  llie 
increase  of  itH  tcrrilory  in   H)l.'5  were  slight. 

The  ai'ea  clalrruul  by  tin;  higldand  country  compris(>s  tli(^  sliore 
district  of  Scutari  Tiake  and  tin*  l>oyana  valley.  To  satisfy 
Montenegrin  asj»i rations  Ihe  Albanian  boundary  should  follow 
tile  Drill  valley  to  the  |)oiiit  of  conllnence  of  tln^  I>lack  and  While 
Drill  and  extend  along  IIh>  Drinassa  river.  ^IMience,  passing 
thi-ongh  the  coast  ranges,  it  sliould  attain  ihe  Kiri  river  by  way 
of  a.  canal  connecting  this  waterway  with  the  lioyana.  l)ey()nd, 
the  lin(>  might  appi'opi'iately  be  cai-ried  to  V)r(»di/za  and  the 
Adriatic  Ix^tween  San  ,Iuan  de  JMediia  and  the  mouth  of  the 

Such  a.  re\  ision  of  Monlen(>gro\s  fronlier  would  provide  the 
soil  which  lli(>  country  needs  I'oi"  lilling.  Tho,  valley  of  the 
lioyana  and  the  drained  lake  district  would  soon  be  laken  up  by 
Montenegrin  colonists  who,  now  that  the  Turkish  dang(>r  is  over, 
arc  eager  lo  descend  into  the  lowland  from  their  mountain  fast- 
ness. The  connection  between  the  coast  and  inland  districts 
would  lik(>wise  be  favored  by  tlu*  chang(>d  course  of  the  boundary 

tn  soul  hern  Albania  (1re(>k  claims  to  l^^pirus  are  Jiot  without 
foundation.  Ilc>llenic  language  and  customs  prevail  throughout 
the  province.  The  ho])(*R  entertained  at  Athens  originally  aimed 
at  the  establishment  of  a  northern  boundary  which  would  have 
included  Valoiui.    In  order  to  satisfy  Italian  demands,  however, 


a  less  comprehensive  line  was  advocated,  beginning  at  Gramala 
bay  and  extending  to  the  Serbian  frontier  in  the  center  of  the 
western  shore  of  Lake  Okrida.  It  comprises  the  districts  of 
Kimara,  Argyrocastro,  Premeti,  Koritza  and  Moskopolis.  Accord- 
ing to  official  Turkish  statistics,  x^ublished  in  1908,  the  region 
was  peopled  by  340,000  Greeks  and  some  149,000  Mohammedans. 

The  Greek  proposals  laid  before  the  London  ambassadorial 
conference  suggested  the  following  delimitation  of  the  line 
between  Greece  and  Albania.  Starting  from  Gramala  bay  on 
the  Adriatic  sea,  the  frontier  was  to  extend  to  Tepeleni  and 
Ihence  to  Klisura.  From  this  point  the  line  was  to  coincide  with 
the  crest  of  the  Dangli  mountains  and,  crossing  the  basin  of  the 
middle  Devoli  river,  attain  Lake  Okrida,  thus  connecting  with 
the  eastern  boundary  of  Albania. 

The  thwarting  of  these  Greek  aspirations  was  followed  by 
an  insurrection  of  the  Epirote  inhabitants  of  Albania  in  1914. 
The  movement  aimed  at  annexation  with  Greece.  Rebel  troops 
lost  no  time  in  occupying  the  rcj^on  of  Greek  speech  between 
Kimara  and  Tepeleni,  comprising  the  cfjast  and  the  northern 
extension  of  the  wide  valley  of  Argyrocastro.  On  February  25, 
1914,  the  autonomy  of  Epirus  was  solemnly  proclaimed  by  the 
inhabitants  of  Kimara  assembled  in  their  cathedral.  In  the  fall  of 
1914  the  Hellenic  government,  taking  advantage  of  the  European 
war,  despatched  regular  troops  into  the  territory  claimed  by  its 
citizens.  As  a  result  of  this  invasion  the  Albanian  area  of  Greek 
speech  was  brought  under  the  direct  authority  of  the  Greek 

The  determination  of  the  boundary  between  the  Albanian  and 
Greek  languages  presents  little  difficulty.  The  upper  course  of 
the  Voyussa  and  the  road  from  Delvino  to  Ostanitza  passing  by 
Doliano  mark  the  divide  approximately.  North  of  this  line  the 
prevailing  language  is  Alh»anian.  To  the  south  it  is  Greek.  On 
the  Albanian  side  the  village  schoolhouse  maintained  by  Greeks 
is  no  longer  found.     Delvino  itself  is  a  town  in  which  the  two 

*L.  BOchner:  Die  neue  griechiach-albanijiche  Grtnze  in  NordepiruB,  Pet.  Mitt.,  Vol 
61,  Feb.  1915,  p.  68. 


peoples  are  equally  represented.  The  language  of  commerce 
however  is  Greek  and  as  a  rule  the  Albanian  townsmen  speak 
the  rival  tongue  with  high  fluency,  while  the  knowledge  of 
Albanian  possessed  by  the  Greek  inhabitants  is  restricted  to  the 
few  phrases  needed  in  daily  contact. ) 

History,  legend  and  myth,  as  well  as  language,  testify  to  the 
Hellenic  character  of  the  Epirote  land.  These  ties  are  too  strong 
to  allow  the  Greeks  to  relinquish  complacently  any  portion  of 
Epirus  to  Albania.  Greece's  dawning  consciousness  of  nationality 
was  nursed  in  the  mountains  of  Epirus  long  before  the  Christian 
era.  Every  step  in  the  rugged  country  raises  the  dust  of 
Hellenic  antiquity.  Among  the  fateful  oaks  of  Dodona  the  land 
is  aglow  with  tradition.  At  a  short  distance  from  Filiates,  at 
the  junction  of  the  Kalamas  and  the  Cremnitza,  shepherds  feed 
their  flocks  about  the  thick  walls  of  Passaron.  Near  Delvino  may 
be  seen  the  remains  of  the  once  prosperous  city  of  Phoenike. 
Every  mountain  and  stream  in  the  Epirote  districts  of  Albania 
is  part  of  the  foundation  on  which  Hellenism  was  built.  The 
annals  of  modern  Greece  also  are  replete  with  the  heroism  of 
Greeks  who  claim  Epirus  as  their  native  country.  The  land 
which  produced  so  daring  a  leader  of  men  as  Pyrrhus  in  ancient 
times,  later  counted  Miaoulis,  Canaris  and  Botzaris  among  its 

The  Greek  occupation  of  Janina  and  the  district  surrounding 
the  city  raised  difficulties  of  a  practical  nature.  As  is  generally 
the  case  in  conquered  countries  land  was  found  to  be  held  by  the 
dominating  element,  that  is  by  Mohammedans,  whether  Albanian, 
Turkish  or  Greek.  The  Christian  Greeks  forming  the  majority 
of  the  population  constituted  the  working,  peasant  class.  The 
end  of  Turkish  rule  in  Europe  placed  Mohammedan  landholders 
in  the  unenviable  situation  of  suppliants  before  a  people  whom 
they  had  mercilessly  maltreated.  Many  were  ruined  and  their 
land  taken  over  by  Greeks  without  compensation.  A  general 
disturbance  of  the  economic  life  of  the  region  ensued  as  agricul- 
ture had  been  its  most  important  industry. 

Geographically — as  well  as  economically — the,  nation  holding 


Janina  is  entitled  to  Santi-Quaranta.  This  harbor  is  likewise 
the  outlet  for  the  products  of  the  district  surrounding  Argyro- 
castro.  In  fact  access  to  the  sea  for  the  entire  Greek-speaking 
inland  districts  of  southern  Albania  is  obtained  through  Preveza 
or  Santi-Quaranta.  The  latter  harbor  alone  however  is  safe  for 
large  vessels. 

jThe  importance  of  Albania  in  European  politics  is  largely  due 
to  the  commanding  position  of  the  country's  seaports  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Adriatic.  Austrians,  Italians,  Serbians  and  Monte- 
negrins covet  them  equally.  South  of  the  Montenegro  frontier 
the  first  of  these  harbors  is  San  Juan  de  Medua,  situated  on  the 
northeast  comer  of  the  Gulf  of  Drino  about  11  miles  southwest 
of  the  mouth  of  the  Boyana  river. 

This  port,  which  is  in  reality  a  bay  of  restricted  dimensions,  is 
considered  by  the  natives  as  the  most  favored  on  the  Albanian 
coast.  A  bank  extending  to  the  south  of  the  bay  affords  shelter 
from  high  seas.  The  region  is  the  resort  of  local  fishermen  and 
is  especially  favored  during  winter  months.  In  summer  the 
swampy  nature  of  the  environing  country  converts  it  into  a 
malarial  district.  Small  vessels  of  the  coastwise  trade  find 
shelter  at  the  extreme  inland  extension  of  the  bay.  Ocean-going 
steamers  anchor  in  the  middle  of  the  bay  between  the  mouth  of 
the  Drin  and  San  Juan  Point. 

San  Juan  de  Medua  is  the  harbor  of  the  Montenegrin  town  of 
Scutari.  It  is  also  the  proposed  sea  terminal  of  a  railway  to  be 
built  between  the  Danube  and  the  Adriatic.  As  such  it  might  in 
time  become  Serbia's  economic  outlet  to  the  Adriatic.  But  the 
construction  of  a  railroad  connecting  the  valley  of  the  Danube 
with  the  Adriatic  presents  well-nigh  insurmountable  difficulties 
on  account  of  the  mountainous  character  of  the  interv^ening 
country.  The  bay  of  Eodoni,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  Gulf  of 
Drino,  is  one  of  the  safe  anchorages.  A  commodious  harbor 
could  be  provided  here  by  modem  engineering  devices.  The 
southern  shore  of  the  bay  could  be  converted  into  a  long  wharf 
at  no  great  cost.  A  jetty  thrown  out  on  the  northern  side  would 
afford  protection, from  the  "bora"  or  northern  \\dnd. 


Between  the  bay  of  Rodoni  and  Durazzo  the  two  roadsteads 
of  Lales  and  Pata  intervene.  Both  are  resorts  of  fishermen  and 
petty  freighters  seeking  refuge  from  the  vehemence  of  the  bora. 
The  shallowness  of  the  waters  in  both  preclude  their  utilization 
as  western  terminals  for  central  Balkan  traffic.  Beyond  however, 
to  the  south,  the  spacious  bay  of  Durazzo  offers  ample  harbor 
facilities  to  Adriatic  shipping. 

Durazzo  has  undoubtedly  the  most  commodious  harbor  of 
northern  Albania.  From  Cape  Durazzo  to  Cape  Laghi  the  bay 
is  about  11  miles  long.  Shoals  and  banks  protect  its  northern 
entrance.  Engineers  would  find  little  difficulty  in  deepening  the 
bay  in  conformity  with  the  requirements  of  modern  navigation. 
This  accomplished,  Durazzo  might  again  become  the  naval  station 
and  port  of  commerce  which  gave  fame  to  its  name  in  ancient 
times,  y 

Its  site  is  hallowed  to  history.  To  the  Corcyreans  by  whom  the 
first  town  was  founded  it  was  known  as  Epidamnus,  the  "far 
away."  The  Romans  changed  its  name  to  Dyrrachium.  In 
classical  thnes  the  port  was  the  point  of  transshipment  for  mer- 
chandise en  route  from  Italy  to  Macedonia  or  northern  Greece. 
At  the  height  of  Venetian  commercial  supremacy,  the  seaport 
fully  retained  its  ancient  prosperity.  The  wharves  to  which 
Venetian  galleys  were  moored  are  still  intact.  Although  the  city 
is  the  modern  commercial  center  of  Albania  it  has  lost  much  of 
its  ancient  activity. 

None  of  these  Albanian  harbors  are  comparable  in  strategic 
importance  to  Valona,  which  is  situated  opposite  Brindisi  and  on 
that  portion  of  the  Albanian  coast  nearest  Italy.  The  holders 
of  this  seaport  will  control  the  strait  of  Otranto  and  thereby  have 
mastery  of  the  Adriatic.  From  a  military  standpoint,  the  bay 
facing  the  town  is  eminently  suited  to  become  a  strongly  fortified 
naval  station.  It  is  provided  with  a  number  of  safe  anchorages. 
The  island  of  Sasseno  facing  the  entrance  affords  shelter  from 
the  roughness  of  the  open  sea  and  forms  at  the  same  time  a 
natural  outpost.  Italian  and  Austrian  statesmen,  the  former 
especially,  are  fully  aware  of  the  importance  of, this  Albanian 


harbor  in  the  Adriatic  question.  The  aim  of  each  is  to  plant 
their  country's  flag  on  the  crenelated  remnants  of  the  ancient 
forts  which  overlook  the  bay.  Greece  also  aspires  to  the  pos- 
session of  the  seaport.  In  her  case  the  claim  is  made  that  the 
majority  of  the  inhabitants  are  of  Greek  descent.  An  attempt  to 
obtain  mastery  of  the  position  was  made  by  Greece  in  the  spring 
of  1913  when  she  landed  in  Sasseno.  An  energetic  protest  from 
the  Italian  government  forced  Greece  to  recall  her  troops.  The 
island  was  occupied  by  Italian  troops  in  the  fall  of  1914. 

Valona  is  the  outlet  of  a  region  whose  population  consists 
mainly  of  Mohammedan  Albanians.  Its  commercial  insignificance 
is  largely  due  to  the  character  of  its  inhabitants.  Had  it  been 
peopled  by  a  majority  of  Greeks,  or  even  Christian  Albanians, 
its  influence  might  have  been  felt  in  the  midst  of  international 
rivalries.  "Whatever  destiny  is  in  store  for  Albania,  it  seems  as 
if,  in  view  of  the  non-Greek  character  of  the  Valonian  popula- 
tion, Italian  or  Austrian  claims  would  stand  greater  chance  of 
being  heeded. 

Of  the  8,000  or  10,000  inhabitants  of  Valona  over  one-half  are 
Albanian  Mohammedans  who  adhere  to  the  use  of  their  ver- 
nacular. Greek  is  spoken  extensively  by  Orthodox  Albanians  and 
Greeks,  who  together  form  the  next  largest  religious  community. 
Ajnong  Catholics  the  cultural  influence  of  Italian  prevails.  In 
fact  most  of  the  Albanian  Catholics  residing  in  the  to^vn  have 
forsaken  their  native  language  for  Italian.  Through  the  medium 
of  these  Catholics  the  only  sphere  of  Italian  influence  in  Albania 
■deserving  mention  is  found  in  Valona  and  the  environing  district. 
This  western  influence  is  hardly  felt,  however,  beyond  a  distance 
of  about  35  miles  inland  from  the  harbor  or  by  more  than  20,000 
souls.  Albanian  anarchy  holds  sway  to  the  north.  Southward 
Oreek  influence  is  strongly  exerted  through  the  agency  of  the 
Orthodox  church.J 

Elsewhere  in  the  Balkan  peninsula  linguistic  groupings  now 
■conform  largely  to  the  political  divisions  which  ended  the  wars  of 
1912-1913.  The  future  w^ill  undoubtedly  afford  an  increasingly  sat- 
isfactory perspective  of  the  results  which  followed  this  attempt  to 


eliminate  totally  the  Turk  from  this  portion  of  the  European 
continent.  Racial  siftings  followed  close  on  territorial  readjust- 
ments. Turks  from  all  parts  of  the  former  Turkish  provinces 
transferred  their  lands  to  Christian  residents  and  emigrated  to 
Asia  Minor.  Special  arrangements  for  this  exodus  were  pro- 
vided by  the  Turkish  government.  Greeks  who  were  settled  in 
the  newly  acquired  Bulgarian  and  Serbian  domain  similarly 
sought  new  homes  within  the  boundaries  of  the  Hellenic  kingdom. 
A  heavy  flow  of  Bulgarian  emigrants  was  also  directed  to 
Bulgaria  from  Bulgarian-speaking  territory  allotted  to  Serbia.* 

But  pressing  need  of  further  boundary  revision  on  the  basis 
of  language  is  felt  in  the  peninsula.  Resumption  of  hostilities 
in  this  part  of  Europe  in  1915  was  due  principally  to  the  moot 
case  of  the  nationality  of  the  Slavs  of  Macedonia.  Serbs  and 
Bulgars  both  claim  them  as  their  own.  In  reality  the  Macedonians 
are  a  transition  people  between  the  two.  They  occupy  a  distinc- 
tive area  formed  by  the  twin  valleys  of  the  Vardar  and  Struma 
and  surrounded  by  a  mountainous  bulwark  assuming  crescentic 
shape  as  it  spreads  along  the  Balkan  ranges  and  the  mountains 
of  Albania  and  the  Pindus.  For  centuries  this  Macedonian  plain 
has  constituted  the  cockpit  of  a  struggle  waged  for  linguistic 
supremacy  on  the  part  of  Bulgarians  and  Serbs.  The  land  had 
formed  part  of  the  domain  of  each  of  the  two  countries  in  the 
heyday  of  their  national  life.  To  this  fact  in  part  the  present 
duality  of  claim  must  be  ascribed. 

The  entire  northwestern  Macedonian  highland  was  under 
Serbian  rule  until  the  fall  of  1915.  East  and  south  of  the  moun- 
tains Bulgarian  speech  predominates  in  districts  peopled  exclu- 
sively by  Macedonians.  The  Greek  element  is  practically  entirely 
absent  here;  Serbians  begin  to  appear  in  small  numbers;  south 
of  Monastir  and  Okrida  offshoots  of  the  Pindus  Rumanians  are 
found;  but  the  Macedonian  element  is  present  everywhere  in 
overwhelming  majority. 

*  Such  migrations  generally  follow  boundary  revisions.  The  crossing  of  Alsatians 
into  French  territory  since  1870  has  been  already  mentioned.  A  large  number  of 
Danes  abandoned  their  home  in  Schleswig-Holstein  in  1865,  and  wandered,  into  Denmark. 


Fig.  53 — Sketch  map  of  the  western  Balkans.  The  dotted  area  represents  the 
northern  area  of  Greek  language.  Black  dots  show  Rumanian  settlements  of  the 
Pindus  mountains  and  adjoining  regions. 

Physically  Macedonia  is  the  region  of  the  basins  of  the 
Vardar  and  Struma.  Under  Turkish  rule  it  was  divided  into  the 
vilayets  of  Monastir,  Uskub  and  Salonica.  The  area  is  isolated 
from  the  rest  of  the  peninsula  by  a  practically  continuous  line 


of  mountains,  which,  starting  with  the  Pindus,  Grammos  and 
Albanian  ranges  on  the  west,  extend  through  the  Shar,  Suhagora, 
Osogov  and  Rilo  uplifts  on  the  north  and  connect  on  the  east 
with  the  Rhodope  massif.  Macedonia  is  thus  well  defined  on  the 
surface.  Within  these  natural  boundaries,  it  may  be  divided  into 
an  elevated  region  extending  over  its  northwestern  portion  and 
a  lowland  spreading  thence  to  ^gean  waters.  The  Bistritza 
valley  forms  a  convenient  feature  to  mark  the  beginning  of  the 
modern  Hellenic  area. 

In  a  restricted  sense  physical  Macedonia  may  be  defined  as 
the  southerly  extension  of  the  Serbian  mountain  belt  whose 
drainage  leads  to  the  ^gean.  Thus  it  consists  first  of  a  moun- 
tain belt  extending  between  the  upper  valleys  of  the  Black  Drin 
and  Struma.  To  this  zone  must  also  be  added  a  hill  country 
w^hich  forms  its  continuation  to  the  ^gean  Sea.  The  Vardar 
valley  is  entirely  within  this  area  and  divides  it  into  equal  east 
and  west  sections.  The  northern  boundary  of  the  area  is  found 
at  the  central  watershed  north  of  XJskub.  Four  important  basins 
lie  within  these  boundaries.  The  Tetovo  basin,  west  of  Uskub, 
lies  close  to  the  watershed.  Southward  the  Monastir  and 
Strumitza  basins  occupy  approximately  homologous  positions 
with  respect  to  the  Vardar  cut.  The  twin  basin  of  Serres  and 
Drama  extends  over  the  southeastern  portion  of  the  country. 
These  basins  have  been  the  only  important  centers  of  Macedonian 

The  Macedonian  highland  is  peopled  by  shepherds  and  wood- 
cutters. The  lowlanders  are  husbandmen.  All  are  generally 
bilingual,  speaking  either  Greek  and  Bulgarian  or  Bulgarian  and 
Serbian.  A  knowledge  of  Turkish  usually  prevails  among  all 
classes.  Occupation  generally  affords  a  reliable  national  clue. 
As  a  rule  the  Macedonians,  and  by  this  term  we  shall  hereafter 
denote  the  Bulgarian-speaking  element  of  Macedonia,  are  tillers 
of  the  soil.  The  Greeks  are  traders  and  control  a  large  share  of 
the  commerce  of  the  entire  region.  Land  is  held  by  the 
Macedonians  or  the  former  ruling  Turkish  gentry.  It  is  worked 
however  by  the  Macedonians. 


The  inhabitants  of  Macedonia  may  be  divided  into  four 
groups  according  to  their  vernaculars.  The  number  of  indi- 
viduals in  each  group  is  estimated  as  follows :  ^ 

Bulgarians    1,172,136  or  81.5^  of  the  total  Christian  population. 

Greeks    190,047  "   13.22  "  "        "            "                  « 

Rumanians    63,895  "     4.44  "  "        "            "                  « 

Albanians"    12,006  "      0.84  "  "        "            "                  « 

The  Bulgarians  form  a  compact  mass  containing  slight  admix- 
ture of  alien  elements  in  northern  and  central  Macedonia.  Many 
of  the  occasional  Greek  communities  encountered  within  this  area 
are  former  Slav  or  Albanian  centers  having  passed  under  the 
sphere  of  the  Greek  religious  propaganda  which  has  been  actively 
carried  on  as  a  means  of  increasing  the  Hellenic  domain.  The 
instrument  of  Hellenization  was  the  Patriarchate  at  Constan- 
tinople. The  Patriarchs,  bearing  the  title  of  (Ecumenical,  con- 
sidered themselves  as  apostles  of  the  Greater  Greece  idea.  After 
the  fall  of  Byzantium,  and  notably  after  the  closing  of  the 
Bulgarian  Patriarchate  of  Okrida,  the  OEcumenical  Patriarchate 
of  Constantinople  was  the  only  official  chui^ch  established  in 
Turkey  for  Christians.  Its  influence,  directed  through  schools 
and  churches,  aimed  above  all  to  Hellenize  Christians.  The 
clergy  was  directed  to  convert  to  Orthodoxy  the  greatest 
possible  number  of  Christians  of  alien  denomination  and,  at  the 
same  time,  attempt  to  enforce  the  use  of  Greek  speech  among 

The  Greeks  of  Macedonia  are  as  mixed  a  people  as  can  be 
found  on  the  surface  of  the  earth.  Inhabitants  of  cities  are 
strongly  mixed  with  Albanian  and  Slav  populations.  Strains  of 
Tatar  blood  can  even  be  detected  among  them.  The  Mediterranean 
type  becomes  more  pronounced  as  Thessaly  is  approached.  In 
unfrequented  villages,  however,  the  tourist  will  not  uncommonly 
find  living  impersonations  of  the  sculptor's  classical  conception 
of  the  human  form.     This  Greek  element  predominates  in  the 

'  D.  M.  Brancoff:  La  MacMoine  et  sa  population  chr§tienne,  Paris,  1905. 
•  The  number  of  Serbians  scattered  in  the  highland  region  of  northern  Macedonia 
has  been  omitted,  probably  owing  to  its  relative  inferiority. 


valley  oi'  the  Bistritza,  wliicli,  regionally,  should  be  considered  as 
tlie  northeastern  boundary  of  the  area  of  the  Greek  speech. 

The  Slavs  of  Macedonia  are,  in  many  respects,  distinct  in 
character  from  the  other  Slavs  of  the  Balkan  peninsula.  National 
feeling  among  them  is  less  strongly  developed  than  with  the 
rest  of  the  southern  Slavs.  They  are  industrious  and  frugal — 
even  grasping.  Yet  there  are  marked  exceptions  which  seem  to 
prove  that  these  qualities  are  not  natural  to  them  but  have  been 
acquired  under  the  stress  of  circumstances.  Macedonia  is  a  land 
of  poverty.  It  may  rank  with  southern  Greece  as  the  poorest 
land  in  the  Balkan  peninsula.  Of  little  fertility,  extensively 
deforested  and  without  particularly  good  pasture  land,  the 
country  cannot  support  its  relatively  numerous  poi^ulation,  and 
therefore  an  important  occupation  with  the  Macedonians  is  the 
taking  of  service  in  menial  capacity  in  foreign  countries — 
'Tetchalba,"  as  it  is  called. 

The  language  of  the  Macedonians  is  intermediate  between 
Serbian  and  Bulgarian.  Its  afCmity  with  the  latter,  however,  is 
sufficiently  pronounced  to  have  led  generally  to  merging. 
Travelers  in  the  land  of  the  Macedonian  Slavs  soon  learn  that 
a  knowledge  of  Bulgarian  will  obviate  difficulties  due  to  ignorance 
of  the  country's  vernaculars.  Serbian,  however,  is  not  as  readily 
intelligible  to  the  natives.  This  relation  has  favored  the  Bul- 
garian side  whenever  controversy  arose  and  compilers  of  linguistic 
or  ethnographic  maps  have  generally  abstained  from  differ- 
entiating the  Macedonian  from  the  Bulgarian  area.''  The  impos- 
sibility for  Bulgarians  to  regard  the  terms  of  the  treaty  of 
Bucarest  as  final  is,  therefore,  obvious.  Extension  of  the 
Rumanian  boundary  to  the  Turtukai-Black  Sea  line  was  also  an 
encroachment  on  soil  whore  Bulgarian  was  the  predominant 

'  D.  ■^^.  "RrnnoofT:  Ln.  Mao<^doine  et  sa  population  ohr(^tieTiTie.  Paria,  1905.  The 
Sorbian  viewpoint  is  roanmod  l)v  J.  Cviiir  in  "  "Rthnojiraphio  do  la  MaoMoino,"  Ann.  de 
Ofogr..  Vol.  ^r^,  inno.  pp.  115-132  and  249-206. 

"  T\.  A.  TsanofT  in  tlio  Journ.  of  Rare  Dcrclnp.  (Jan.  1915,  p.  2511  ostimatog  that 
1.19S.O00  Bnlparians  havo  passed  under  foreifjn  rule  as  a  resiilt  of  the  treaty  of 
Bni'nre-^t.  Of  these  2Rfi.0n0  hive  heeonie  suhjeels  of  l^iinaiiin.  :?15.000  of  Oroeee  and 
597,000  of  Serbia. 


The  area  of  Bulgarian  speech  awarded  to  Greece  by  the 
treaty  of  Bucarest  in  1913  attains  the  Albanian  boundary  near 
Lakes  Prespa  and  Kastoria.  The  upper  valley  of  the  Bistritza 
river  crosses  a  region  peopled  by  Macedonians.  The  former 
Turkish  caza  of  Kastoria  contained  a  majority  of  Bulgarian- 
speaking  inhabitants.  The  domain  of  Greek  speech  begins  south 
of  Lapsista  and  extends  eastward  halfway  between  Kailar  and 
Kochana.  Greek  predominance  is  maintained  around  Karaferia. 
The  environs  of  Salonica  contain  a  slight  excess  of  Greek  inhabi- 
tants over  Bulgarians,  but  the  Greek  element  is  not  as  closely 
attached  to  the  land  as  the  Bulgarian.  The  line  of  lakes 
on  the  north  of  the  Chalcydic  peninsula  forms  the  boundary 
between  Greeks  and  Bulgarians,  the  latter  element  extend- 
ing north  of  these  inland  waters  to  the  present  Bulgarian 

The  loss  of  Macedonia  was  bitterly  resented  by  Bulgarians, 
not  only  on  account  of  the  racial  ties  which  bind  them  to 
Macedonians,  but  also  because  their  country's  economic  develop- 
ment is  hampered  by  the  want  of  the  harbors  which  constitute 
the  natural  sea  outlets  for  the  rearlands  under  Bulgarian  rule. 
The  industrial  and  commercial  development  of  southwestern 
Bulgaria  is  handicapped  at  present  by  the  necessity  of  shipping 
the  products  of  the  region  over  a  devious  stretch  of  railroad 
through  Sofia-Philippopoli-Dedeagatch.  The  alternative  via 
Serbia  or  Greece  is  equally  costly.  The  population  of  a  con- 
siderable portion  of  the  country  is,  therefore,  unable  to  compete 
with  rival  producers  of  the  two  neighboring  countries. 

In  the  first  half  of  1913  negotiations  between  the  Greek  and 
Bulgarian  governments  were  in  progress  for  the  division  of  lands 
conquered  from  the  Turks.  At  that  time  the  Greek  government 
was  willing  to  recognize  Bulgarian  sovereignty  over  the  cazas  of 
Kavalla,  Drama,  Pravista,  Serres,  Demir-TTissar  and  Kukush. 
This  was  done  on  Mr.  Venizelos'  understanding  that  these 
districts  were  sparsely  inhabited  by  Greeks,®  and  that  Kavalla 

•A.  Schopoff:  The  Balkan  States  and  the  Federal  Principle,  Asiat.  Rev.,  July  1, 
1915,  p.  21. 


was  the  natural  seaport  of  the  districts  of  Strumnitza,  Meliiik, 
Jumaya,  Nevrokop  and  Razlog. 

Many  of  the  districts  thus  offered  to  Bulgaria  were  peopled 
mainly  by  Turks.  According  to  Turkish  statistics  the  caza  of 
Kara-Shaban  does  not  contain  a  single  Christian  village.  Its 
population  consists  almost  entirely  of  Turks  numbering  about 
15,000.  Tlie  caza  of  Kavalla,  having  a  population  of  30,000,  is 
likewise  largely  Turkish.  The  Greek  element  is  reckoned  at 
about  4,000,  while  some  3,500  Pomaks  or  Bulgarian  Moham- 
medans are  scattered  in  many  villages. 

Of  the  50,000  inliabitants  of  the  caza  of  Drama  fully  one-half 
were  Turks,  the  number  of  Greeks  hardly  attained  4,000,  while 
the  Bulgarian  element  consisted  of  20,000  inhabitants  divided 
into  equal  numbers  of  Exarchists  and  Pomaks.  In  the  caza  of 
Serres,  the  Bulgarians  number  approximately  40,000,  while  the 
Greek  population  comprises  27,000.^°  The  caza  of  Demir-Hissar 
contains  33,000  Bulgarians  out  of  a  population  of  50,250.  The 
Greeks  number  about  250.  In  Kukush  there  are  no  Greeks  at 
all.  The  population  of  this  caza  consists  mainly  of  20,000 
Turks  out  of  a  total  of  23,000  inhabitants.  It  should  be 
remembered  that  the  Turks  emigrated  en  masse  from  this 
district  after  the  treaty  of  Bucarest  and  that,  barring  for- 
cible expulsion  by  the  Greeks,  the  population  of  all  this 
section  of  southeastern  Macedonia  is  now  overwhelmingly  Bul- 

Prior  to  Philip's  time,  Macedonia  was  a  little-known  moun- 
tainous province  constantly  overrun  by  Thracians  and  Illyrians. 
Soon  after  the  overthrow  of  the  Macedonian  Empire  by  the 
Romans  in  168  b.c.  the  region  took  its  place  among  Eoman 
provinces  and  eventually  formed  part  of  the  Byzantine  Empire. 
Rapacious  Goths  under  Alaric  brought  havoc  to  the  land  after 
its  fortunes  were  bound  to  that  of  the  dominant  eastern  state. 
The  Slavs  made  their  appearance  during  the  reign  of  Justinian. 
Their  colonies  had  attained  importance  while  Heraclius  was  on 
the  throne.    In  the  tenth  century,  Macedonia  became  part  of  the 

'»  Brancoff :  op.  cit.,  p.  23. 


great  Bulgarian  kingdom,  but  gravitated  later  towards  Byzan- 
tium, though  not  without  having  been  the  scene  of  disastrous 
struggles  between  Byzantine  hosts  and  their  barbarian  foes. 
Turks  and  Tatars  first  overran  the  country  in  this  period  and 
even  founded  colonies.  The  two  invasions  from  the  east,  of  the 
Slavs  and  of  the  Turks,  must  have  wrought  profound  changes 
in  the  Macedonian  populations.  A  short  period  of  Serbian  rule 
was  undergone  in  the  fourteenth  century.  In  the  fifteenth, 
Macedonia  became  an  integral  portion  of  the  Ottoman  dominions 
and  preserved  this  political  status  until  its  rescue  during  the 
Balkan  wars  of  1912-1913. 

Ethnically  Macedonians  and  Bulgarians  consist  of  mixed 
European  and  Asiatic  elements.  The  oldest  layer  in  the  popula- 
tion is  Thracian.  This  local  stock  peopled  the  land  at  the  time 
of  the  Koman  conquest  and  was  strongly  Romanized  during  the 
subsequent  centuries.  Slavs  overran  the  country  in  the  sixth 
century.  The  Bulgarians  made  their  appearance  in  the  seventh. 
Turks,  or  rather  Mongol  and  Tatar  hordes,  began  their  invasions 
in  the  eighth.  These  Asiatics  were  nomads.  They  made 
excellent  soldiers  but  poor  settlers.  Their  settlements,  which 
were  made  at  strategic  points,  can  be  recognized  today  by  their 
commanding  sites. 

It  is  hard  to  determine  how  much  of  the  Slav  or  of  the  Tatar 
exists  in  the  average  Bulgarian  of  our  day.  The  history  of  the 
land  during  the  second  half  of  the  first  Christian  millennium  is  a 
record  of  constant  invasions  from  the  east.  The  invaders  appear 
at  first  to  have  been  Slavs  from  the  southern  steppes  of  western 
Russia.  As  time  goes  on,  however,  Bulgaria  is  seen  to  absorb 
wanderers  proceeding  from  more  and  more  distant  districts  in 
the  southern  belts  of  the  steppe! and  which  forms  the  continuation 
of  Europe  into  Asia.  Slavic  culture  and  speech  preserved  by  the 
Bulgarians  seem  but  the  veil  that  hides  their  strong  Asiatic 

The  fundamental  difference  between  the  temper  of  the  Serbian 
and  the  Bulgarian  is  apparent  to  travelers  in  Balkan  lands.  The 
former  are  true  Slavs.    They  are  lighthearted  and  always  ready 


to  make  merry.  Their  mountains  re-echo  with  folk  songs  of  the 
genuine  Slavic  type.  The  Bulgarian  on  the  other  hand  is  inclined 
to  silence.  Both  peoples  are  equally  industrious,  but  in  the 
Serbian  the  mobile  and  restless  spirit  of  the  west  is  discernible, 
while  the  Bulgarian  is  as  slow  and  ponderous  a  thinker  as  ever 
was  bred  on  the  vast  and  open  stretches  of  Eurasia's  central 

Proof  of  the  Altaic  origin  of  some  of  the  Bulgarians  is 
derived  from  philology.  To  be  sure,  the  Bulgarian  and  Turkish 
languages,  as  now  spoken,  prevent  mutual  understanding,  even 
though  a  number  of  Turkish  words  have  crept  into  Bulgarian  in 
the  course  of  the  centuries  of  Turkish  rule.  These  are  mostly 
modern  words,  however,  which  did  not  exist  at  the  time  of  the 
Asiatic  migrations.  On  the  other  hand,  a  deeper  etymological 
bond  is  found  in  the  words  for  both  wild  and  domestic  animals, 
which  are  very  similar  in  the  two  languages.  In  the  same  way 
the  old  stock  of  words  relating  to  agricultural  or  pastoral  pur- 
suits are  very  closely  akin  in  Turkish  and  Hungarian.  An 
interesting  feature  of  the  peopling  of  Bulgaria  is  the  modern 
tendency  of  the  Bulgarian  to  abandon  his  ancient  home  in  the 
Balkan  mountains  and  seek  the  fertile  lowlands  of  the  country's 
main  valleys.  A  steady  emigration  from  mountain  to  plain  has 
been  going  on  since  the  Turks  u^ithdrew  their  garrisons  from 
Bulgaria.  This  movement  reflects  a  sense  of  security  which 
followed  the  expulsion  of  the  Turks.  It  is  not  yet  ended.  The 
fertile  basins  of  southeastern  Bulgaria  are  still  sparsely  popu- 
lated. The  reason  is  clear.  They  were  peopled  largely  by  Turks 
who  preferred  to  retire  on  Turkish  soil  after  the  Balkan  wars 
of  1912-1913.  The  Bulgarians  have  not  yet  had  time  to  occupy 
the  territory  abandoned  by  the  Turks. 

After  the  Turkish  conquest  Turkish  historians,  particularly 
Evlia  Tchelebi  and  Sa'aeddin,  constantly  refer  to  the  Macedonians 
as  Bulgarians.  This  belief  was  held  by  the  Turks  until  the  end 
of  their  rule  of  the  province.  The  first  Bulgarian  bishop 
authorized  by  the  Turkish  government  was  appointed  for  the 
diocese  of  Uskub  and  southern  districts.     This  appointment  fol- 


lowed  census-taking  in  tlie  district  which  indicated  Bulgarian 

In  southwestern  Macedonia  the  inhabitants  of  the  districts  of 
Kastoria,  Fiorina  and  Kailar  are  generally  Bulgarians.  Even 
in  the  Mohammedan  villages,  as,  for  example,  Grevena  and 
Nedilia,  nothing  but  Bulgarian  is  heard.  The  fundamental 
Bulgarian  character  of  the  entire  region  is  furthermore  estab- 
lished by  place  names  which  are  Bulgarian  in  spite  of  secular 
infiltrations  of  Greeks,  Albanians  and  Turks. 

This  portion  of  Macedonia  along  with  the  Vodena,  Yenije- 
Vardar  and  Salonica  districts  which  were  lately  allotted  to 
Greece,  constitute  an  interesting  linguistic  zone.  Here  alone,  of 
all  Bulgarian-speaking  regions,  have  been  preserved  forms 
peculiar  to  the  old  Bulgarian  language.  The  speech  of  the 
inhabitants  of  Kastoria  in  particular  reveals  antiquated  styles 
which  are  found  only  in  the  first  manuscripts  prepared  for  the 
use  of  Christian  Slavs. 

At  the  ambassadorial  conference  of  Constantinople  in  1876 
the  cazas  of  Kastoria  and  Fiorina  w^ere  included  within  the 
boundaries  of  the  proposed  autonomous  province  which  was  to 
have  Sofia  as  its  capital.  The  treaty  of  San  Stefano  likewise 
comprised  the  districts  under  the  new^ly  created  Bulgaria.  These 
considerations  suffice  in  themselves  to  demonstrate  the  Bulgarian 
nationality  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  present  northern  confines  of 

The  Serbian  claim  on  portions  of  Macedonia  acquired  after 
the  Balkan  war  of  1913  rests  largely  on  a  relatively  short  term 
of  military  occupation  at  the  height  of  the  Serbian  might  in  the 
fourteenth  century.  This  is  made  the  basis  of  an  historical  plea. 
The  crowning  of  Dushan,  their  most  renowned  ruler,  in  the  city 
of  Uskub  however  did  not  change  the  national  character  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  city  or  the  districts  surrounding  it.  Further- 
more, Serbian  rule  in  Macedonia  was  preceded  by  Bulgarian 
sovereignty  and  was  followed  by  Byzantine  supremacy  over  the 
land.  Greeks  and  Bulgarians  may  therefore  buttress  their 
claims  on  equally  valid  historical  contentions.     Samuel,  one  of 


the  Bulgarian  Czars,  had  extended  his  domain  as  far  west  as 
the  Adriatic.  His  success  in  adding  the  seaport  of  Durazzo  to 
his  land,  however,  failed  to  change  the  Serbian  nationality  of 
the  western  districts  he  managed  to  conquer. 

Only  in  recent  years  have  Serbian  claims  on  Macedonia  been 
set  forth  by  Serbian  scholars.  Historians  like  Raitch,  Solaritch 
and  Vouk  Karadjitch  formerly  concurred  in  setting  southern 
Serbian  frontiers  at  the  Shar  mountains.  In  1860  Serbian 
scientific  societies  had  joined  in  the  publication  of  Macedonian 
songs  collected  by  Verkovitch  under  the  title  of  "Bulgarian 
Songs."  Serbian  writers  of  the  period  around  1870  describe 
inland  inhabitants  of  Thrace,  Rumelia  and  Macedonia  as  Bul- 
garians, while  they  recognized  the  coast  dwellers  as  Greeks. ^^ 

A  transition  dialect  between  Bulgarian  and  Serbian  is  spoken 
by  the  inhabitants  of  the  Krajste  and  Vlasina  valleys  in  eastern 
Serbia.  The  Krajste,  an  ill-known  region,  skirts  the  Serbo- 
Bulgarian  boundary  and  spreads  eastward  to  the  basins  of  Tren 
and  Kustendil.  The  Vlasina  upper  valley  is  known  to  Serbians 
as  containing  the  most  important  peat  bog  in  their  country.  The 
two  districts  are  characterized  by  seasonal  migrations  of  their 
inhabitants  which  acquire  decided  intensity  in  the  Vlasina 
valley.  ^- 

In  its  westernmost  area  the  delimitation  of  a  Bulgarian 
linguistic  boundary  is  greatly  hampered  by  the  relatively  large 
Serbian-speaking  element  on  the  north  and  a  corresponding  mass 
of  Greeks  on  the  south.  Reliable  statistics  are  still  unavailable. 
Figures  supplied  by  rival  nationalist  propaganda  institutions 
are  for  obvious  reasons  open  to  suspicion.  The  region  where 
the  determination  of  this  linguistic  boundary  is  most  difficult  is 
found  in  the  neighborhood  of  Pirot  and  Vrania.  Here  the  lan- 
guage of  the  Slavic  natives  departs  equally  from  the  Bulgarian 
and  Serbian.  This  region,  however,  lies  north  of  Macedonia 
proper.     At  the  same  time  there  appears  to  be  little  room  to 

^^  L'tcho  de  la  Bulgnrie,  Dec.  20,  1914. 

"  R.  T.  Nikoli(?:  Krajste  i  Vlasina,  Nasetia  SrpsJcikh  grmalia,  Vol.  8,  1912, 
pp.  1-380. 


doubt  that  the  area  of  Bulgarian  speech  attains  the  zone  of  the 
eastern  Albanian  dialects  and  that  it  attains  the  Gulf  of  Salonica. 
But  the  seafaring  population  of  the  -^gean  coast  is  largely 

Salonica  itself  is  by  no  means  a  Bulgarian  city,  but  an 
excellent  type  of  the  polylingual  cities  of  the  Near  East.  Out  of 
a  population  of  160,000  inhabitants,  it  contains  20,000  Greeks  and 
an  equal  number  of  Europeans  and  Turks  respectively.  Its 
Bulgarian  population  is  negligible.  The  most  numerous  element 
is  made  up  of  Jews  who,  it  is  estimated,  constitute  about  one- 
half  of  the  population.  Next  to  Constantinople,  Salonica  is  the 
best  harbor  in  the  Balkans.  It  is  coveted  by  the  Bulgarians  on 
the  plea  that  the  population  of  the  country  environing  Salonica 
is  mostly  Bulgar. 

The  city  occupies  a  dominating  position  on  the  -^gean  coast 
halfway  between  Piraeus  and  Smyrna  and  has  always  been  a 
meeting-point  of  Europe  and  Asia.  In  a  sense  it  is  the  eastern 
terminal  of  continental  lines  with  which  it  is  connected  by  the 
railroad  w^hich  passes  through  Nish  and  Uskub.  In  this  light 
the  city  may  be  likened  to  one  of  the  piles  of  a  gigantic  bridge 
thrown  across  the  ^gean  to  connect  Europe  and  Asia.  It  is 
the  natural  outlet  of  the  greatest  part  of  Macedonia.  '  Inland 
towns  all  the  way  from  Ipek,  Prizrend  and  Mitrovitza  to 
Monastir,  Ishtip  and  Serres  obtain  the  goods  which  they  need 
through  Salonica.  The  products  of  the  fertile  valleys  of  the 
Vardar  and  the  Bistritza  are  almost  exclusively  directed  toward 
this  harbor.  The  exchange  of  commodities  between  Salonica  and 
its  rearlands  reaches  a  yearly  value  of  about  $100,000,000. 

Whatever  be  the  prevailing  language  spoken  in  this  city,  its 
greatness  depends  entirely  on  the  degree  of  freedom  with  which 
its  inhabitants  can  maintain  trade  with  the  districts  extending 
north  and  northwest.  To  maintain  its  size,  or  grow,  the  city 
must  continue  to  be  the  receiving  point  of  manufactured  goods 
shipped  into  Macedonia  as  well  as  parts  of  Serbia  and  Albania. 
It  must  also  remain  the  shipping  point  for  the  natural  products 
from  those  same  districts.    To  separate  Macedonia  from  Salonica, 


its  natural  harbor,  is  to  create  an  unnatural  condition.  The  city- 
draws  its  life  from  the  resources  of  Macedonia.  Its  prosperity 
is  therefore  directly  related  to  the  political  fate  of  that  country, 

Bulgaria  was  independent  during  three  different  periods  of 
its  history.  The  first  kingdom  was  founded  in  679  when 
Bulgarian  bands  led  by  Asparush  crossed  the  Danube  and  con- 
quered the  Slavs  who  had  previously  occupied  Bulgaria.  Con- 
quest carried  his  successors  to  the  very  gates  of  Constantinople. 
At  the  end  of  the  ninth  century  under  the  reign  of  Simon,  the 
second  Christian  ruler  of  the  country,  the  kingdom  comprised  all 
of  Hungary,  Rumania,  Macedonia,  Thessaly,  Epirus  and  Serbia 
in  addition  to  its  present  territory.  Preslav  was  its  capital. 
Bulgaria  had  then  an  area  of  233,300  sq.  m. 

The  Byzantines  conquered  Bulgaria  in  1018  and  maintained 
their  supremacy  until  1186.  The  second  kingdom  was  reestab- 
lished in  that  year  with  Assen  I  as  its  sovereign.  In  the  reign 
of  Assen  II  (1218-1241),  Bulgarian  territory  reached  the 
Adriatic,  ^gean  and  Black  seas  and  the  Danube  formed  its 
northern  frontier.  Tirnovo  was  the  capital  of  the  second 
kingdom.  Bulgaria  was  at  that  time  one  of  the  great  European 
powers.  Its  area  was  then  113,100  sq.  m.  The  third  kingdom 
dates  from  the  year  1877. 

Several  attempts  have  been  made  in  the  past  to  create  a 
Bulgaria  which  would  extend  as  far  as  the  country's  language 
was  spoken.  Towards  the  end  of  1876  an  international  confer- 
ence was  held  in  Constantinople  to  put  an  end  to  the  intolerable 
condition  of  the  Christians  inhabiting  this  portion  of  the  Balkan 
peninsula.  The  delegates  decided  to  form  two  new  Turkish 
provinces,  the  boundaries  of  which  Avould  coincide  with  the  ethno- 
graphic limit  of  the  Bulgarian  people.  Sofia  and  Tirnovo  were 
selected  as  the  chief  towns  of  the  new  provinces.  The  Sultan's 
government  succeeded  in  blocking  the  execution  of  this  project. 
War  with  Russia  followed  and  Russian  victories  forced  Turkey  to 
sign  the  memorable  treaty  of  San  Stefano  on  February  19, 

The  boundary  then  decided  upon  was  practically  identical  with 


that  provided  by  the  ambassadorial  conference  of  Constantinople. 
Bulgaria  however  obtained  in  addition  a  band  of  territory  in 
Thrace  and  access  to  the  ^gean  through  the  seaport  of  Kavalla 
and  the  mouth  of  the  Vardar.  In  exchange,  the  principality  lost 
the  Dobrudja  to  Rumania  and  a  portion  of  the  sanjak  of  Nish 
with  the  towns  of  Nish  and  Leskovatz  to  Serbia,  Russia  at  San 
Stefano  had,  therefore,  merely  enforced  execution  of  the  agree- 
ment reached  jointly  by  the  representatives  of  European  powers. 
The  treaty  she  imposed  on  the  Porte  was  from  the  linguistic 
standpoint  an  improvement  on  the  ambassadorial  plan  elaborated 
at  Constantinople. 

Unfortunately  for  Bulgaria,  the  unity  of  the  nation  failed  to 
receive  the  sanction  of  Europe  at  the  treaty  of  Berlin  in  spite 
of  the  sound  scientific  basis  on  which  it  was  founded.  Political 
and  strategical  considerations,  on  the  plea  of  which  many  inter- 
national blunders  have  been  committed,  prevailed.  After  this  act 
of  injustice  Bulgarians  organized  themselves  to  reclaim  the  land 
of  which  they  had  been  despoiled.  Thirty-five  years  were  spent 
in  preparation.  On  February  19,  1913,  Bulgar  guns  and  bayonets, 
backed  by  Bulgar  determination,  had  almost  reestablished  the 
national  unity  for  which  they  had  striven.  This  new  effort  was 
not  to  be  crowned  with  success.  Only  in  the  winter  of  1914-1915 
were  the  Bulgarians  able  to  occupy  with  their  arms  the  terri- 
tories of  Bulgarian  speech  w^hich  had  been  allotted  to  Serbia  by 
the  treaty  of  Bucarest.  The  permanency  of  this  occupation  is, 
needless  to  state,  subject  to  international  approval. 

The  extreme  southeastern  angle  of  the  Balkan  peninsula,  east 
of  the  Maritza  river,  is  probably  the  most  polyglot  region  in 
Europe.  The  valley  of  the  Maritza  is  mainly  Bulgarian. 
Numerous  colonies  of  Greeks  settled  along  the  coast  between  the 
Dardanelles  and  the  Black  Sea  entrance  of  the  Bosporus  ply  their 
trade  as  fishermen  or  sailors.  The  petty  coastmse  traffic  is 
almost  entirely  in  their  hands.  The  Bulgarians  are  mainly 
farmers.  Their  properties  are  scattered  east  to  the  very  walls 
of  the  world-metropolis  which  brings  fame  to  the  region.  Within 
Constantinople   itself   truck   gardens    are   generally   owned   and 


exploited  by  Bulgarians.  Bulgarian  and  Greek  languages  are 
therefore  common  in  this  peninsula  extremity  of  Europe.  The 
latter  however  is  in  constant  use  by  most  of  the  inhabitants, 
whereas  Bulgarian  is  restricted  to  the  Slavic  element. 

The  Turkish  masters  of  the  land  were  never  able  to  impose 
their  language  on  the  Christian  population.  Many  of  the  Greek 
and  Bulgarian  inhabitants  of  the  region  cannot  speak  a  word  of 
Turkish.  The  fact  is  particularly  observable  among  Greeks.  The 
language  of  the  conqueror  hovers  over  the  land  as  the  medium 
of  administration.  Its  function  ceases  then,  as  far  as  the 
Christian  element  of  the  region  is  concerned.  The  Turkish  popu- 
lation in  this  bit  of  the  Balkan  peninsula  is  numerous,  owing  to 
the  attraction  exerted  by  the  capital.  Reliable  census  figures  are 
unavailable.  Thanks  to  the  presence  of  a  strong  garrison  and  a 
host  of  civil-service  officials  the  Turkish  population  of  Constan- 
tinople, added  to  the  Turks  remaining  in  the  strip  of  European 
Turkey  still  owned  by  the  Sultan  after  the  treaty  of  Bucarest 
of  1913,  probably  musters  as  many  individuals  as  those  to  whom 
Greek  is  vernacular.  An  important  Armenian  colony  is  centered 
at  Constantinople  and  radiates  in  settlements  without  the  capital. 
These  Christians  also  have  held  fast  to  their  native  speech, 
although  most  of  them  can  claim  proficiency  in  Turkish.  This 
familiarity  with  the  language  of  their  conquerors  betrays  their 
Asiatic  origin,  in  contrast  with  the  ignorance  of  Turkish  found 
among  the  Greeks,  who  never  forget  their  European  affinities. 

In  Europe  the  Turk,  child  of  the  ungrateful  Asiatic  steppe- 
land,  has  always  been  the  heartily  despised  intruder.  He  has 
shown  himself  incompetent  to  follow  up  the  task  of  conquest  by 
assimilating  the  peoples  he  subdued.  Perhaps  his  lack  of 
national  ideals  lies  at  the  root  of  his  failure.  The  language  he 
imposed  on  his  Christian  subjects  never  replaced  their  vernacular. 
It  was  spoken  only  by  the  males  of  the  subdued  populations. 
Only  in  rare  instances  did  it  penetrate  within  their  households. 
Hence,  Turks  never  felt  at  home  in  Europe.  They  knew  that 
their  nomad's  tent  was  pitched  only  for  a  while  on  the  continent 
in  which  they  sojourned  as  conquerors  and  as  strangers.    They 


were  emigrants  who  had  lost  all  memory  of  their  land  of  origin 
and  who  nevertheless  could  not  adapt  themselves  to  the  land 
which  their  bravery  had  won.  The  state  they  founded  had  a  weak 
head  and  no  heart  whatever.  Under  these  conditions  the  expul- 
sion of  Turks  from  Europe  could  always  be  foreseen  in  spite  of 
the  weary  years  it  took  to  accomplish  it. 

Every  boundary  revision  that  marks  the  successive  shrinking 
of  Turkish  territory  in  Europe  has  been  attended  by  wholesale 
emigration  of  Mohammedans  from  lands  reclaimed  by  Christians. 
Immediately  after  the  Balkan  wars  of  1913  about  50,000  Turks 
voluntarily  departed  for  Asia  Minor  from  territory  allotted  to 
Greece.  An  equal  number  left  sections  of  Macedonia  taken  over 
by  Serbia,  while  about  25,000  abandoned  land  annexed  by 

The  historical  fact  is  that  Turks  have  never  consented  to  live 
in  a  land  governed  by  Christians.  In  1882  Thessaly  was  annexed 
to  Greece  by  a  decision  of  European  powers.  No  armed  conflict 
between  Greece  and  Turkey  took  place  on  that  occasion  and 
racial  hatred  had  not  been  increased  by  the  horrors  of  war.  The 
Greek  government  at  that  time  offered  special  inducements  to  the 
Turkish  inhabitants  of  the  ceded  territory  to  remain  on  their 
land  and  continue  their  agricultural  pursuits.  The  Turks,  how- 
ever, preferred  to  emigrate  to  the  Sultan's  domain. 

When  Crete  was  awarded  to  Greece  over  50,000  of  the  80,000 
Turkish  inhabitants  of  the  island  abandoned  their  homes  and 
decided  to  settle  in  Asiatic  Turkey.  This  exodus  took  place  in 
spite  of  the  perfect  security  of  life  and  property  that  had  pre- 
vailed in  the  island  since  its  administration  was  taken  over  by 
a  committee  of  Europeans  in  1877.  This  tendency  of  Turks  to 
forsake  Christian  countries  is  observable  even  in  Bosnia  and 
Herzegovina,  where  the  Austrian  government  has  shown  decided 
favor  toward  Mohammedan  inhabitants,  considering  them  more 
loyal  than  other  elements  of  its  southeastern  population. 

The  Turk's  last  stand  in  Europe  marks  the  final  stage  of 
his  colossal  struggle  to  retain  mastery  over  the  Dardanelles  and 
Bosporus  to  which  the  highways  of  Europe  and  Asia  lead.    The 


Bosporus  is  tiie  junctiou  of  two  important  world  routes.  Que  of 
these  conuects  the  peoples  of  central  Europe  with  the  crowded 
settlements  of  British  India.  The  other  is  the  line  of  communi- 
cation between  the  commercial  ports  of  the  Mediterranean  and 
the  caravan  terminals  on  the  Black  !Sea  coast.  Each  of  these 
highways  has  constituted  a  channel  through  which  the  trade 
between  eastern  and  western  lands  has  been  directed  from  the 
very  beginnings  of  commerce.  The  narrowness  of  this  Eurasian 
waterway  permitted  continuous  travel  between  two  continents, 
while  the  straits  allowed  uninterrupted  maritime  travel  from 
Black  Sea  harbors  to  distant  seaports  of  the  western  world. 
Modern  railway  communications  have  benefited  by  the  former 
circumstance.  The  sea  commerce  of  medieval  days  thrived  on 
the  latter. 

The  entire  European  coast  of  the  elongated  waterways  which 
connect  the  ^gean  and  Black  seas  is  inhabited  by  peoples 
speaking  languages  each  of  which  symbolizes  conflicting  aims  and 
aspirations  without  being  strong  enough  to  silence  its  rivals. 
From  the  political  standpoint  the  linguistic  factor  appears  to  be 
of  slight  value  in  this  case.  Economic  needs,  to  the  exclusion 
of  other  considerations,  will  probably  determine  the  destiny  of 
this  region. 

The  relation  of  a  region  to  the  world  depends  in  general  upon 
its  economic  value.  The  importance  of  this  southeasterly  strip 
of  the  Balkan  peninsula  is  therefore  affected  by  its  central 
location  with  reference  to  the  continents  of  Europe,  Asia  and 
Africa.  Between  Paris  and  Bagdad,  or  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope, 
the  overland  route  is  continuous  save  for  a  short  mile  of  water 
at  the  Bosporus  and  an  equally  insignificant  crossing  at  the 
Isthmus  of  Suez,  in  the  case  of  African  travel.  Herein  lies  the 
economic  relation  of  this  portion  of  the  Balkan  peninsula  to  the 
rest  of  the  world.  But  the  European  coastland  of  the  inter- 
continental strait  separating  Europe  from  Asia  does  not  consti- 
tute a  complete  region.  The  Asiatic  coast  of  the  waterways  must 
be  taken  with  the  European  and  a  single  district  formed  out  of 
the  Dardanelles,  the  Sea  of  Marmora  and  the  Bosporus   with 


their  coasts  and  shores.  This  region  is  the  threshold  of  Asia 
and  conversely  the  entrance  to  Europe  from  the  east. 

A  Balkan  zone  of  depression  extending  west  and  south  of  the 
Balkan  uplift  affords  natural  access  between  the  valley  of  the 
Danube  proceeding  from  the  heart  of  Europe  and  the  Dardanelles- 
Bosporus  passage.  This  convenient  gap  is  provided  by  the  wide 
valley  of  the  Morava  and  the  narrower  Nishava  course  which 
lead  to  the  Sofia  basin,  whence  penetration  into  the  Thracian 
plains  is  obtained  by  the  Maritza  valley.  The  corresponding 
function  for  the  Asiatic  shore  is  performed  by  the  valley  of  the 
Sakaria  and  in  a  less  degree  by  the  Pursak  river  depression — 
both  trending  westward  from  the  high  plateau  of  western  Asia. 

The  main  roads  from  the  Bosporus  and  the  Dardanelles  to 
the  Sakaria  river  valley  skirt  the  shores  of  the  straits  of  the 
Marmora,  as  they  follow  a  coastal  lowland  which  fringes  the  Dar- 
danian  and  Bithynian  heights.  At  Panderma  however  the  old 
highway  strikes  inland  slightly  south  of  east  to  Brusa  in 
order  to  avoid  the  elevated  plateau  intervening  between  the 
Marmora  and  Lake  AbuUonia.  Thence,  still  following  a  line  of 
least  elevation,  it  winds  towards  the  small  harbor  of  Ghemlik 
(the  Cius  of  Graeco-Eoman  times)  until  beyond  Isnik  (ancient 
Nicaea  of  ecclesiastical  fame)  it  debouches  into  the  waters  of  the 

These  natural  features  connect  the  heart  of  Europe  with  the 
high  plateaus  of  western  and  central  Asia  as  well  as  with  the 
fertile  Mesopotamian  lowland  and  the  Indian  peninsulas.  The 
silk  sent  to  Europe  from  eastern  Asia  in  medieval  days  followed 
this  road.  The  route  has  declined  since  the  construction  of  the 
Suez  waterway.  Railway  lines  planned  to  connect  Channel  ports 
with  the  Gulf  of  Persia  will  restore  the  commercial  value  of  the 
region.  The  value  of  the  Bosporus  as  an  avenue  of  trade 
remains  unimpaired  in  modern  days.  It  is  the  only  maritime 
outlet  for  the  export  of  the  cereals  and  farm  products  of  southern 
Russia  and  the  oil  of  the  Caucasus. 

Hence  the  commercial  importance  of  Constantinople.  The 
city  is  a  huge  caravanserai — the  meeting  place  of  traders  from 


the  world's  remotest  corners.  Control  of  its  commanding  posi- 
tion is  coveted  by  every  nation  whose  citizens  depend  on  industry 
and  trade  for  their  welfare.  The  commerce  of  three  continents 
lies  within  its  grasp.  The  political  status  of  the  extreme  south- 
eastern corner  of  the  Balkan  peninsula,  together  with  that  of  the 
extreme  northwestern  corner  of  Asia  Minor,  therefore  affects 
the  interests  of  the  entire  community  of  European  nations. 

We  have  in  this  a  factor  which  may  exert  greater  weight  than 
language  in  the  eventual  formation  of  an  independent  political 
unit  comprising  the  elongated  zone  of  coastland  inclosing  the 
Dardanelles,  the  Sea  of  Marmora  and  the  Bosporus.  A  con- 
venient boundary  for  this  territory  in  the  Balkans  might  start 
at  the  Gulf  of  Saros  and,  coinciding  thence  with  the  heights 
overlooking  Eodosto,  might  reach  the  course  of  the  Chorlu. 
From  here  to  the  Black  Sea  coast  the  administrative  boundary 
of  the  vilayet  of  Constantinople  might  be  converted  into  an  inter- 
national frontier.  This  delimitation  would  leave  the  valley  of 
the  Maritza  in  Bulgarian  hands.  This  award  is  justifiable  not 
because  the  beauty  of  the  river  banks  is  proclaimed  in  the  Bul- 
garian national  hymn,  but  rather  on  the  grounds  of  Bulgarian 
linguistic  preponderance  in  this  valley.  Substantial  coincidence 
between  Bulgarian  political  and  linguistic  boundaries  on  the 
southeast  would  then  have  been  obtained.^^ 

*'  On  the  Asiatic  side  the  valley  of  the  Sakaria  and  a  long  fault  revealed  by  the 
line  of  lakes  east  of  the  Marmora  provide  ready-made  frontiers  which  could  be  con- 
veniently extended  to  the  Gulf  of  Adramyt  on  the  ^gean.  This  line  constituted  the 
Asiatic  boundary  of  the  Latin  Empire  of  Constantinople  in  the  period  intervening 
between  the  years  1204  and  1261. 


Turkey,  by  virtue  of  position,  has  always  stood  closely  related 
to  every  section  of  the  European  mainland.  The  country's  fate 
has  affected  the  destiny  of  every  European  nation.  The  modern 
importance  of  Turkish  affairs  in  European  international  prob- 
lems is  a  measure  of  the  extensive  influence  of  the  Near  East 
over  Europe.  A  study  of  European  nationalities  cannot  there- 
fore be  complete  without  reference  to  the  empire  of  Turkish 

A  strong  contrast  constantly  engages  attention  in  the  history 
of  Ottoman  lands.  Of  old,  the  world's  highest  civilizations,  its 
purest  religions,  arose  ^\ithin  their  confines.  In  modern  days 
decadence  on  the  heels  of  a  steady  recessional  marks  their  lot. 
The  explanation  usually  advanced  is  that  Mohammedanism  has 
impeded  Turkish  progress.  But  this  religion  was  no  obstacle 
to  cultural  growth  in  the  countries  surrounding  Turkey.  In 
Egypt,  as  in  Arabia,  Persia  and  northern  India,  the  thought  of 
the  natives  grew  to  splendid  maturity.  The  intellectual  life  of 
these  Mohammedan  countries  is  altogether  beyond  the  grasp 
of  the  Turkish  mind. 

The  foundation  of  Turkey's  weakness  as  a  nation  and  the 
failure  of  the  cause  of  civilization  within  its  boundaries  lie  in 
the  country's  situation.  The  land  staggers  under  the  load  of  mis- 
fortune which  its  central  position  in  the  eastern  hemisphere  has 
heaped  upon  it.  Its  native  populations  have  never  been  able  to 
develop  freely.  The  country  is  an  open  road  alongside  or  at  the 
ends  of  which  nationalities  have  blossomed.  It  has  been  the  prey 
of  invaders  by  which  it  has  been  overrun.  The  Turks  find  them- 
selves on  this  land  today  because  they  are  descendants  of 
wanderers.     They  have  occupied  the  road  because  they  ignored 



the  ways  of  stepping  off  its  path.  Having  come  in  numbers 
sufhciently  strong,  they  managed  to  subdue  the  original  inhabi- 
tants, who  in  their  groping  for  the  higher  life  had  given  the 
world  a  number  of  great  conceptions  in  learning,  art  and  religion. 
But  hardly  had  the  easterners  occupied  the  road  before  the 
process  of  clearing  it  began. 

Turkey  has  been  a  highway  of  commerce  and  civilization 
between  Europe  on  the  one  hand  and  Asia  and  Africa  on  the 
other.  The  history  of  this  country  and  of  its  inhabitants  cannot 
be  understood  unless  one  is  thoroughly  impressed  by  this  funda- 
mental fact.  On  the  east  the  Persian  Gulf  followed  by  the 
Mesopotamian  valley,  its  natural  prolongation,  formed  a  con- 
venient channel  for  the  northwesterly  spread  of  human  inter- 
course. To  the  west,  land  travel  between  Europe  and  Africa 
drained  into  the  Syrian  furrow.  Both  of  these  natural  grooves 
led  to  the  passes  which  carried  the  traveler  into  Asia  Minor. 
The  peninsula  therefore  was  both  an  important  center 
of  human  dispersal  and  a  meeting  place  for  men  of  all 

The  through  roads  converging  into  Turkish  territory  are 
probably  the  oldest  commercial  routes  of  the  world.  At  any  rate 
they  connected  the  sites  on  which  the  most  ancient  civilizations 
rose.  The  remotest  past  to  which  the  history  of  humanity  carries 
lis  centers  around  the  large  river  valleys  of  the  tropical  and 
subtropical  zone  in  the  eastern  hemisphere.  The  banks  of  the 
Nile,  of  the  Euphrates,  of  the  Indian  rivers,  or  of  the  broad 
watercourses  in  Chinese  lowlands  were  nurseries  of  human 
culture.  Abundance  of  water,  together  with  a  profuse  flora  and 
fauna,  gave  early  man  ease  of  life.  Hunters,  fishermen  and 
shepherds  were  naturally  converted  into  farmers.  A  short  wait 
and  the  seeds  they  planted  would  grow  to  maturity  -without 
exacting  other  attention  than  the  preliminary  act  of  sowing.  The 
life  men  led  afforded  time  for  thought.  Curiosity  was  awakened 
regarding  lands  beyond.  Ample  provision  of  natural  products 
furnished  them  with  stocks  available  for  barter.  These  condi- 
tions favored  the  development  of  commerce  and  stimulated  the 


creation  of  trade  routes,  which  were  coveted  by  many  as  they 
became  more  and  more  trodden. 

Between  Europe  and  Asia  the  great  movements  of  peoples 
have  followed  two  parallel  directions  north  or  south  of  the  central 
belt  of  high  Eurasian  mountains  extending  from  east  to  west. 
Men  have  traveled  back  and  forth  in  these  two  lines  from  the 
earliest  known  period.  But  exchange  of  ideas  has  been  prac- 
tically confined  to  the  southern  avenue.  In  the  cold  of  the 
Siberian  or  northern  European  lowlands  men  had  little  oppor- 
tunity to  acquire  refinement.  They  were  active  and  energetic, 
while  the  followers  of  the  southern  pathways  were  thinkers. 

•From  the  dawn  of  history  to  our  day  only  two  departures  of 
importance  have  taken  place  from  this  east-west  traffic.  Both 
were  modern  events.  One  occurred  in  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth 
century  as  soon  as  the  Turks  acquired  mastery  of  western  Asia 
and  the  Balkan  peninsula.  The  Christian  sailor-trader  of  that 
time  was  then  obliged  to  circumnavigate  Africa  in  order  to  reach 
eastern  seaports.  The  other  change  took  place  when  the  Suez 
Canal  was  completed.  This  waterway  diverted  to  its  channel 
much  of  the  overland  Asiatic  traffic  routed  between  the  Black  Sea 
and  the  Persian  Gulf  or  the  Indian  Ocean.  But  even  these  two 
diversions  failed  to  eliminate  entirely  the  picturesque  caravans 
which  plied  over  Turkish  roads.  Thus  it  may  be  assumed  that 
these  routes  have  been  used  uninterruptedly  for  about  10,000 
years  at  least,  that  is  to  say,  before  the  time  in  which  their 
known  history  begins. 

The  southeastern  portal  of  these  celebrated  highways  is 
situated  at  the  head  of  the  Persian  Gulf.  The  broad  Tigris  and 
Euphrates  thence  mark  the  northerly  extension  of  the  routes. 
On  the  western  river,  the  natural  road  leaves  the  valley  above 
Mosul  and  penetrates  into  the  Armenian  highland  through  the 
gorges  in  the  neighborhood  of  Diarbekir.  The  very  name  Mosul, 
a  contraction  of  the  Greek  "Mesopylae"  or  Central  Gates,  sug- 
gests its  origin.  The  city  grew  at  the  meeting  point  of  routes 
from  the  Caspian,  Black  and  Mediterranean  seas  and  from  the 
Persian  Gulf.     The  through  highway  links  once  more  with  the 


Euphrates  in  its  upper  reaches  around  Keban  Maden  in  order  to 
reach  the  Anatolian  plateau.  The  passes  are  precipitous  and  the 
waters  flow  southward  closely  hemmed  in  by  steep  and  rocky 
barriers.  Access  to  the  billowy  surface  of  Armenian  mountain 
lands  is  obtained  by  means  of  either  the  Murad  Su  or  the  Kara  Su. 
The  union  of  these  two  rivers  into  the  single  watercourse  known 
as  the  Euphrates  at  a  short  distance  above  Keban  Maden  has 
at  all  times  attracted  much  of  the  trajBQc  and  travel  between 
Armenia  and  Mesopotamia.  The  eastern  affluents  of  the  Tigris 
south  of  Lake  Van,  on  the  other  hand,  reach  the  uplifted  core 
of  Armenia  where  they  are  lost  in  the  tangle  of  steep  valleys 
and  deeply  broken  surfaces. 

Because  it  is  a  region  of  water  dispersal,  Armenia  is  also 
the  gathering-site  of  the  heads  of  outflowing  watercourses.  If 
the  distance  at  the  divide  between  the  uppermost  reaches  of  two 
divergent  watercourses  be  short,  it  is  hardly  a  barrier  to  human 
intercourse.  This  condition  prevails  in  the  uppermost  reaches  of 
the  Euphrates  and  of  the  Aras.  The  important  town  of  Erzerum 
is  the  symbol  of  this  union.  Within  its  walled  area  the  traffic 
of  the  central  plateaus  of  Asia  joined  with  Mesopotamian  or 
Black  Sea  and  Mediterranean  freight,  after  having  followed  the 
easterly  approach  to  Turkey  through  Tabriz  and  the  southern 
affluents  of  the  Aras,  north  of  Urmiah  Lake.  Through  this 
eastern  avenue  of  penetration  Asiatic  peoples  and  products  have 
been  dumped  century  after  century  into  Turkish  territory. 

The  valley  of  the  Euphrates,  rather  than  that  of  the  Tigris, 
is  therefore  the  main  artery  of  communication  between  north  and 
south  in  eastern  Turkey.  It  is  the  avenue  through  which  the 
ideas  of  Iran  came  into  contact  with  Semitic  thought.  But  the 
uniting  influence  of  the  great  river  was  far  from  being  exerted 
on  Oriental  peoples  alone.  In  its  broad  southern  course,  the 
river  provided  ancient  merchants  with  a  short-cut  which  greatly 
facilitated  land  travel  between  the  ^gean  or  Mediterranean  and 
the  Persian  Gulf.  Another  city,  Aleppo,  is  the  geographical 
monument  which  grew  with  the  increase  of  travel  in  this  stretch 
of  the  Euphrates  or  declined  as  the  channel  became  less  and  less 


frequented..  It  is  the  western  counterpart  of  Mosul  in  the  sense 
that  it  also  is  a  point  of  convergence  for  routes  proceeding  from 
every  quarter  of  the  compass. 

The  chief  Turkish  route  leaves  the  Euphrates  at  the  angular 
bend  near  Meskeneh.  A  two-days'  journey  across  the  desert 
brought  the  traveler  to  Aleppo.  Beyond,  the  ancient  road  hugged 
the  shores  of  the  northeastern  corner  of  the  Mediterranean  and, 
passing  over  the  dull  gray  of  the  broad  Cilician  plain,  headed 
for  the  huge  cleft  in  the  limestones  of  the  Taurus,  known  as  the 
Cilician  Gates.  Past  this  breach  it  is  the  plateau  of  Anatolia — 
a  region  whose  physical  isolation  has  always  influenced  the  life 
of  its  inhabitants.  Today,  south  of  the  Cilician  Gates,  the  land 
is  Arabian  in  speech  and  Semitic  in  thought,  while  in  the  country 
to  the  north  the  prevailing  language  is  Turkish,  which  differs 
from  the  refinement  of  Arabian  as  markedly  as  the  crudity  of 
the  Turkish  mind  differs  from  the  intellectuality  of  the  Arabian. 

Thus  through  mountain  tract  and  mountain  trough  the  east 
found  its  way  into  the  Anatolian  plateau.  Conversely  the  west 
made  several  successful  scalings  of  its  slopes.  The  valleys  lead- 
ing westward  into  the  ^gean  or  northward  into  the  Black  Sea 
acted  as  breaches  which  facilitated  human  travel.  Among  these 
the  Meander,  Gediz  and  Sakaria  are  noteworthy.  The  '^Eoyal 
Road"  of  the  Persian  period  connected  Ephesus  with  Susa  by 
way  of  the  Cilician  Gates.  It  is  described  by  Herodotus.  Official 
despatch-bearers  traveled  over  it  in  the  fulfilment  of  their  mis- 
sions. Ramsay  places  this  road  north  of  the  desert  center  of 
Asia  Minor  ^  and  considers  the  southern  route  as  the  highway  of 
the  Graeco-Roman  period.  This  last  road  is  the  shortest  and 
easiest  between  j^Egean  ports  and  the  Cilician  Gates. 

The  history  of  inland  Asia  Minor  is  the  record  of  travel  over 
the  network  of  the  region's  roads.  Its  chief  events  consist  of 
military  marches  and  trade  travels.  Urban  life  on  this  section 
of  the  peninsula  had  its  origin  in  caravan  halts.  The  cities  of 
inner  Anatolia  represent  successive  stages  of  east-west  travel. 

*The  Historical  Geography  of  Asia  Minor,  Roy.  Geogr.  8oc.  Svppl.  Papers,  Vol.  4, 
1900,  p.  27. 


Their  alignment  serves  to  trace  the  course  of  the  road.  To  our 
o^^^l  day  this  part  of  Turkey  has  not  been  a  land  of  settlement. 

In  the  southeastern  half  of  Turkey  human  life  has  also  been 
confined  to  highway  regions.  This  part  of  the  world  is  known  to 
us  as  Syria  or  Mesopotamia.  Both  are  depressed  regions — 
channels  of  human  flow^ — ^bordering  the  western  and  eastern  sides 
of  the  Great  Syrian  desert  which,  wedge-like,  interposes  its 
shifting  solitude  of  sand  between  the  two  as  far  as  the  foothills 
of  the  mountains  on  the  north.  West  of  Syria  lies  the  Mediter- 
ranean; east  of  Mesopotamia  the  mountains  of  Persia.  With 
such  a  pattern  of  land  carving,  it  w^as  natural  that  life  and 
activity  should  have  gathered  in  the  precise  regions  where  the 
historian  finds  them. 

A  dominant  fact  recurs  in  every  stage  of  the  region's  history. 
Turkey  is  so  placed  that  its  possession  is  the  goal  of  every  nation 
which  has  risen  to  eminence  in  or  around  Turkish  lands.  Its 
control  ushers  in  a  period  of  great  prosperity  in  every  instance. 
Trade  flows  freely  in  the  highways,  carrying  prosperity  in  its 
wake.  The  energy  of  the  fortunate  nation  is  spent  to  maintain 
the  economic  advantages  secured.  The  loss  of  the  highway  zone 
is  accompanied  by  national  decline.  A  new  nation  rises  and 
obtains  the  mastery  of  the  road,  and  the  cycle  is  repeated.  The 
western  Asiatic  highway  may  aptly  be  named  a  highway  of 
wealth  or  of  misfortune. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  first  pre-Christian  millennium  the 
struggle  for  the  possession  of  this  highway  was  as  keen  and 
sanguinary  as  it  is  at  present.  The  empires  of  the  Nile  and 
Mesopotamian  basins,  of  the  Syrian  strip  and  of  the  Hittite 
mountain  lands  mustered  the  flower  of  their  manhood  in  yearly 
arrays  for  the  purpose  of  seizing  or  guarding  the  great  arteries 
of  west  Asiatic  traffic.  The  short-lived  prosperity  of  the  Jewish 
empire,  at  the  time  of  Solomon,  was  attained  immediately  after 
the  country's  boundaries  extended  from  the  Eed  Sea  and  the 
Mediterranean  to  the  Persian  Gulf.  Judea  grew  to  splendor  by 
becoming  sole  mistress  of  the  international  routes  which  trav- 
ersed Syria  and  Mesopotamia.    Her  greatness- was  transmitted 


to  Assyria -with  the  loss  of  the  land  routes  to  that  same  empire 
in  the  eighth  century  b.c.  A  hundred  years  later  the  Chaldeans 
obtained  possession  of  the  highways.  It  is  now  their  turn  to 
impose  their  will  on  neighboring  nations.  Another  century  slips 
by  and  with  it  the  greatness  of  Semitic  states.  In  the  east,  men 
of  Aryan  speech,  mostly  Persians,  have  begun  to  value  the 
present  Turkish  land  routes.  In  560  b.c.  Cyrus  is  at  the  head  of 
cohorts  which  soon  after  give  him  mastery  of  Turkish  Asia  from 
the  ^gean  to  the  Persian  Gulf.  To  this  conquest  Darius  adds 
Egypt  and  India. 

All  these  events  center  around  one  of  the  greatest  struggles 
ever  fought  between  men.  It  is  the  conflict  between  Europeans 
and  Asiatics  immortalized  in  Hellenic  literature, — the  clash 
between  two  continents,  each  battling  for  the  exclusive  control  of 
the  highway  connecting  them.  The  contestants  met  on  this 
Turkish  highway,  they  fought  over  its  plains  and  defiles,  and 
battled  for  its  possession  in  the  realization  that  the  economic 
prosperity  upon  which  national  wealth  and  greatness  rest  could 
be  secured  only  by  its  conquest. 

A  significant  fact  of  the  celebrated  struggle  is  revealed  by  the 
inability  of  the  Greeks  to  conquer  the  Persians.  They  defeated 
them  and  checked  their  westerly  advance.  The  ^gean  and 
Eurasian  waterways  of  Turkey  proved  an  impassable  moat  to 
the  Persian  invaders.  As  long  as  the  Persians  retained  control 
of  the  highways  the  menace  of  their  brutal  despotism  faced  the 
liberal  spirit  of  the  Greeks.  The  danger  was  dispelled  by 
Alexander's  conquest  of  the  highway.  No  better  instance  of  the 
power  vested  in  the  effective  hold  of  these  lines  of  communication 
between  the  east  and  west  can  be  found. 

All  the  history  of  Turkish  lands  is  conditioned  by  their 
location  on  the  map.  The  region  has  occupied  a  conspicuous 
position  on  the  stage  of  world  events  since  the  earliest  known 
times.  Faint  rays  of  prehistoric  light  reveal  it  as  the  bridge 
over  which  the  race  of  round-headed  men  crossed  into  Europe 
from  Asia.  During  antiquity  we  find  it  to  be  the  original  seat 
of  civilizations  which  radiate  outward  in  every  direction.     In 


iiiedioval  limes  it  is  the  great  liali'-way  station  ol'  the  main  artery 
oi"  world  trade.  We  know  of  it  in  modern  days  as  the  center  of 
a  mighty  international  struggle  i'amiliarly  known  as  the  Eastern 

A  world  relation  of  such  an  enduring  character  must  obviously 
rest  on  exceedingly  (ii-m  foundations.  A  search  for  its  causes 
leads  us  straight  into  tlie  held  of  geography.  Three  elements, 
nanu'ly,  those  ol"  position,  form  and  natural  resources  are  pri- 
marily accountable  for  the  extraordinary  interest  which  Turkey 
has  always  awakened.  The  region  is  the  Asiatic  extension  of 
Mediterranean  lands  nestling  against  the  great  central  mountain 
mass  of  Asia.  Jt  is  sharply  separated  from  the  rest  of  the 
continent  by  a  mountain  wall  which  extends  continuously  from 
the  Black  Sea  to  the  Persian  (Julf  and  is  made  up  of  the 
Armenian  and  Zngros  ranges.  It  is  a  peninsula,  itself  formed  by 
two  distinct  peninsulas,  and  one  of  the  unit  divisions  of  the 
Asiatic  continent  in  the  sense  that  it  is  the  only  part  of  the  entire 
Asiatic  continent  subject  to  Mediterranean  climatic  influences. 

15y  x^osition  first,  at  the  junction  of  three  continents  and 
ilierefore  on  the  main  field  of  history;  secondly,  as  the  site  of 
convergence  of  the  main  avenues  of  continental  travel  and, 
thirdly,  by  its  situation  in  one  of  the  two  regions  in  which 
clinuitic  conditions  proved  most  favorable  for  the  early  develop- 
ment of  humanity,  Turkey,  at  first  glance,  appears  to  have  been 
eminently  favored  by  nature.  These  advantages  made  it  the 
meeting  place  of  races  which  are  generally  associated  with  the 
three  continents  which  the  country  unites.  Aryan,  Tatar  and 
Semitic  peoples  therefore  are  strongly  represented  in  the  land. 

In  considering  Turkey  as  the  meeting  place  of  three  continents 
it  is  necessary  that  we  should  conline  our  conception  of  this  fact 
to  the  strictly  literal  sense  of  the  term.  The  country  is  a 
meeting  place  and  nothing  more.  It  has  never  been  a  transition 
zone  physically  and,  as  a  consequence,  there  has  been  very  little 
mingling  of  the  different  elements  in  its  population.  The  very 
shape  of  the  land  prevents  fusion  of  the  inhabitants  into  a  single 
people.     The   interior   upland   rises    abruptly  tibove    a   narrow 


i'ririge  oi"  coastal  lowland.  It.s  suri'aco  features,  cousistiug  partly 
oi"  deserts  and  saline  lakes,  recall  the  typical  aspect  oi'  central 
Asia.  On  the  other  hand,  the  rich  vegetation  of  tli(;  maritime 
fringe  reflects  Eurofjean  characteristics.  No  better  relic  of  Asia 
Minor's  former  land  connection  with  Eurojio  exists  than  this  strip 
of  the  west  soldered  to  the  eastern  continent.  i>ut  the  physical 
union  is  clean-cut  and,  as  a  result,  the  change  from  the  low-lying 
garniture  of  green  scenery  to  the  bare  tracts  of  the  ux>lands  is 
sharp.  These  features  make  of  Turkey  a  land  of  strange  con- 
trasts. Its  coasts  are  washed  by  the  waters  of  half  a  dozen  seas 
and  yet  in  places  a  journey  of  barely  twenty-five  miles  from  the 
shore  lands  the  traveler  squarely  in  the  midst  of  a  continental 

So  diversified  a  country  could  not  be  the  land  of  patriotism, 
and  as  we  pick  up  the  thread  of  its  troubled  history  we  find  a 
woeful  absence  of  this  spirit.  In  Byzantine  times  as  in  Ottoman 
a  selfish  bias  towards  local  interests,  a  parochial  attachment  of 
the  sordid  tyj-je,  pervades  its  population.  A  medley  of  peoples, 
each  filling  its  particular  geographical  frame  and  animated  by 
widely  divergent  ideals,  are  constantly  engaged  in  looking  abroad 
rather  than  toward  the  land  for  the  attainment  of  their  hopes. 
Nature  fostered  this  condition.  CWimunications  between  the 
different  regions  have  always  been  difficult.  From  the  narrow 
fringe  of  coastland  to  the  interior  plateau  the  ascent  is  steep. 
More  than  that  the  maritime  dweller  of  the  lowland  dreaded  the 
total  lack  of  comfort  which  he  knew  awaited  him  on  the  arid 
highland.  Conversely  the  indolent  inhabitant  of  this  elevated 
district  realized  that  were  he  to  settle  near  the  coast  he  could 
not  compete  successfully  with  the  more  active  seafarers.  As  time 
went  on  the  coastal  peoples — mainly  Greeks — accustomed  them- 
selves to  look  beyond  the  sea  for  intercourse  with  the  outside 
world  while  the  Turkish  tenants  of  the  interior  land  still  kejit  in 
their  mind's  eye  the  vast  Asiatic  background  out  of  which  they 
had  emerged. 

In  the  same  way  the  imposing  barrier  of  the  Taurus  prevented 
contact  between  the  occupants  of  the  districts  lying  north  and 


south  of  the  mountain.  The  significance  of  this  range  to 
Europeans  cannot  be  overestimated.  The  mountain  has  proved  to 
be  the  chief  obstacle  to  the  northward  spread  of  Semitic  peoples 
and  their  civilizations.  Successive  waves  of  southern  invaders, 
invariably  of  Semitic  descent  whether  highly  civilized  or  drawn 
from  tribes  of  savages,  spent  themselves  in  vain  dashes  against 
the  rocky  slopes.  The  fact  is  verified  historically  whether  we 
consider  the  failure  of  Assyrians  in  antiquity,  of  the  Saracens 
during  Middle  Ages,  or  of  the  Egyptians  and  Arabs  led  by 
Mehemet  Ali  in  modern  days.  At  present  the  linguistic  boundary 
between  Turkish  and  Arabic  occurs  in  this  mountain  chain  and 
Hogarth  has  expressed  the  fact  in  a  realistic  phrase  by  stating 
that,  at  an  elevation  of  about  2,000  ft.,  the  Arabic  speech  is 
chilled  to  silence. 

To  come  back  to  the  factor  of  Turkey 's  geographical  position, 
we  find  that  while  this  feature  has  generated  an  attracting  force 
the  shape  of  the  land,  on  the  other  hand,  promoted  a  constantly 
repellent  action.  We  have  in  this  situation  a  remarkable  conflict 
which  has  exerted  itself  to  the  detriment  of  the  inhabitants.  The 
centripetal  action  of  position  w^as  always  reduced  to  a  minimum 
by  the  centrifugal  effects  of  form.  The  mountainous  core  made 
up  by  the  Anatolian  table-land  and  the  western  highland  of 
Armenia  was  a  center  of  dispersal  of  waters,  and  hence  to  a  large 
degree  of  peoples.  Furthermore,  however  much  the  land  was  a 
single  unit  with  reference  to  the  broad  divisions  of  Asia,  the 
fact  remains  that  it  was  greatly  subdivided  within  itself.  The 
six  main  compartments  into  which  it  may  be  laid  off  have  fos- 
tered totally  divergent  civilizations.  All  of  these  conditions 
were  fundamentally  fatal  to  the  formation  of  nationality.  They 
only  favored  intercontinental  travel  and  trade.  In  this  respect 
the  country  has  been  of  the  highest  importance  in  the  history  of 
the  eastern  hemisphere,  and  at  present  commands  world-wide 

In  only  one  respect  did  position  and  form  operate  har- 
moniously. Both  agencies  combined  to  create  Turkey's  relation 
with  the  world  beyond  its  borders.    This  relation  was  facilitated 


by  the  admirable  set  of  natural  routes  wliicli  led  in  and  out  of 
the  country.  Beginning  with  the  broad  band  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean Sea,  land  and  water  routes  succeed  each  other  in  close 
sequence.  The  inland  sea  itself  is  prolonged  through  the  ^gean 
and  the  Turkish  straits  into  the  Black  Sea,  the  shores  of  which 
are  closely  dotted  mth  the  terminals  of  great  avenues  from 
northeastern  Europe,  as  well  as  all  of  northern  and  central 
Asia.  On  the  European  mainland,  the  far-reaching  Danube  has 
an  outlet  into  Turkey  through  the  Morava-Maritza  valleys  in 
addition  to  its  own  natural  termination.  The  Dnieper  valley 
plays  an  exceedingly  important  share  in  connecting  Turkey  to 
northern  lands.  To  the  east  the  trough-like  recesses  in  the  folds 
of  the  mountains  of  Armenia  and  Kurdistan  lead  to  the  great 
Tabriz  gate  beyond  which  the  Persian  Gulf  affords  sea  travel  to 
centers  of  civilization  of  the  monsoon  lands  or  westward  to  the 
African  coast.  Land  connection  with  this  continent  also  exists 
in  the  rift  valley  of  Syria  where  the  beginning  of  the  African 
rift  system  is  found.  Through  the  occurrence  of  all  these 
channels  of  penetration  the  history  of  Turkey  finds  place  as  a 
special  chapter  in  the  history  of  the  world's  great  nations.  A 
greater  share  of  responsibility  falls  on  the  land  for  this  relation 
than  on  the  Turks  themselves. 

The  world  relation  of  Turkish  lands  antedates,  however,  the 
coming  of  the  Turks  by  many  a  century.  Problems  summarized 
in  the  familiar  term  Eastern  Question  have  their  origin  in  the 
existence  of  the  narrow  waterways  consisting  of  the  Dardanelles, 
Marmora  and  Bosporus.  This  water  gap  has  exerted  profound 
influence  in  shaping  the  relation  of  Turkish  territory  to  the  out- 
side world.  The  Eastern  Question  is  as  old  as  the  history  of 
civilization  on  this  particular  spot  of  the  inhabited  world.  It 
could  not  be  otherwise  because,  fundamentally,  this  momentous 
international  problem  is  merely  that  of  determining  which  people 
or  nation  shall  control  the  strait.  Who  shall  gather  toll  from 
the  enormous  transit  trade  of  the  region?  This  is  the  economic 
problem  which  has  always  deeply  agitated  the  leading  commer- 
cial  nations    of   the   world.     Its    continuity   is    a   proof   of   its 


geographical  character.  As  long  as  these  straits  exist  at  the 
point  of  nearest  convergence  of  the  Balkan  and  Anatolian 
peninsulas,  identical  problems  are  bound  to  recur  on  their  site. 
Beneath  the  shifting  scenes  of  human  events  the  abiding  stage 
persists  in  directing  them  into  its  own  channels. 

Accordingly  as  early  as  in  late  Minoan  times  and  surely  in 
full  Mycenean  period,  some  fifteen  hundred  or  two  thousand 
years  before  our  era,  we  find  the  Eastern  Question  already  vexing 
the  world.  It  centers  first  around  Troy,  because  the  city  com- 
manded the  southwestern  outlet  of  the  straits  and  played  the 
same  leading  part  in  the  history  of  its  day  as  Constantinople  has 
played  since  then.  The  shifting  of  the  site  to  the  northeastern 
end  of  the  waterway  represents  the  gradual  spread  of  Hellenic 
influence  in  northeastern  maritime  territory. 

We  can  only  come  to  an  adequate  conception  of  the  role  of 
Troy  in  history  by  a  clear  understanding  of  the  value  of  its  site. 
The  city  was  a  toll-station.  Its  citizens  accumulated  wealth  in 
the  manner  in  which  the  burghers  of  Byzantium  laid  the  founda- 
tions of  their  vast  fortunes.  Schliemann's  excavations  brought  to 
light  amazing  treasures  of  precious  metals  and  jewelry.  These 
riches  may  well  be  regarded  as  the  price  paid  for  the  right  of 
the  passage  of  vessels  and  their  freight  through  the  straits.  Nor 
is  it  strange  to  find  that  coincident  with  the  decline  of  the 
Homeric  city,  the  earliest  mention  of  Byzantium,  its  successor, 
appears.  Consistently  with  this  method  of  viewing  Trojan  his- 
tory it  becomes  possible  to  reach  a  rational  understanding  of 
Homer's  classic  epic  as  the  account  of  a  secular  struggle  for  the 
possession  of  an  eminently  profitable  site.^  The  testimony  of 
history  on  the  number  of  sieges  which  Constantinople  has  under- 
gone is  at  least  precise,  although  no  literary  masterpiece  sheds 
lustre  on  the  events.  It  is  impossible  to  escape  from  the 
parallelism  in  the  histories  of  Byzantium  and  Troy  simply 
because  the  geographical  background  of  both  sites  is  similar  in 
every  respect.  In  the  case  of  Troy,  it  meant  convenient  access 
to  the  Pontine  rearland,  probably  the  first  El  Dorado  recorded 

•W.  Leaf:  Troy,  A  Study  in  Homeric  Geography,  London,  1912. 


by  history^-tlie  land  of  fabulous  treasures,  in  search  of  which 
the  Argonautic  expeditions  were  equipped.  With  Byzantium,  it 
meant  access  to  the  luxuries  which  Asia  could  supply  as  far  as 
the  Pacific. 

So  much  for  the  antiquity  of  the  Eastern  Question.  Passing 
to  another  phase  of  Turkey's  world  relation  we  find  that  the 
land's  influence  has  even  affected  the  discovery  of  America.  We 
now  stand  on  the  threshold  of  modern  history  and  deal  with  a 
broad  economic  problem  which  affected  late  medieval  commerce 
and  which  is  an  ever  recurrent  theme  in  that  splendid  period  of 
active  human  enterprise  known  as  the  Age  of  Discovery.  The 
dominant  idea  of  the  day  was  to  find  means  of  facilitating  east- 
west  trade  in  the  eastern  hemisphere. 

From  earliest  times  commercial  relations  between  the  land  of 
Cathay  and  Europe  had  been  one-sided.  The  east  sold  and  the 
west  purchased.  There  was  very  little  exchange.  The  products 
which  came  from  the  east  could  all  be  classed  as  luxuries.  They 
constituted  freight  of  small  volume  such  as  precious  stones,  fine 
woods,  essence  and  spices,  the  value  of  which  generally  ran  high. 
These  commodities  had  been  shipped  to  Europe  for  about  two 
millenniums  prior  to  the  fourteenth  century  of  our  era.  Overland 
the  caravans  plowed  their  way  across  the  southern  expanse  of 
Russia's  interminable  steppeland  and  penetrated  finally  into  the 
plateaus  of  Iran  and  Anatolia.  Their  home  stretch  lay  in 
Turkey.  By  sea  the  traders  were  accustomed  to  end  their 
journeys  at  the  head  of  the  Persian  Gulf,  whence  the  valuable 
wares  would  be  shipped  farther  west  via  Mesopotamia.  In  this 
case  again  the  home  stretch  is  found  on  Turkish  soil.  It  was  not 
until  about  the  end  of  the  fourth  century  b.c.  when  the  Egyptian 
hamlet  of  Rhaecotis  changed  its  name  into  that  of  Alexandria, 
,  that  this  sea  route  was  extended  into  the  Red  Sea  and  Mediter- 
ranean. At  this  time  the  vision  of  acquiring  wealth  through  the 
eastern  trade  began  to  dawn  on  the  minds  of  the  inhabitants  of 
the  Mediterranean  seaboard.  Many  centuries  were  to  elapse, 
however,  before  westerners  realized  that  fortunes  could  be  made 
by  venturing  into  eastern  fields.     The  profits  and  the  splendor 


of  the  eastern  trade  were  popularized  by  Cliristendom  when  the 
accounts  of  Marco  Polo  and  the  friar  travelers  of  his  time 
became  available.  Then  the  ambition  of  every  adventurous 
merchant  was  to  act  as  middleman  in  the  trade  with  Cathay. 

The  bulk  of  the  east-west  trade  in  medieval  time  flowed 
through  the  same  two  main  arteries.  The  northern  land  route 
from  China  through  central  Asia  passed  through  the  Tabriz  and 
lilrzerum  gates  and  ended  at  Trcbizond,  the  rest  of  the  journey 
being  made  by  sea  through  the  Bosporus-Dardanelles  passage. 
The  southerly  course  was  an  all-water  route  from  the  sea  of 
China  to  the  Mediterranean. 

The  incentive  to  reduce  cost  of  transportation  was  as  strong 
in  those  days  as  it  is  at  present.  The  northern  route  being 
mainly  overland  was  a  source  of  incessant  worry  to  the  trader. 
The  unrest  which  followed  the  appearance  of  Mohanmiedanism, 
the  reluctance  of  the  adherents  of  Islam  to  deal  with  infidels, 
rendered  commerce  more  and  more  risky.  Transportation  by 
land  was  slower  and  less  profitable  than  by  sea,  as  it  is  now. 
Caravans  could  not  avoid  brigands  as  easily  as  ships  could 
escape  pirates.  It  was  not  only  a  case  of  argosies  reaching  port 
but  also  of  camels  escaping  highwaymen.  In  addition,  duties  had 
to  be  paid  at  four  or  five  different  points  of  transshipment.  If 
we  examine  the  pepper  and  ginger  trade  alone — the  supply  of 
both  of  which  came  from  the  east — we  find  that  from  Calicut,  the 
great  emporium  of  trade  on  the  Malabar  coast,  these  spices  were 
carried  by  the  Arabs  to  Jiddali  and  thence  to  Tor,  on  the 
Sinaitic  peninsula.  Overland  journeys  began  at  the  last  point 
and  extended  to  Cairo.  From  the  city  a  river  journey  on  the  Nile 
to  Eosetta  followed,  after  which  the  freight  was  packed  on 
camels  and  sent  to  Alexandria.  All  these  conditions  made  for 
the  increase  of  cost  of  the  eastern  wares  which  were  supplied  to 

AVith  the  cost  of  eastern  commodities  rising  higher  and 
higher,  as  land  transportation  became  more  and  more  hazardous, 
the  minds  of  navigators  naturally  turned  to  the  possibility  of 
discovering  a  sea-way  to  India  and  Cathay.      The  discovery  of 


America  in  the  course  of  these  endeavors  to  lower  prevailing 
freight  rates  was  an  inevitable  consequence  of  economic  condi- 
tions. The  chief  point  of  interest  resides  in  the  fact  that  the 
discovery  which  immortalized  Columbus'  name  was  accelerated 
by  fully  half  a  century  through  the  falling  of  Constantinople  into 
the  hands  of  the  Turks  in  1453. 

The  capture  of  the  Byzantine  capital  came  as  the  death-blow 
to  an  already  declining  commercial  intercourse.  Henceforth  the 
Moslem  was  to  stand  guard  at  the  western  gate  through  which 
east-to-west  intercontinental  trade  had  passed;  and  there  seemed 
to  be  no  doubt  that  he  was  firmly  resolved  to  prevent  the 
Christian  from  traveling  back  and  forth  through  his  dominions. 
It  meant  the  definite  closing  of  the  western  gate  to  eastern  com- 
merce. The  first  evil  effects  of  the  Turkish  conquest  were  felt 
by  the  Venetians  and  Genoese.  The  Venetians  especially  incurred 
the  wrath  of  Mohammed  the  Conqueror  on  account  of  the  aid 
they  had  rendered  to  the  beleaguered  capital.  Greater  leniency 
was  shown  by  the  Turks  to  the  Genoese,  who  had  refrained  from 
open  manifestations  of  sympathy  with  the  Byzantines, 

The  Sultans  themselves  as  well  as  their  ministers  were  willing 
to  foster  the  trade  which  traversed  their  lands.  It  left  a  share 
of  its  proceeds  in  the  Turkish  treasury.  As  a  matter  of  fact, 
commerce  between  Turkish  lands  under  Mohammedan  rule  and 
the  west  existed  only  because  of  the  income  it  brought  to  the 
Turkish  government.  But  the  Turk  could  not  compete  success- 
fully with  the  Christian  in  the  markets  of  the  world  and  this 
proved  a  barrier  to  commerce.  The  significance  of  the  Turkish 
conquest  of  the  Byzantine  Empire  is  to  be  found  therefore  in 
the  fact  that  it  practically  cut  off  land  communications  between 
western  Europe  and  eastern  Asia.  Incentive  to  western 
exploration  was  intensified.  Before  the  fall  of  Constantinople 
the  discovery  of  a  western  sea  route  to  the  east  was  regarded 
as  highly  desirable.    It  now  became  a  necessity. 

The  possibility  of  reaching  the  Far  East  by  a  voyage  through 
the  pillars  of  Hercules  had  suggested  itself  to  the  active  intellect 
of    the    Greeks    and    Romans,    yet    the    incentive    to    undertake 


exploration  did  not  acquire  intensity  until  the  latter  half  of  the 
fifteenth  century.  The  Turkish  advance  into  western  Asia  came, 
therefore,  as  a  shock  whose  impact  forced  trade  out  of  the 
Mediterranean  through  the  straits  of  Gibraltar  into  the  wide 

But  there  was  another  important  result  of  the  Turk's  con- 
quests in  the  Balkan  and  Anatolian  peninsulas.  The  diversion 
of  the  eastern  trade  from  European  land  routes  into  sea  lanes 
impoverished  the  German-speaking  inhabitants  dependent  on  the 
Danube  artery  of  continental  life.  The  land  on  either  side  of 
this  main  highway  was  blessed  with  natural  wealth,  but  its 
treasures  had  been  drained  by  the  Vatican.  The  reformation, 
which  combined  religious  and  political  aspirations,  was  an  excel- 
lent opportunity  for  the  chiefs  of  the  small  states  scattered  in 
the  long  valley  of  the  great  river  to  pounce  upon  the  landed 
property  owned  by  the  Roman  church  and  establish  economic 
conditions  favorable  to  themselves. 

The  present  world  relations  of  Turkey  may  be  summarized  by 
the  statement  that  the  country  lies  squarely  in  the  path  of  both 
Teutonic  and  Slavic  advance.  A  natural  course  of  expansion  is 
loading  Germany  to  the  southeast  across  the  Balkan  peninsula 
into  Turkey.  The  extension  of  frontiers  required  by  Russia 
likewise  impels  Slavic  conquest  of  Turkey.  Overpopulation  in 
the  one  case  and  the  need  of  access  to  ice-free  waters  in  the 
other  make  the  contest  inevitable.  The  Teuton  is  answering  the 
call  of  the  land,  the  Slav  that  of  climate.  In  both  the  problem 
is  mainly  economic.  At  bottom  it  is  the  modern  phase  of  the 
Homeric  struggle  idealized  in  the  Iliad. 

The  dismemberment  of  Turkey  into  European  colonies  is  the 
goal  steadily  held  in  view  since  the  loss  of  the  Holy  Land  to 
Christendom.  It  will  be  the  last  chapter  in  the  long  history  of 
Europe's  commercial  conquest  of  western  Asia.  Three  causes 
militate  in  favor  of  an  eventual  partition.  The  country  is  rich 
in  natural  resources.  It  is  held  by  a  people  whose  incompetence 
to  convert  nature's  gifts  into  use  or  profit  is  historically  patent. 
It  also  happens  to  occupy  a  commanding  situation  with  reference 


to  the  trade  of  Europe  with  Asia  and  Africa.  These  three  points 
are  fundamental  in  the  solution  of  the  Turkish  problem. 

The  European  nations  most  vitally  concerned  in  the  dismem- 
berment of  the  Sultan's  dominions  are  four  in  number.  Great 
Britain's  interest  is  born  of  the  Empire's  relation  to  Egypt  and 
India.  The  cause  of  Kussian  progress  depends  on  the  country's 
access  to  warm  seaports.  Germany  is  the  newcomer  on  the  scene 
and,  as  a  land  power,  is  engaged  in  extending  her  land  area.  To 
her  sons  Turkey  offers  an  attractive  colonization  area  and  at  the 
same  time  the  land  route  which  will  render  them  independent  of 
the  sea-way  passing  through  Suez  to  the  east.  As  a  colonial 
power  of  the  first  magnitude,  no  less  than  on  account  of  her 
millions  of  Mohammedan  subjects,  France  cannot  be  disinterested 
in  the  fate  of  the  corelands  of  Islam. 

Turkey  is  the  Asiatic  pendant  of  the  intercontinental  highway 
represented  in  Europe  by  the  Balkan  peninsula.  Through  Asia 
Minor  the  land  provides  a  convenient  causeway  between  Asia  and 
Europe.  Through  Arabia  it  connects  Asia  to  Africa.  Again, 
through  the  combined  position  of  Asia  Minor  and  Syria  it 
becomes  possible  to  maintain  continuous  land  travel  from  Europe 
to  Africa.  Turkey  is  thus  the  ideal  center  of  the  eastern  hemi- 
sphere. Mastery  of  its  territory  is  bound  to  turn  the  flow  of 
intercontinental  trade  into  the  lap  of  its  holders.  The  entire  his- 
tory of  European  conflict  over  Turkish  lands  is  wrapped  up  in 
this  geographical  fact. 

Italians  were  the  pioneers  of  European  trade  with  Turkey 
after  the  consolidation  of  Ottoman  power.  In  this  Genoese  and 
Venetian  traders  merely  followed  in  the  footsteps  of  their 
fathers,  whose  dealings  with  the  Byzantines  had  been  consider- 
able. French  merchants  were  not  slow  to  compete  with  Italians. 
In  the  fifteenth  century  British  drapers  and  commissioners  begin 
to  appear  in  the  Levant.  Germans  show  signs  of  activity  a 
hundred  years  later,  but  confine  their  operation  mainly  to  the 
European  dominions  of  the  Sultans.  From  these  beginnings  to 
the  twentieth-century  territorial  claims  of  the  great  powers  is 
but  a  natural  economic  unfolding. 


Turkey's  remarkably  central  position  in  the  eastern  hemi- 
sphere makes  the  country  the  threshold  of  Great  Britain's 
Asiatic  dominions  as  well  as  the  natural  land  connection  between 
British  Africa  and  British  Asia.  From  India  westward  and  from 
the  British  zone  in  southern  l*ersia  as  defined  by  the  Anglo- 
I\ussian  convention  of  1907,  to  the  Sultanate  of  Egypt,  southern 
Turkey,  represented  by  Lower  Mesopotamia  and  Arabia,  is  the 
only  stretch  of  territory  in  which  the  British  government  does 
not  exercise  direct  control;  and  the  task  of  consolidating  British 
inihionce  in  those  two  regions  of  the  Turkish  Empire  is  well 

In  the  economic  life  of  modern  Mesopotamia  British  influence 
is  paramount.  About  90  per  cent  of  the  trade  of  Basra  and 
Bagdad  is  in  British  hands.  Steam  navigation  on  the  Euphrates 
and  Tigris  with  its  attendant  privileges  of  transportation  is  a 
monopoly  exercised  by  the  British.  This  means  that  all  the 
Persian  trade  which  enters  or  leaves  the  country  through  its 
southern  Turkish  border  must  pay  toll  to  British  capital. 
Most  important  of  all,  the  stupendous  task  of  reclaiming  the 
great  twin-river  valley  has  been  undertaken  by  British  enter- 

The  area  of  agricultural  lands  in  Lower  Mesopotamia  is  gen- 
erally calculated  at  Ion  times  the  total  surface  of  farming  land 
in  Egypt.  The  territory  suited  for  cultivation  extends  north- 
ward from  the  Persian  Gulf  roughly  to  a  line  drawn  from  the 
bend  of  the  Euphrates  at  Anali  to  Tekrit  on  the  Tigris.  Its 
eastern  boundary  is  defined  by  the  Zagros  and  Pusht-i-Koh  moun- 
tains. On  the  west  it  reaches  the  Great  Syrian  desert  as  far  as 
its  junction  with  the  plateau  of  Arabia.  Thus  defined  the  region 
is  the  great  alluvial  plain  of  Mesopotamia.  A  stretch  of  land 
remarkably  rich  in  humus,  it  only  needs  a  just  rule  and  com- 
petent engineers  in  order  to  become  highly  productive. 

In  olden  days  the  entire  district  was  one  vast  field.  Its 
fertility  had  earned  it  the  name  of  granary  of  the  world. 
ITorodotus  extols  its  productivity:  *'.  .  .  In  grain  it  is  so  fruitful 
as  to  yield  commonly  two-hundred  fold.    The  blade  of  the  wheat 


plant  and  barley  plant  is  often  four  fingers  in  breadth. ' '  •'  In 
their  present  state  the  once  productive  lands  present  the  appear- 
ance of  a  desert.  The  old  irrigation  ditches  are  in  ruins.  Mile 
upon  mile  of  parched,  cloggy  soil  or  dreary  marsh  take  the  place 
of  ancient  fields. 

The  reclamation  of  this  arid  country  was  undertaken  in  1908 
by  British  engineers  headed  by  Sir  William  Willcocks.  In  the 
Delta  region  of  Mesopotamia,  comprising  the  entire  drainage 
valley  extending  south  of  Hit  on  the  Euphrates  and  of  Samarra 
on  the  Tigris,  between  12  and  13  million  acres  of  first-class 
irrigation  land  were  to  be  converted  into  productive  areas.  In 
spite  of  Turkish  opposition  the  work  advanced  with  sufficient 
rapidity  for  the  Ilindiyeh  Barrage  to  be  inaugurated  in  1914. 
At  a  distance  of  twenty  centuries  a  handful  of  plucky  north- 
erners had,  notwithstanding  well-nigh  insurmountable  obstacles, 
put  the  last  touches  to  a  drainage  project  begun  on  the  same 
spot  by  Alexander  the  Great,  the  construction  of  a  new  head  for 
the  Hindiyeh  branch  or  Pallocopas  having  been  that  monarch's 
first  public  work  in  Babylonia.* 

In  the  Persian  Gulf  British  influence  advanced  by  great 
strides  during  the  present  century.  "Within  the  last  ten  years 
the  policing  of  the  gulf  waters  and  harbors  has  been  undertaken 
by  Britain's  men-of-war.  An  appreciable  curtailment  of  the 
trade  in  firearms  followed  the  tracking  of  gun-runners  by  British 
captains.  The  important  towns  of  the  Persian  and  Arabian 
coast  are  virtually  British  possessions.  Bushire  ^  on  the  eastern 
shore,  Koweit  on  the  west  are  protectorates.  The  trend  of  it  all 
is  to  advance  India's  western  frontier  to  the  line  of  the 

For  Great  Britain's  attitude  toward  Turkish  politics  is 
dictated  by  Delhi  rather  than  London.     As  ruler  of  the  most 

'  Bk.  1,  Chap.  193.  Babylonia's  fertility  is  also  noticed  by  other  ancient  writers. 
Cf.  footnote  of  Rawlinson's  Herodotus,  New  York,  1850,  Vol.  1,  p.  258. 

*  W.  Willcocks:  The  Irrigation  of  Mesopotamia,  New  York,  1911,  pp.  13-14. 

"  Bushire  with  a  population  of  about  20,000  inhabitants  owes  its  importance  to  its 
being  the  southern  sea  terminal  of  the  caravan  route  which  starts  at  Teheran  and 
passes  through  Isfahan  and  Shiraz. 


imniorows  jjolilicnl  group  oi'  Moliajiiincclaiis  in  the  world,  the  king 
oi'  J*lngland's  rcsidonco  in  his  European  capital  cannot  ari'ect 
India's  geographical  needs,  among  which  the  maintenance  of  a 
clear  road  from  ils  shores  to  the  mother  island  is  of  prime 
import.  Thus  the  establishment  of  a  British  zone  in  southern 
Persia  and  the  attempt  to  substitute  British  law  in  Mesopotamia 
wh(^re,  after  all,  the  Sultan's  authority  is  most  precarious  in 
character,  merely  reveal  l^higland's  necessity  of  consolidating  her 
power  over  the  approaches  to  her  great  Asiatic  colony. 

In  dealing  willi  Indian  geography  and  the  vast  body  of 
Mohammedan  Hindus,  attention  is  necessarily  riveted  on  the 
question  of  Arabia.  British  stewardship  of  tlie  peninsular  table- 
land seems  inevitable.  Not  that  those  hngo  wastes  of  burning 
sand  contain  resources  convertible  intp  profit;  but  Arabia  repre- 
sents a  wedge  of  barbarism  driven  in  between  the  civilizing 
inlluenees  exerted  by  Great  Britain  in  Egypt  and  India.  The 
dang(M-  of  its  becoming  a  generating  center  of  revolutionary 
currents  involving  British  colonial  policies  in  destruction  is  not 
mythical.  Millions  of  Indian  Moslems  turn  daily  in  prayer 
toward  the  direction  of  the  Kaaba.  A  glance  at  India's  history 
sudices  to  reveal  tlie  extent  to  which  the  Sea  of  Oman  has  linked 
the  two  peninsulas. 

To  detach  Arabia  from  a  shadowy  allegiance  to  the  Sultan  of 
Turkey  and  bring  it  within  (ho  uplifting  sphere  of  British 
activity  was  part  ol'  (ho  political  program  elaborated  at  Do^^^ling 
Street  after  the  bombardment  of  Alexandria  in  1882.  In  pur- 
suance of  this  policy  British  influence  is  now^  markedly  felt  along 
Arabia's  three  coasts.  It  is  tirmly  planted  on  the  southeast, 
where  Arabia  is  nearest  to  India.  l*'rom  Koweit  to  LIuscat 
every  petty  potentate  exorcising  an  antiquated  patriarchial 
authority  has  learned  to  n^ly  on  British  protection  against 
Turkish  encroachments.  Aden,  on  the  southwest  coast,  is  a  lone 
outpost  of  civilization  from  which  western  ideas  radiate  and 
occasionally  reach  the  plateau  land  of  Yemen  or  the  niggardly 
wastes  of  Uadranuit.  This  British  seaport  is  the  natural  outlet 
of  Yemen.    Products  of  the  favored  districts  around  Kataba,  as 


well  as  between  tliis  town  and  Sana 'a,  can  be  transported  with 
greater  facility  to  Aden  than  by  the  arduous  routes  which  lead 
to  Red  Sea  harbors. 

The  question  of  Arabia  involves  other  considerations.  Mecca 
and  Medina,  its  holy  cities,  arc  essentially  the  religious  center 
of  the  Islamic  world.  From  their  sites  Mohammedanism  has 
spread  about  4,000  miles  both  east  and  west.  Among  Arabs  as 
well  as  the  majority  of  Mohammedans  outside  of  Turkey  desire 
for  the  restoration  of  the  Caliphate  at  Mecca  is  strong.  Arabs 
especially  consider  the  Sultans  as  usurpers  of  the  title.  Selim  I 
had  been  the  first  to  adopt  it  after  the  conquest  of  Egypt  and 
Arabia  in  1517.  Arabs  however  refuse  to  recognize  the  right  of 
any  but  descendants  of  the  Prophet's  family  to  this  supreme  post 
of  the  Mohammedan  ecclesiastical  liierarchy.  According  to 
Islamic  traditions  the  Caliph  must  be  a  member  of  the  Koreishit 
tribe.  This  explains  why  any  ambitious  leader  who  succeeds  in 
circulating  the  report  of  his  relationship  with  Mohammed's 
progeny  has  always  secured  a  following  among  his  co-religionists 
in  Asia  or  Africa. 

Tfio  Arabs  have  aired  this  chief  grievance  of  theirs  in  P]nglish 
ears.  They  found  ready  sympathy  among  British  officials  no 
less  than  among  the  leaders  of  their  faith  in  Egypt  or  India. 
The  complete  severance  of  the  Mohammedan  Caliphate  from  the 
Turkish  Sultanate  will,  therefore,  be  a  probable  result  of  Franco- 
British  success  in  the  present  war.  The  reestablishmcnt  of  the 
Prophet's  family  in  its  hereditary  right  and  capital  will  have 
the  advantage  of  providing  Islam  with  a  geographical  center  at 
the  very  point  of  its  birth. 

Modem  German  ascendancy  in  Turkey  has  constituted  the 
gravest  menace  to  the  British  project  of  uniting  Egypt  to  India 
by  a  broad  band  of  British  territory.  German  diplomacy  has 
exerted  its  best  efforts  during  the  past  generation  in  the  attempt 
to  defeat  this  design.  In  overcrowded  Germany  the  need  of 
land  for  colonization  is  felt  as  keenly  as  the  necessity  of  pro- 
viding new  markets  for  the  country's  busy  industries.  Germany 
does   not   contain   within   its   borders    an   agricultural   area   of 


sufficient  extent  for  the  requirements  of  its  fast-growing  popula- 
tions. Against  this  it  has  been  estimated  that  with  adequate 
irrigation  Asia  Minor  can  turn  out  a  million  tons  of  wheat 
annually,  as  well  as  at  least  200,000  tons  of  cotton.  The  basis  of 
Teutonic  southeasterly  expansion  lies  in  these  facts.  The 
immediate  aim  of  German  imperialism  is  to  spread  through 
Austria  and  the  Balkan  peninsula  into  Turkey  down  to  the  Gulf 
of  Alexandretta  and  the  shallow  waters  of  the  Persian  Gulf.  But 
its  realization  implies  the  shattering  of  British  projects. 

This  rivalry  in  the  west  Asian  field  became  inevitable  from' 
the  moment  that  men  of  German  speech  became  conscious  of  the 
power  they  had  acquired  in  1870  by  banding  together  in  a  single 
state.  The  task  of  national  consolidation  once  accomplished,  the 
thought  of  German  leaders  naturally  turned  eastward  in  the 
direction  in  which  land  extended.  Eight  years  later  the  prestige 
acquired  by  the  newborn  empire  gave  it  a  decisive  voice  in  the 
treaty  of  Berlin.  The  first  peg  in  the  line  of  the  Teutons'  south- 
easterly march  was  driven  then  by  the  revision  of  Bulgarian 
frontiers  delimited  by  the  treaty  of  San  Stefano.  The  Slavic 
obstacle  seemed  removed  from  the  Teutons'  path  and  its  place 
filled  by  the  more  easily  negotiable  TurkisJi  obstruction. 

From  the  date  of  that  treaty  to  the  events  of  these  years  of 
war  Germany's  conduct  in  Turkey  has  been  determined  entirely 
by  the  call  of  the  land.  In  1882  a  German  military  commission 
undertakes  to  reorganize  the  Turkish  army.  In  1889  the  Deutsche 
Bank — whose  directors  are  leaders  of  Germany's  oversea  affairs 
■ — is  granted  a  concession  for  a  through  line  from  Constan- 
tinople to  Konia.  This  concession  has  since  been  modified  so 
as  to  comprise  the  trans-Anatolian  trunk  railway  which  connects 
the  capital  with  Bagdad.  In  1898  the  Kaiser  visits  Damascus  in 
person,  there  solemnly  to  proclaim  assurances  of  his  unalterable 
good-will  to  the  millions  of  Mohammedans  scattered  over  the 
surface  of  the  earth.  In  1902  the  Bagdad  line  is  definitely 
awarded  to  a  group  of  capitalists,  among  whom  Germans  repre- 
sent the  majority  of  investors.  From  that  date  on,  railroad, 
mining  and  irrigation  concessions  in  Turkey  seemed  to  have  been 


reserved  exclusively  for  Germans.  The  transfer  of  Turkey's 
unexploited  riches  to  German  ownership  became  almost  an 
accomplished  fact. 

It  was  the  "Drang  nach  Osten,"  a  movement  directed  pri- 
marily by  the  valleys  of  the  Danube  and  the  Morava,  and  forking 
out  subsequently  along  the  Vardar  and  Maritza  gaps.  To  clear 
this  road  to  Turkey,  Serbia  was  wiped  off  the  map  of  Europe  in 
the  fall  of  1915  by  Teutonic  armies.  For  this  too  had  Serbian 
nationality  been  split  into  three  separate  bodies  at  the  behest  of 
Teutonic  diplomatists.  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina,  lands  Serbian 
in  heart  and  logic,  were  administered  by  Austria,  an  empire  in 
name  like  Turkey  but  virtually  ruled  by  Prussia  since  the  day 
of  Sadowa.  Montenegro,  of  old  the  refuge  of  martyred  Serbia, 
had  always  been  prevented  by  Austria  from  uniting  with  its 
sister  state.  In  truth  Serbia  lay  under  the  bane  of  a  geographical 
curse.    It  was  always  in  the  way. 

The  misfortune  of  position  is  shared  fully  by  Turkey. 
Coming  at  right  angles  to  Germany's  southeasterly  drive,  Rus- 
sia's steady  southwesterly  advances  in  the  nineteenth  century 
foreshadowed  the  conversion  of  all  the  Black  Sea  and  its 
Bosporus  entrance  into  Russian  waters.  With  the  most  inacces- 
sible parts  of  the  Armenian  mountains  in  Russian  hands  since 
1878,  further  expansion  through  western  Armenia  into  Anatolia 
cannot  be  delayed  much  longer. 

The  Russian  viewpoint  deserves  every  consideration.  Russia 
lies  benumbed  by  the  cold  of  her  frozen  land.  She  has  had  one 
long  winter  since  the  dawn  of  her  nationality.  The  chief  reason 
why  her  sons  have  been  laggards  in  the  liberal  progress  of  the 
past  hundred  years  must  be  sought  in  this  simple  fact  of 
geography.  Russia  does  not  need  more  land  or  fresh  resources. 
She  only  seeks  the  warmth  of  the  sun's  rays.  Geographically  it 
is  Russia  rather  than  Germany  who  is  entitled  to  ''her  place 
under  the  sun."  Today  more  than  ever,  and  because  of  her  newly- 
won  liberty  and  democratic  institutions,  Russia  needs  a  window 
on  the  sunny  side  of  her  national  dwelling. 

Russian   access   to   the   open   sea   in  the   southwest   can   be 


secured  either  at  Constantinople  or  Alexandretta.  The  Bosporus 
route  is  the  more  advantageous,  as  the  markets  for  products  of 
the  plains  of  southern  Russia  are  strewn  along  Mediterranean 
coasts.  But  mastery  of  the  Bosporus  is  of  little  value  to  Russia 
without  possession  of  the  Dardanelles  strait.  The  Marmora  is 
but  the  lobby  of  the  Black  Sea.  The  entire  Bosporus-Dardanelles 
waterway  must,  therefore,  be  Russian  in  order  to  allow  the 
country  to  reap  the  full  advantages  of  attaining  ice-free  seas.  If 
fifty  years  ago  the  question  was  merely  one  of  political  foresight, 
today  it  has  assumed  vital  importance,  for  southwestern  Russia's 
economic  development,  in  the  present  century,  has  made  the  coun- 
try absolutely  dependent  on  Balkan  and  Mediterranean  markets. 

As  an  alternative,  the  harbor  of  Alexandretta  finds  favor 
among  Russians.  It  lies  at  a  distance  of  only  450  miles  from  the 
southern  Caucasus  frontiers.  Moreover,  it  is  part  of  the  ancient 
land  of  Armenia,  which  sooner  or  later  is  destined  to  become  a 
Russian  province  in  its  entirety.  Such  an  extension  of  Russian 
territory  to  blue  water  on  the  Mediterranean  has  significance  in 
two  ways.  It  would  redeem  a  land  that  has  remained  Christian 
in  spite  of  centuries  of  Mohammedan  yoke  and  it  might  effec- 
tively bar  German  access  to  the  Persian  Gulf. 

Russian  influence  in  Turkey  differs  signally  from  the  control 
exerted  by  its  three  western  competitors.  British,  German  and 
French  encroachments  on  Turkish  sovereignty  have  increased  in 
proportion  to  the  amount  of  capital  expended  by  each  of  these 
countries  for  the  development  of  Turkish  resources.  In  this 
respect  Russia,  which  is  not  a  country  of  financiers,  stood  at  a 
disadvantage.  To  overcome  this  handicap  Russians  resorted  to 
borrowing  from  France  and  England,  mainlj^  the  former,  and 
invested  the  funds  thus  obtained  in  Turkey.  Such  transactions 
have  in  reality  been  the  means  of  strengthening  French  and 
British  ascendancy  in  the  Ottoman  land.  The  northeastern 
region  of  Anatolia,  which,  owing  to  its  contiguity  to  Russia,  was 
regarded  as  a  sphere  of  Russian  influence,  has  lately  been  looked 
upon  often  as  a  zone  of  French  interests,  owing  to  the  partici- 
pation of  French  capital  in  its  development.     But  from  a  geo- 

Fig.  54. 

Cojiijityht  by  Underwood  dt  Vndtrwood 

Fig.  55. 

Copyright  by  Underwood  ct  Underwood 

Fig.  54 — View  of  the  harbor  of  Odessa. 

Fig.  55 — Export  wlieat  ready  to  be  loaded  at  Odessa. 



graphical  standpoint  this  French  zone  is  artificial.  Its  depend- 
ence on  Russia  cannot  be  altered  as  long  as  its  position  on  the 
map  remains  unchanged. 

France's  natural  sphere  of  interest  in  Turkey  will  be  found 
in  the  Syrian  vilayets.  This  is  not  due  to  the  financing  of  Syrian 
public  utilities  and  indus- 
tries by  French  capitalists 
as  is  often  alleged.  It  is 
the  offspring  of  the  Medi- 
terranean which,  since  the 
dawn  of  history,  has  con- 
nected the  southern  French 
coast  to  Syrian  harbors. 
Phoenician  oversea  trade 
in  the  first  millennium  be- 
fore the  Christian  era 
had  reached  the  coasts  of 
Provence  and  Lang-uedoc. 
Marseilles,  a  city  born  of 
this  intercourse,  has  main- 
tained commercial  rela- 
tions with  Syria  uninter- 
ruptedly do^vn  to  the  pres- 
ent time. 

Franco-Syrian  ties  were  strengthened  considerably  during  the 
Crusades.  The  conquest  of  Syria  and  Palestine  by  the  Arabs 
diverted  the  thoughts  of  Christendom  from  the  economic  impor- 
tance of  these  lands  to  their  religious  appeal.  France,  ''the 
eldest  daughter  of  the  Church,"  took  the  lead  in  the  attempt  to 
wrest  the  Holy  Land  from  its  Mohammedan  conquerors, — 
*'Gesta  Dei  per  Francos."  Many  of  the  petty  states  founded  by 
noblemen  who  took  part  in  the  Crusades  were  ruled  by  French- 
men. Antioch  and  Tripoli  had  French  princes,  Jerusalem  a 
French  king.  The  title  of  Protector  of  Oriental  Christians  con- 
ferred by  the  Papacy  on  French  kings  had  its  origin  in  the  active 
part  played  by  France  in  the  Crusades. 

Fig.  5G — French  states  in  Syria  at  the 
time  of  the  Crusades.  Scale,  1:11,500,000. 
Based  on  PI.  68,  Historical  Atlas,  by  W.  R. 
Shepherd,    Holt,   New   York,    1911. 


Franco  has  exercised  a  dominant  intellectual  influence  in  the 
Levant  for  at  least  seven  centuries.  Turks  bestow  the  appella- 
tion ^' Frank"  on  Europeans  without  discrimination  of  nation- 
ality. Western  ideas  which  have  triclded  down  to  Turkish  soil 
are  French  in  character.  French  schools  in  Turkey  are  more 
numerous  than  any  other.  The  civilizing  power  of  French  cul- 
ture showed  its  strength  by  the  readiness  with  which  it  asserted 
itself  in  the  midst  of  uncongenial  Turkish  thought.  France's 
hold  on  Turkey  is  thus  of  a  high  moral  order.  It  differs  in 
this  respect  from  the  material  claims  of  the  other  European 

At  the  same  time  through  the  investments  of  French  capi- 
talists a  Avell-defined  zone  of  French  interests  has  been  created 
in  Syria.  Excepting  the  Hejaz  line  every  railroad  in  the 
province  has  been  financed  in  France.  The  silk  factories  of  the 
Lebanon,  around  which  the  whole  industrial  life  of  Syria 
clusters,  were  started  by  French  citizens.  Their  annual  product, 
usually  estimated  at  half  a  million  kilograms  of  silk,  is  exported 
to  France.  Syrian  silk  farmers  in  need  of  funds  for  the  annual 
purchase  of  cocoons  raise  their  loans  exclusively  among  the 
banking  houses  of  Lyons.  French  interests  are  not  confined  to 
Syria  alone;  fully  one-half  of  the  amount  of  one  billion  dollars 
representing  Turkey's  official  debt  to  Europe  has  been  advanced 
by  French  financial  institutions. 

It  is  difficult  to  assign  a  place  to  Italy  in  the  array  of 
European  claimants  for  Turkish  territory.  The  trade  between 
Italian  and  Turkish  seaports  has  lost  the  relative  importance  it 
had  acquired  in  medieval  times.  Italian  pretensions  to  Adalia 
Bay  and  its  rearland  are  of  quite  recent  date  and  the  result  of 
conquests  in  Libya.  But  beyond  vaguely  formulated  promises 
for  railway  concessions  from  the  Turkish  government  no  ties 
bind  the  region  to  Italy.  Italy  however  created  its  own  sphere 
of  interest  somewhat  unintentionally  by  the  occupation  of  the 
islands  of  the  Dodecanesia.  By  this  act  it  distanced  every  otheF- 
European  country  in  the  race  for  a  share  of  Turkey. 

-The  group   of  islands  lying  off  the  southwestern  coast   of 


Anatolia  is  now  held  by  Italy  in  virtue  of  stipulations  covenanted 
with  Turkey  at  the  treaty  of  Lausanne.  According  to  the  terms 
agreed  upon,  Italy  was  to  occupy  the  islands  in  guarantee  of 
Turkish  good  faith  pledged  to  prevent  anti-Italian  agitation  in 
Libya.  Upon  complete  pacification  of  the  latest  territorial 
addition  to  Italy's  African  domain,  the  political  fate  of  the 
islands  was  to  be  determined  jointly  by  the  six  Great  European 

The  islands,  between  twelve  and  fifteen  in  number,  are 
peopled  exclusively  by  Greeks.  Hellenic  customs,  language  and 
religion  have  survived  upon  each  in  spite  of  centuries  of  Turkish 
rule.  Italian  sovereignty,  however  benevolent  or  likely  to  pro- 
mote the  welfare  of  the  islanders,  is  disliked  equally  at  Patmos, 
Leros,  Cos  and  Rhodes.  The  remaining  islands  are  relatively 
unimportant,  some  consisting  of  mere  uninhabited  rocks  emerg- 
ing two  or  three  hundred  feet  above  the  sea.  But  to  the  smallest 
inhabited  islet,  annexation  to  Greece  is  keenly  desired.  The 
Italians  were  hailed  as  liberators  from  the  Turkish  oppression 
by  the  hardy  fishermen  who  labored  under  the  impression  that 
their  island  homes  had  been  rescued  in  order  to  be  annexed  to 
Greece.  Their  disappointment  was  expressed  in  mass  meetings 
at  Patmos  and  Cos  in  1913. 

Racial  and  historical  considerations  add  their  weight  to  the 
linguistic  claims  advanced  by  Greeks  in  Greece  and  the  Dode- 
canesia.  As  sailors  the  islanders  have  maintained  to  this  day 
classical  traditions  of  Hellenic  maritime  activity  in  the  region. 
The  islands  in  fact  constitute  lands  of  unredeemed  nationality 
whose  natives  are  without  a  single  exception  akin  to  the  conti- 
nental Greeks. 

This  fact  combined  with  a  distribution  of  a  numerically  pre- 
ponderant Greek  element  along  the  western  coast  of  Anatolia 
makes  the  ^gean  a  truly  Greek  sea.  Structurally  the  coast 
lands  encircling  this  body  of  water  are  identical.  In  the  east  as 
in  the  west  they  constitute  the  warped  margin  of  a  subsided 
area.  Identity  of  land  and  peoples  has  given  rise  to  Greek 
claims  on  western  Turkey.    Greece,  therefore,  keeps  in  line  with 


other  European  nations  in  expecting  a  share  in  the  inheritance 
of  the  moribund  Turkish  state. 

The  claim  is  historical  no  less  than  economic.  The  associa- 
tion of  the  -^gean  religion  with  centuries  of  Hellenism  and  fully 
one  millennium  of  Byzantinism  is  by  no  means  severed  in  modern 
days.  For  the  second  time  in  its  glorious  history  the  ancient 
city  of  Athens  has  become  the  social,  political  and  intellectual 
center  of  the  Greek  world.  In  one  and  the  same  prospect  the 
Greek  capital  can  point  with  pride  to  the  Hellenic  splendor 
exhaled  from  Anatolian  ruins  and  to  her  modern  sons  achieving 
daily  economic  victories  over  the  Turk  in  his  own  land. 

In  this  spectacle  of  nations  lying  athwart  each  other's  path 
the  clue  to  the  adequate  settlement  of  the  Turkish  problem  may 
be  found.  Turkey  is  before  anything  else  a  roadway — a  bridge- 
land.  As  soon  as  this  point  of  practical  geography  is  recognized 
it  will  be  easy  to  provide  international  legislation  in  which  the 
claims  of  interested  powers  will  be  harmonized.  But  no  solution 
of  the  political  problem  involved  can  ever  be  attained  without 
full  consideration  of  its  geographical  aspects.  Failure  to  recog- 
nize this  would  leave  the  Eastern  Question  in  the  hopeless  tangle 
in  which  it  has  lain  for  over  a  century. 

As  the  seat  of  through  routes  Turkey  and  its  railroad  play 
a  great  part  in  international  transportation.  Hence  it  is  that 
the  Turkish  lines,  with  exception  of  the  Hejaz  railroad,  are 
controlled  by  financiers  grouped  according  to  nationality.  At 
present  the  majority  of  shareholders  in  each  of  the  concessions 
belong  to  one  or  the  other  of  the  great  European  powers^ 

The  broad  Eurasian  landmass  contains  three  densely  popu- 
lated areas.  Of  these  central  Europe  is  the  westernmost.  The 
Indian  peninsula  follows,  situated  approximately  midway  between 
the  European  area  and  the  coastlands  and  islands  of  eastern 
Asia,  which  form  the  easternmost  of  the  three.  In  these  three 
regions  only  does  the  average  density  of  population  exceed  64 
inhabitants  to  the  square  mile.  The  speediest  and  most  con- 
venient routes  between  the  westernmost  and  the  two  Asiatic 
regions  must  inevitably  cross  Turkey.     This  feature,  together 

The  American  Geographical  Society  of  New  York 

The  American  Geographical  Societ}/  of  New  Yor/t 

Frontiers  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  1917,  PI.  V 


with  the  fact  that  Asiatic  Turkey  is  a  land  richly  endowed  with 
natural  resources  and  that,  although  lying  at  Europe's  very 
door,  it  is  still  undeveloped,  confer  upon  Turkish  railroads  an 
importance  which  has  always  been  keenly  realized  by  enterpris- 
ing business  men  the  world  over. 

All  travel  between  Europe  and  Asia  is  deflected  into  northern 
and  southern  channels  by  a  central  mass  of  mountains  which 
separate  a  vast  lowland  of  plains  and  steppes  on  the  north  from 
the  tablelands  of  southern  Asia.  Age-old  avenues  of  human 
migration  and  of  trade  in  the  northern  area  have  the  disadvan- 
tage of  traversing  sparsely  inhabited  regions.  To  build  trans- 
continental railroads  along  this  route  implies  scaling  some  of 
the  highest  mountain  ranges  in  the  world  in  order  to  tap  the 
populous  centers  of  India.  Although  this  is  not  beyond  the 
engineer's  ability,  capitalists  decline  to  consider  it.  Southern 
routes,  on  the  other  hand,  link  with  the  seas  that  set  far  inland 
on  Asiatic  coasts.  The  function  of  the  Turkish  trunk  lines  is 
to  provide  the  shortest  connection  between  European  railways 
and  the  steel  tracks  of  southern  Asia  or  to  connect  with  the  sea 
routes  that  link  harbor  to  harbor  from  the  Persian  Gulf  to  the 
China  Sea. 

LAlthough  lying  at  Europe's  very  door  and  in  spite  of  its 
extreme  antiquity  as  the  abode  of  civilized  man,  Asia  Minor 
presents  the  strange  anomaly  of  being  one  of  the  world's  least 
developed  regions.  It  was  only  after  the  Crimean  War  that  rail- 
road construction  was  undertaken  within  the  peninsula.  The 
granting  of  railway  concessions  enabled  the  Sultan  to  pay  his 
debt  of  gratitude  to  the  western  nations  which  had  assisted  him 
in  checking  the  natural  efforts  of  the  Russians  to  add  a  strip  of 
ice-free  coast  to  their  country's  southwestern  boundary.  With 
the  exception  of  a  single  line  every  kilometer  of  track  in  the 
peninsula  has  been  built  by  Europeans.  As  is  always  the  case 
in  undeveloped  areas,  the  districts  tapped  by  the  various  lines 
became  economically  dependent  on  the  roads  that  hauled  their 
products  and  supplies.  This  circumstance  induced  tacit  recog- 
nition of  spheres  of  foreign  influence  in  which  commercial,  and 


attendant  political,  preponderance  leaned  strongly  towards  the 
country  which  supplied  the  capital  with  which  the  railroads  were 
built.  Wherever,  as  in  Syria,  vaguely  defined  spheres  of 
European  influence  had  previously  existed,  .the  advent  of  engines 
and  cars  contributed  to  strengthen  them  considerably.  The 
routes  determined  by  the  steel-clad  tracks  may  therefore  be  con- 
sidered as  approximate  center-lines  of  these  spheres  of  foreign 
influence.  It  is  on  this  basis  that  six  distinct  spheres  may  be 
marked  out  as  follows : 

(1)  A  British  sphere  extending  over  the  entire  drainage 
basin  of  the  Meander  and  traversed  by  the  British-owoied  Aidin 

(2)  A  French  sphere  which  was  originally  confined  to  the 
drainage  of  the  Gediz  river,  the  ancient  Hermos,  but  which, 
through  privileges  acquired  as  a  result  of  the  successful  opera- 
tion of  the  French-owned  Cassaba  railway,  now  extends  north- 
wards to  the  Sea  of  Marmora.  This  additional  sphere  is  divided 
into  two  equal  east  and  west  areas  by  the  French-owned  Soma- 
Panderma  railroad. 

(3)  A  German  sphere — the  most  important  of  these  spheres 
of  foreign  influence — which,  beginning  at  the  Bosporus,  trav- 
erses the  entire  peninsula  diagonally  by  way  of  the  inviting 
routes  provided  by  surface  features  and  extends  southeasterly 
through  Mesopotamia  to  the  Persian  Gulf. 

(4)  A  Franco-Russian  sphere  which  was  originally  allotted 
to  Russia  and  which  comprises  all  of  the  area  north  of  the 
German  zone  described  above.  Russia's  inability  to  finance  rail- 
way enterprise  in  this  area,  no  less  than  political  ties  which  bind 
this  country  to  France,  led  to  French  participation.  As  a  result 
of  this  dual  arrangement  construction  on  the  French-o"v\Tied 
Samsoun-to-Sivas  line  was  begun  in  1913. 

(5)  A  second  French  sphere  comprising  all  of  Syria.  It  is 
considered  by  Frenchmen  as  their  most  important  sphere 
of  influence  in  Turkey.  The  French-owned  Beirut-Aleppo, 
Tripoli-Homs  and  Jaffa- Jerusalem  lines  are  operated  in  this 


(6)  An  Italian  sphere  extending  inland  from  the  extreme 
southwestern  coast  of  Asia  Minor  so  as  to  include  the  hinterland 
of  the  Gulf  of  Adalia.  Italy  is  a  recent  invader  of  this  field.  Its 
ambitions  were  revealed  in  the  fall  of  1913,  after  it  became  known 
that  negotiations  had  been  carried  on  between  the  representative 
of  the  Italian  bondholders  of  the  Ottoman  Public  Debt  and  the 
Turkish  government  for  the  concession  of  a  railway  line  to  con- 
nect the  seaport  of  Adalia  and  the  to^vn  of  Burdur,  the  south- 
easterly terminus  of  the  Aidin  railway. 

(7)  With  these  six  spheres  a  contested  seventh  should  be 
mentioned,  which  is  constituted  by  the  exceedingly  rich  mineral 
district  situated  at  the  northern  convergence  of  the  valleys  of 
the  Tigris  and  Euphrates.  Russian,  French  and  German  inter- 
ests claim  respective  rights  of  priority  to  its  exploitation. 

None  of  these  divisions  would  be  recognized  officially  as  such 
in  Turkey.  But  then  ethnographic  boundaries  are  likemse 
strictly  ignored  by  the  rulers  of  that  country.  Definite  official 
recognition  of  these  spheres  is  nevertheless  implied  in  the  terms 
of  a  number  of  commercial  covenants  signed  by  Turkey  and 
various  European  powers  according  to  which  the  right  to  operate 
railroads,  and  even  mines  sometimes,  is  granted  by  the  Turkish 
government  exclusively  to  a  single  company  which  in  almost 
every  instance  is  owned  by  capitalists  of  the  same  nationality. 
The  Russo-Turkish  convention  of  1900,  which  reserved  to  Rus- 
sians rights  of  preemption  on  railroad  building  in  the  area 
called  the  Franco-Russian  sphere,  may  be  mentioned  as  an 
example.  Similarly  the  Bagdad  Railway  Convention  of  1902, 
formally  signed  by  the  German  ambassador  and  the  Turkish 
Minister  of  Public  Works,  recognized  the  exclusive  rights  of  the 
Bagdad  Railway  Company — a  German  enterprise — to  build  the 
important  trans-peninsular  route  which  will  link  Europe  to  Asia 
and  Africa. 

One  might  infer  that  the  existence  of  these  six  spheres  should 
be  attributed  to  Turco-European  agreements.  Closer  scrutiny 
brings  to  light,  however,  the  working  of  purely  natural  forces, 
explanation  of  which  is  to  be  found  in  the  geography  of  Asia 


Minor.  These  international  railroad  conventions,  and  the  areas 
determined  by  their  text,  represent  in  reality  the  outcome  of  the 
geographical  conditions  which  are  grouped  here  under  the  two 
major  heads  of  world  relation  and  regional  features,  j 

World  relation  is  an  attribute  of  geographical  location. 
Situated  as  a  junction  area,  a  bridge  as  it  were,  between  two 
continents,  Asia  Minor  stands  out  as  an  excellent  type  of  an 
intermediate  region  which  has  participated  in  the  life  of  both. 
This  two-fold  influence  has  been  particularly  marked  whenever 
general  progress  in  either  continent  culminated  in  an  overflow 
beyond  continental  boundaries.  The  feats  of  Greeks  and 
Persians,  and  of  Byzantines  and  Turks,  may  be  considered  as 
successive  cycles  in  which  the  spirit  of  Europe  or  of  Asia  pre- 
dominated in  turn.  At  the  end  of  each  cycle  life  on  the  peninsula 
would  revert  to  conditions  determined  largely  by  regional 
influences.  The  past  sixty  years  have  witnessed  the  beginning  of 
a  process  of  slow  liberation  from  the  effects  of  the  last  cycle  of 
Asiatic  invasion.  The  spirit  of  the  west  is  ushered  in  once  more 
for  the  simple  reason  that  it  has  become  necessary  to  maintain 
a  clear  road  over  which  the  products  of  overworked  European 
factories  will  be  transported  to  populous  markets  in  southern 
Asia.  The  primary  cause  of  European  influence  must  therefore 
be  traced  back  to  Asia  Minor's  location,  by  virtue  of  which  the 
peninsula  has  always  been  the  site  of  an  important  world  route. 
Aryans  of  the  present  century  are  merely  preparing  themselves 
to  travel  by  rail  the  highway  over  which  their  far-removed 
ancestors  tramped  on  foot. 

Besides  offering  the  shortest  overland  route  between  the 
Baltic  Sea  and  the  Indian  Ocean,  Asia  Minor's  favored  location 
affords  the  same  convenience  with  regard  to  land  communication 
between  Europe  and  AJtrica.  Any  line  diverging  southwards  at 
a  suitable  point  on  the  main  trunk  which  traverses  the  peninsula 
diagonally  may  be  prolonged  through  Syria  to  the  Turco- 
Egyptian  frontier  and  extended  in  Africa  so  as  to  connect  with 
the  Cape-to-Cairo  railroad.  While  no  definite  steps  have  yet 
been  taken  to  secure  this  desirable  connection,  the  project  has 


been  under  consideration  for  over  a  decade  and  it  may  be  sur- 
mised that  its  execution  will  not  be  deferred  much  longer. 

But  world  relation  is  also  determined  by  a  region's  natural 
resources.  Notwithstanding  its  undeveloped  state,  Asia  Minor  is 
known  to  have  been  abundantly  endowed  with  all  the  primary 
products  required  by  modern  man's  complex  life.  The  valleys 
connecting  its  coast  line  with  the  inland  ranges  are  exceedingly 
fertile.  This  is  particularly  true  of  its  western  and  northern 
area.  The  high  plateau  of  the  interior  needs  only  to  be  irrigated 
in  order  to  become  a  vast  granary.  Its  mineral  wealth  is  so 
abundant  and  varied  that  it  may  be  asserted  that  no  other  area 
of  the  same  dimensions  can  be  compared  to  it.  Its  flora  is 
extremely  diversified.  Its  forest  belts  are  still  considerable, 
despite  a  lack  of  legislation  for  insuring  their  conservation  and 
rational  exploitation.  The  slopes  facing  its  three  seas  from  the 
upper  coniferous  belts  to  the  lower  olive  tree  zone,  support  a 
great  variety  of  economic  species.  iWe  have  here  all  the  elements 
which  satisfy  man's  natural  desire  for  space  after  he  has  reached 
a  given  stage  of  development.  This  desire  is  imposed  by 
economic  requirements  which  impel  activity  in  fields  that  must 
be  kept  expanding.  The  zones  must  be  hence  regarded  as  spheres 
of  economical  rather  than  political  influence.  They  indicate 
natural  foresight  on  the  part  of  powerful  political  agglomerations 
preparing  the  way  for  future  industrial  and  commercial  advan- 
tages. At  bottom  it  is  an  expression  of  man's  growing  ability 
to  shape  his  destinies  according  to  his  requirements  and  free 
himself  from  the  limitations  imposed  by  frontiers.  The  economic 
phase  of  Asia  Minor's  geography  thus  contributes  its  full  share 
in  the  determination  of  these  spheres  of  foreign  interests. 

Asia  Minor  may  be  considered  as  the  eastern  emergence  of 
the  continental  shelf  supporting  the  European  peninsula.  Its 
salient  physical  features  are  a  central  plateau  surrounded  by  a 
rim-like  succession  of  ranges  which  are  friuged  in  turn  by  a 
coastal  strip  of  land.  A  gradual  ascent  from  west  to  east  can  be 
observed.  The  western  ranges  have  a  mean  altitude  of  about 
2,000  feet  above  sea  level.    The  plateau  has  an  average  height  of 


3,000  feet.  The  Armenian  upland  generally  exceeds  4,000  feet. 
Access  from  the  sea  to  the  interior  is  impeded  by  the  moun- 
tainous barrier  reared  as  a  natural  bulwark.  The  gaps  made  by 
watercourses  alone  permit  communication.  As  most  of  the  rivers 
are  not  navigable,  an  important  method  of  exploration  is  thus 
closed  to  adventurous  roamers,  whether  native  or  foreign.  This 
lack  of  fluvial  communication  has  greatly  hindered  intercourse. 
Eivers  have  constituted  the  ancient  ethnic  boundaries  between 
the  inhabitants  of  the  peninsula.®  Communication  between  dis- 
tricts has  been  carried  on  mainly  from  harbor  to  harbor. 
Although  tlie  peninsula  is  in  direct  contact  with  three  seas  its 
mountainous  rim  prevents  benign  maritime  influences  from 
extending  to  its  interior.  Its  climate  may  therefore  be  classed 
as  extreme  Mediterranean  in  type.  All  these  combined  factors 
annul  to  a  large  extent  the  effects  of  peninsular  conditions. 

The  region  is  not  as  salubrious  as  its  elevation  might  imply. 
It  is  an  area  which  has  been  occupied  by  communities  of  men 
actively  engaged  in  human  pursuits  at  various  periods  of  history, 
and  which  has  been  subsequently  abandoned  to  itself  or  rather 
to  the  working  of  causes  in  which  man  had  no  part.  Gradual 
desiccation  of  the  plateau  is  evinced  by  the  presence  of  desert 
wastes  coated  with  alkaline  precipitates,  by  receding  lakes  and 
all  the  manifestations  accompanying  the  decline  of  a  hydro- 
graphic  system.  The  salt  lake  occupying  the  central  part  of  the 
plateau  is  in  reality  nothing  but  a  vast  marsh.  Hydrographic 
changes  are  not  confined  merely  to  the  interior  of  Asia  Minor 
but  exert  their  action  on  the  coast  itself.  The  bays  of  Tarsus 
and  Ephesus  are  now  much  shallower  than  they  were  two  thou- 
sand years  ago.'^  The  general  result  is  to  impair  settlement. 
Beoccupation  of  the  soil  must  often  be  preceded  by  sanitation 
and  it  is  only  within  recent  times  that  this  important  tool  has 
been  perfected  by  man  so  as  to  enable  him  to  wield  it  effectively 
in  the  conquest  of  fresh  sites  of  occupancy. 

Viewed  therefore  from  its  broadest  aspect  the  problem  of 

"Vivien  de  St.  Martin:  Asie  Mineure,  Vol.  11,  p.  386. 
'Eeclus:  Asie  Ant^rieure,  pp.  509  and  522. 


European  control  of  Asia  Minor  resolves  itself  into  one  of 
renewed  settlement.  It  is  therefore  pertinent  to  inquire  how  this 
condition  coupled  with  regional  influences  has  affected  each  of 
the  six  spheres. 

Englishmen  were  the  first  to  engage  in  Turkish  railway  build- 
ing. The  Aidin  railway,  which  links  the  thriving  port  of 
Smyrna  to  the  Anatolian  plateau  at  Dineir,  represents  an  invest- 
ment of  about  $50,000,000,  or  about  a  third  of  all  the  money 
invested  in  Turkey  by  the  British  public.  This  road  taps  the 
fertile  Meander  valley  and  has  proved  a  remunerative  under- 
taking to  its  owners,  although  it  has  not  been  subsidized  by  the 
Turkish  government.  The  line  is  credited  with  the  best  manage- 
ment in  Turkey.  Its  well-ballasted  track  and  the  splendid 
condition  of  its  rolling  stock  impress  the  traveler  most  favorably. 
English  capital  is  also  represented  in  other  lines  built  in  Turkey, 
though  only  as  minority  holdings. 

This  British  zone  of  influence  is  at  present  the  best  developed 
region  in  Asia  Minor.  Its  northern  boundary  is  determined  by 
the  divide  separating  the  watersheds  of  the  Gediz  and  the 
Meander  rivers.  The  Aidin  railway  follows  the  course  of  the 
last-named  river  to  its  very  sources  at  about  1,000  feet  below 
the  general  western  level  of  the  plateau.^  The  eastern  boundary 
of  the  sphere  is  defined  by  the  end  of  the  natural  road  at  one  of 
the  abrupt  slopes  leading  to  the  plateau  in  the  vicinity  of  lakes 
Burdur  and  Ajituz.  Its  southern  frontier  reaches  the  districts 
which  supply  the  railroad  with  traffic  drawn  from  the  border  line 
of  the  Carian  ranges  and  the  foot  of  the  northern  slopes  of  the 
Lycian  Taurus. 

The  sound  establishment  of  Great  Britain's  commercial 
influence  in  this  locality  dates  from  the  year  1856,  when  con- 
struction on  the  Aidin  railway  was  inaugurated.  Its  real 
beginning  can  be  traced  back  to  the  dawn  of  the  nineteenth 
century,  when  English  naval  supremacy  replaced  France's 
hitherto  paramount  maritime  influence  in  the  Levant.  In  recent 
years  an  interesting  expansion  of  British  trade  ascendancy  in 

•Hogarth:  The  Nearer  East,  New  York,  1902,  p.  33. 


this  zone  cau  be  detected  since  the  products  of  the  area  tapped 
by  the  Aidin  railway,  whether  they  consist  of  cereals,  fruit, 
ores  or  local  manufactured  goods  such  as  rugs,  are  mainly 
exported  nowadays  to  Great  Britain,  the  United  States  and 

Throughout  history  the  valley  of  the  Meander  has  constituted 
a  region  in  which  natural  features  of  the  surface  have  been 
eminently  favorable  to  man's  development.  In  addition  to  the 
wealth  of  its  natural  resources  it  is  provided  with  a  deeply 
indented  coast  line,  in  which  commodious  natural  harbors  occur. 
Here  is  found  the  maximum  density  of  population  for  the  entire 
peninsula — 70  inhabitants  to  the  square  mile.^  AVithin  this 
restricted  area  Greek  influence  first  took  root  about  2,G00  years 
ago  before  spreading  throughout  Asia  Minor.  The  origin  of  this 
movement  must  be  ascribed  to  the  local  advantages  Avhich 
invited  human  activity  by  the  display  of  favorable  regional 
features.  It  is  safe  to  surmise  that  the  same  geographical 
agencies  have  been  again  responsible  for  the  striking  parallel 
afforded  by  the  first  establishment  within  contemporary  times  of 
a  sphere  of  western  influence  in  the  region. 

Italy's  connection  with  Turkish  railroads  has  consisted  in 
providing  labor  and  in  laying  claim  to  franchises  in  southern 
Asia  Minor.  These  claims  are  of  recent  date,  and  have  been  put 
forth  since  the  occupation  of  the  islands  of  the  Dodecanesia  by 
Italian  troops.  Specifically  the  claim  is  made  for  the  right  to 
build  a  railroad  from  Adalia  northwards  to  Burdur.  The  region 
to  be  tapped  by  this  line  is  a  strip  of  broken  lowland  intervening 
between  the  Lycian  and  Cilician  Taurus.  The  valleys  of  the 
Aksu  and  Keuprusu,  bordering  the  east  and  west  slopes  of  the 
Ovajik  massif,  join  in  forming  a  deltaic  area  in  which  sub- 
tropical cultures,  rice,  cotton  and  tobacco  thrive.  Plains  and 
Avide  valleys,  which  are  probably  ancient  lakebeds,  occur  between 
the  smaller  ranges  of  the  zone.  They  contain  arable  lands  which 
might  bo  turned  to  account  were  the  region  more  thickly  settled. 
A  number  of  smaller  rivers  discharge  their  contents  into  the  gulf 

•Hogarth:  op.  cit.,  p.  155. 


of  Adalia.  The  gulf  itself  is  shallow,  devoid  of  harbors,  and  open  to 
southerly  winds.  Lack  of  natural  harbors  and  remoteness  from 
the  main  highways  of  the  peninsula  have  contributed  to  the 
sphere's  isolation.  It  is  still  imperfectly  known  through  a  few 
route  surveys  and  occasional  descriptions. 

The  most  important  road  in  Turkey  is  the  partially  completed 
trunk  line  running  diagonally  across  Asia  Minor  and  beyond  into 
Mesopotamia.  The  line  is  German-owned,  although  French  and 
English  capital  is  represented.  The  concession  for  the  first 
stretch,  extending  from  Constantinople  to  Konia,  had  been 
granted  to  German  and  Austrian  railroad  builders  in  1888.  The 
celebrated  Bagdad  railroad  is  the  prolongation  of  this  line.  Its 
construction  was  turned  over  to  German  promoters  by  a  firman 
(decree)  dated  January  21,  1902.  The  financial  burden  of  the 
enterprise  was  estimated  at  about  $200,000,000. 

The  Bagdad  railroad  is  the  final  link  of  the  shortest  overland 
route  between  Europe  and  Asia.  In  the  minds  of  Germans  it  is 
destined  to  compete  with  the  sea-way  controlled  by  England;  The 
road  was  conceived  in  ord«r  to  connect  Teutonic  centers  of 
industry  and  Asiatic  markets.  The  speediest  sea  route  between 
Europe  and  Asia  passes  through  straits  guarded  by  British 
sentinels.  As  long  as  Gibraltar,  Suez  and  Aden  form  part  of 
Great  Britain's  colonial  domain,  they  can  be  closed  at  will  to 
competitors  of  British  manufacturers. 

The  great  trade  routes  which  link  Europe  to  Asia  have 
always  crossed  Turkish  territory.  One  of  the  most  widely 
traveled  of  these  highways  formerly  connected  the  classic  shores 
of  Ionia  to  the  fever-laden  coast  of  the  Persian  Gulf.  It  was 
the  road  to  India.  The  spices,  gems  and  silk  of  the  East  reached 
European  buyers  by  way  of  this  trunk  land  route.  For  countless 
centuries  caravans  have  plied  back  and  forth  over  the  barren 
plateau  of  Asia  Minor  and  the  sweeping  plains  of  the  Mesopo- 
tamian  depression.  This  traffic  is  still  maintained  although  it  is 
now  much  on  the  wane.  Long  files  of  camels  proceeding  leisurely 
at  a  swinging  gait  are  mot  occasionally  by  the  traveler  in 
Anatolia.    A  patient  ass  leads  the  way  as  of  old.    The  turbaned 


driver  plods  along  unmindful  of  the  historical  associations 
accumulated  over  his  path.  He  knows  however  that  the  steam 
engine,  devised  by  western  ingenuity,  is  about  to  deprive  him  of 
the  scanty  pittance  w^hich  his  journeys  yield. 

Germany  is  essentially  a  land  power.  It  was  natural  that  the 
country  should  seek  to  establish  land  routes  over  which  its  con- 
trol would  prove  as  effective  as  England's  oversea  highways. 
With  this  aim  in  view,  the  German  government  lent  unreserved 
support  to  German  captains  of  industry  striving  to  obtain  sole 
mastery  of  the  great  Turkish  trunk  line.  Asia,  teeming  with 
thickly  populated  districts,  lay  at  hand.  Britain's  unrivaled  sea 
power  afforded  its  people  adequate  transportation  to  these 
centers  of  consumption.  The  Germans  realized  that  a  land 
power  could  not  compete  successfully  mth  rulers  of  the  waves. 
They  resolved  to  acquire  commercial  supremacy  in  Asia  by  the 
creation  of  a  land  route.  The  Bagdad  railroad  is  the  outcome 
of  this  realization. 

The  road  starts  at  Konia  at  the  southeastern  terminal  of  the 
Anatolian  railroad,  also  a  German  line,  whose  tracks  reach  the 
Asiatic  suburbs  of  Constantinople.  Konia  lies  in  the  very  heart 
of  the  Anatolian  plateau,  a  stern  and  melancholy  land,  destitute 
of  trees  and  sparsely  peopled.  Here  at  an  average  elevation  of 
2,500  feet  above  sea-level,  the  tracks  are  laid  over  the  ancient 
highway  which  leads  to  Syria.  In  spite  of  its  mournful  scenery, 
the  region  is  a  veritable  paradise  to  the  archeologist.  It  is 
studded  with  prehistoric  ruins  and  contains  secrets  of  Hittite 
history  which  await  the  scholar's  investigation.  Here  and  there 
along  the  line  the  dilapidated  remnant  of  a  Seljuk  building 
reminds  the  traveler  of  the  peculiar  charm  of  Mohammedan  art. 

Beyond  the  plateau  the  road  plunges  into  a  tangled  moun- 
tainous district  kno^\Ti  as  the  Taurus.  The  famous  Cilician  Gates 
are  the  only  practicable  gap  provided  by  nature  among  bold  and 
abrupt  peaks  in  this  region.  The  armies  of  Pagan,  Christian  and 
Mohammedan  monarchs  have  marched  through  this  gorge  in  the 
long  struggle  between  the  East  and  the  West  which  enlivens 
the  history   of  the   ancient  East.     Cyrus   with  his   retinue   of 


Persian  lords  and  his  bands  of  Greek  soldiers  found  it  a  con- 
venient opening.  Alexander  the  Great  stepped  between  its 
narrow  walls  on  his  way  to  conquer  the  world.  Detachments  of 
Crusaders  under  Tancred  and  Baldwin  bore  the  banners  of  the 
cross  through  the  rugged  pass.  Later  Mongolian  hordes  sang  of 
loot  as  they  swarmed  through  the  mountain  cut. 

Unfortunately  the  ride  through  this  mountain  section  of  the 
Bagdad  line  will  not  be  made  uninterruptedly  in  broad  daylight. 
The  engineering  problems  involved  are  of  considerable  magni- 
tude. The  mountain  can  be  conquered  only  by  means  of  tunnels 
and  the  cost  of  this  method  of  advance  is  naturally  enormous. 
It  has  been  estimated  at  a  minimum  of  $140,000  per  mile.  In 
addition  to  tunnels  considerable  stretches  of  very  heavy  earth- 
work are  required.  If  the  undertaking  delights  the  engineer's 
heart,  it  is  on  the  other  hand  apt  to  dismay  the  capitalist. 

The  drive  through  the  Taurus  does  not  end  the  difficulties  of 
construction.  This  mountain  is  succeeded  immediately  by  the 
equally  lofty  and  precipitous  Am  anus  range.  Another  arduous 
tunneling  section  is  encountered.  Of  the  two  the  last  is  the  most 
difficult  and  costly.  An  idea  of  the  heavy  expense  incurred  in 
this  construction  work  is  conveyed  by  the  cost  of  the  wagon 
road  built  to  reach  the  mouth  of  the  first  tunnel.  It  has  been 
estimated  that  over  one  million  dollars  have  been  spent  in  this 
preliminary  work. 

The  descent  towards  the  Cilician  plain  is  steep.  To  the  west 
Tarsus,  the  birthplace  of  the  Apostle  Paul,  looms  a  blot  of  white 
over  the  grayish  green  of  the  surrounding  land.  The  change 
from  the  dreary  scenery  of  the  plateau  is  a  dehght  to  the  eye. 
The  valleys  leading  to  the  Mediterranean  coast  are  wooded. 
Vegetation  soon  assumes  a  southern  aspect  of  luxuriance.  The 
sensation  of  finding  oneself  in  an  altogether  different  country  is 
especially  felt  on  hearing  the  sonorous  accents  of  Arabic  now 
spoken  in  place  of  Turkish. 

From  the  site  of  the  Amanus  tunnels  to  Aleppo  the  line  was 
completely  built  in  1915.  Thence  it  strikes  eastward  only  to  turn 
south  after  reaching  the  Euphrates  river.     From  here  on  to 


Bagdad  trains  will  run  through  the  great  alluvial  flood  plains  of 
Mesopotamia.  This  is  a  rainless  district.  The  present  large 
cities,  Mosul,  Bagdad  and  Basra,  have  no  important  share  in 
world  affairs  in  comparison  with  the  political  and  cultural  influ- 
ences which  radiated  far  outward  from  the  precincts  of  ancient 
Nineveh  and  Babylon. 

Between  Konia  and  Bagdad  the  railroad  is  1,029  miles  long. 
For  convenience  of  operation  it  is  divided  into  sections  of 
approximately  130  miles  in  length  or  more  correctly  of  200 
kilometers.  Construction  on  the  first  section  was  begun  shortly 
after  the  award  of  the  concession.  This  portion  of  the  road  was 
opened  to  traffic  in  1904.  Building  was  abandoned  until  1910 
owing  to  lack  of  funds.  In  May  of  that  year  operations  were 
resumed  at  different  points  of  the  line.  By  the  middle  of  1913 
about  400  miles  had  been  completed. 

Since  the  begiimiing  of  the  European  war,  construction  has 
been  pushed  with  increasing  speed.  In  northern  Mesopotamia 
the  construction  of  a  bridge  over  the  Euphrates  at  Jerabluz 
allows  the  laying  of  tracks  with  a  fair  degree  of  rapidity  in  the 
northern  stretches  of  the  Syrian  desert.  Work  was  also  under- 
taken at  Bagdad  in  a  northerly  direction.  In  the  last  days  of 
1914  trains  were  running  regularly  in  the  valley  of  the  Tigris 
between  this  city  and  Samarra.  Since  then,  according  to  reports, 
the  tracks  have  advanced  farther  north. 

Work  on  the  sections  in  northern  Mesopotamia  does  not  pre- 
sent great  difficulties.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that  construc- 
tion here  proceeded  with  feverish  haste  during  the  European 
war.  The  main  obstacles  to  rapid  track-laying  are  found  in  the 
mountainous  district  which  intervenes  between  the  Anatolian 
plateau  and  the  plains  of  Syria  and  Mesopotamia.  According  to 
reports  the  tunnels  in  the  Amanus  mountains  w^ere  driven  from 
end  to  end  by  the  summer  of  1915.  It  will  probably  take  longer 
to  complete  construction  through  the  mountainous  wall  which 
connects  the  Chakra  valley  to  the  Tarsus  river  in  the  Cilician 
Taurus.  This  section  of  the  road  is  only  22  miles  long.  It 
crosses  however  an  extremely  rugged  district  arid  requires  four 


separate  tunnels  which  together  measure  some  10^  miles.  In 
May,  1914,  three  tunnels  had  been  started  and  the  ground  cleared 
at  the  approach  of  the  fourth. 

A  number  of  branch  lines  are  included  in  the  concession  of 
the  Bagdad  railroad.  The  products  of  some  of  Turkey's  most 
promising  districts  will  pass  over  their  tracks  toward  the  trunk 
line,  thence  to  be  finally  transported  overland  through  the  Balkan 
peninsula  and  Austria  to  German  manufacturing  centers.  A  side 
line  projected  to  extend  northeast  of  Aleppo  will  tap  eventually 
an  exceedingly  rich  mineral  belt  situated  at  the  northern  con- 
vergence of  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates.  In  this  district  the 
celebrated  copper  mines  of  Argana  are  found.  They  are  worked 
in  desultory  fashion  by  the  Turkish  government.  In  spite  of 
crude  methods  of  extraction  and  long  camel-back  hauls  the  ore 
is  of  sufficiently  high  grade  character  to  yield  ample  returns. 
Silver,  lead,  coal  and  iron  also  exist  in  the  same  zone  of 

An  important  branch  connecting  the  trunk  line  with  the 
Mediterranean  at  Alexandretta  has  been  in  operation  since  1913. 
The  line  is  only  about  fifty  miles  in  length  and  traverses  the 
heart  of  a  rich  orange-growing  district.  The  northern  track  of 
this  branch  crosses  the  plain  of  Issus  where  Alexander  battled 
against  Darius.  At  about  six  miles  from  its  southern  terminal 
the  line  hugs  Mediterranean  waters  and  crosses  the  spot  where, 
according  to  statements  of  the  natives,  the  whale  relieved  itself 
of  the  indigestible  burden  of  the  prophet  Jonah. 

In  central  Mesopotamia,  branch  lines  extending  in  easterly 
directions  will  tap  rich  oil-fields  and  may  eventually  provide 
connection  with  future  trans-Persian  railroads.  The  history  of 
this  Mesopotamian  region  abounds  in  stirring  chapters.  The 
most  favored  section  is  found  in  the  narrow  neck  of  land  extend- 
ing for  a  short  distance  at  the  convergence  of  the  courses  of  the 
Tigris  and  Euphrates.  This  site  was  marked  by  nature  for  the 
heart  of  great  empires.  After  the  fall  of  Babylon,  the  neigh- 
boring cities  of  Seleucia  and  Ctesiphon  became  in  turn  the 
capitals    of    Greek    emperors    and    of    Parthian    and    Sassanid 


sovereigns.  Here  Bagdad,  rich  in  human  history,  grew  to  world 
fame.  The  farms  and  pahn  groves  surrounding  the  city  spread 
on  the  east  and  west  until  tliey  almost  reached  the  banks  of  the 
rivers  which  carried  life  and  fertility  in  their  waters.  At  the 
time  of  Arab  prosperity  Bagdad  was  one  of  the  most  magnificent 
cities  of  tlie  Mohannnedan  world.  As  a  center  of  Mussulman 
art  the  city  had  no  peer.  The  Turkish  conquest,  which  swept 
light  a  blight  over  the  land,  put  an  end  to  the  city's  pros- 

In  modern  times,  Persians  and  Turks  have  vied  with  each 
other  to  retain  possession  of  the  land.  Bagdad  then  became  the 
center  of  the  struggles  waged  between  Caliphs  and  Imams.  The 
conflict  which  splits  Ishim  into  the  two  rival  camps  of  Sunnis  and 
Shiites  revolved  around  the  city.  The  mausoleums  and  mosques 
Avhii'h  auimally  attract  thousands  of  pilgrims  are  the  sanctuaries 
in  which  upholders  of  the  divergent  beliefs  elbow  each  other 
oftener  than  in  any  other  Mohammedan  city. 

Should  the  Bagdad  railroad  be  destined  to  remain  German 
property  the  line  is  bound  to  become  the  backbone  of  German 
supremacy  in  western  Asia.  Germania,  helmeted  and  carrying 
sword  and  shield,  will  ride  over  its  rails  to  conquer  Palestine  and 
to  wrest  the  wealth  of  tlie  Nile  and  Ganges  from  British  grip. 
But  the  foreign  interests  of  every  European  nation  are  affected 
by  the  construction  of  this  celebrated  railway.  It  is  the  most 
direct  route  to  Asia  for  all  of  Europe.  The  question  of  its 
internationalization  is  therefore  one  of  the  problems  of  European 

The  extensive  zone  traversed  by  this  railway  comprises  the 
fertile  and  well  settled  valleys  of  the  Sakaria  and  the  Pursak, 
practically  the  whole  of  the  interior  plateau  to  the  foot  of  its 
surrounding  mountains  and  the  eastern  section  of  the  Mesopo- 
tamian  valley.  Within  this  belt  the  most  populous  inhmd  towns 
of  the  peninsula  succeed  each  other  at  regular  intervals.  This 
circumstance  indicates  their  former  importance  as  stages  on  the 
long  journey  between  the  Bosporus  and  the  Persian  Gulf. 
Casual  inspection  of  Ihoir  crowded  bazars  would  dispel  doubt  on 

-r1     bu 

>.  3 

=  a 


this  score.  Attention  must  be  called  here  to  the  geographical 
significance  of  these  bazars  in  the  Orient.  Every  urban  center 
is  provided  with  one.  It  is  usually  a  roofed  inclosure  within 
which  the  city's  business  is  carried  on.  Caravans  proceeding 
from  remote  sections  of  the  continent  have  their  rendezvous 
outside  their  gates.  The  size  of  these  bazars  and  the  activity 
displayed  in  each  is  the  measure  of  an  eastern  city's  intercourse 
with  the  rest  of  the  world.  In  the  geographer's  mind  their 
significance  is  the  same  as  that  of  railroad  stations. 

By  acquiring  this  trunk  line  the  Germans  succeeded  in  taking 
a  first  mortgage  on  Turkey.  It  was  the  first  signal  success  of 
the  policy  of  directing  Teutonic  ambitions  into  eastern  channels 
which  Bismarck  had  adopted  immediately  after  the  consolidation 
of  the  German  Empire.  He  had  a  vision  of  an  all-German  line 
of  traffic  starting  at  Hamburg  and  crossing  the  Bosporus 
towards  the  Far  East.  In  one  direction  German  calculations  mis- 
carried. Germany  was  unable  to  finance  the  undertaking  without 
the  support  of  British  and  French  capitalists.  The  international 
character  of  the  line  became  more  and  more  pronounced  between 
the  years  1908  and  1911.  During  this  period  a  number  of  agree- 
ments were  signed  between  Great  Britain,  France,  Germany  and 
Turkey  in  which  a  notable  percentage  of  German  interests  passed 
over  to  the  two  rival  countries,  the  Germans  emerging  out  of 
the  transaction  with  a  bare  control. 

The  project  of  an  all-German  route  received  another  setback 
when  England  was  awarded  the  final  section  of  the  Bagdad  line. 
This  successful  stroke  of  British  diplomacy  consolidated  British 
influence  in  the  Persian  Gulf.  Koweit  and  the  environing  dis- 
tricts ruled  by  petty  Arabian  chiefs  became  British  protectorates 
and  the  long-planned  German  through  line  merely  butted  against 
a  solid  wall  raised  by  British  ability. 

The  French  have  invested  twice  as  much  capital  as  the 
English  in  Turkish  railroads.  The  lines  they  manage  and  own 
directly  are  the  Syrian  railroads  and  the  Smyrna-Kassaba  line. 
They  are  also  interested  in  the  construction  of  roads  in  the  north- 
eastern districts   of  the   country  where   concessions   have   been 


awarded  to  Bussians.  Muscovite  inability  to  provide  capital  is 
responsible  for  the  transfer  of  the  building  and  operating  grants 
to  Frenclimen. 

The  sphere  of  French  inlluence  comprising  the  Gediz  valley 
and  its  adjacent  territory  to  the  Sea  of  Marmora  lies  entirely  out 
of  the  beaten  track  of  intercontinental  travel.  Its  economic 
prosperity  is  therefore  governed  by  purely  regional  influences. 
The  valley  of  tlie  Gediz  river  itself  compares  in  fertility  with 
that  of  its  southern  consort,  the  Meander.  Tracts  of  arable  land 
in  its  northern  area  and  the  occurrence  of  extensive  mineral 
deposits,  a  few  of  which  are  among  the  most  heavily  exploited 
in  Asia  Minor,  combined  with  genial  climate  and  the  accident  of 
position  which  places  the  zone  directly  opposite  the  European 
mainland,  all  tend  to  impart  elements  of  economic  significance 
which  have  allured  French  enterprise. 

As  has  been  shown  already,  the  zone  of  paramount  French 
influence  in  Asiatic  Turkey  lies,  south  of  Asia  Minor,  in 
Syria.  "La  France  du  Levant"  is  a  term  which  is  not  uncom- 
monly applied  by  Frenchmen  to  this  Turkish  province.  The 
origin  of  this  intercourse  may  be  traced  to  the  trade  relations 
between  Gaul  and  Syria  in  the  fourth  century  b.c.  During 
antiquity  a  widely  traveled  road,  albeit  of  lesser  importance  than 
the  peninsular  highway  of  Anatolia,  connected  the  Mediterranean 
and  the  Persian  Gulf.  This  route  started  from  Egypt  and  Syrian 
harbors  and  skirted  the  western  and  northern  edges  of  the 
Arabian  desert  before  assuming  a  southerly  strike  which  led  it 
through  the  Mesopotamian  basin.  The  populous  cities  of 
Damascus,  Iloms,  llama  and  Aleppo  lie  on  this  ancient  avenue 
of  trade.  Here,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Anatolian  cities  mentioned, 
their  present  population  is  altogether  out  of  proportion  to  their 
resources  or  activity.  It  can  only  be  regarded  as  a  sign  of  the 
importance  they  once  had  as  stages  in  this  southern  east-west 
route.  The  Syrian  littoral,  described  by  Hogarth  as  the  garden 
of  Arabia,'*"  must  be  regarded  therefore  as  an  intermediate 
region  connecting  Asia  and  the  country  lying  west  of  its  Mediter- 

'  "  Op.  cit.,  p.  194. 


ranean  border.  This  inllucnce  of  location  prevailed  throughout 

The  conquest  of  Syria  by  Frankish  Crusaders  gave  renewed 
impetus  to  'commercial  relations  between  Syria  and  France.  A 
regular  trade  route  between  Marseilles  and  Syrian  ports  was 
established.  The  treaty  of  alliance  between  the  Sultan  of  Turkey 
and  the  King  of  France  the  first  half  of  the  sixteenth  century 
contributed  to  bind  this  province  more  firmly  to  France.  At  the 
end  of  the  seventeenth  century  French  trading-centers  had  been 
established  in  all  the  important  cities  of  Syria.  Napoleon's 
invasion  of  this  province  as  a  result  of  the  Egyptian  campaign 
and  French  intervention  in  the  Lebanon  in  1859  likewise  increased 
French  prestige  in  the  region.  The  confinement  of  this  western 
hold  to  Syria  can  be  ascribed  to  the  influence  exerted  by  the 
boundaries  of  the  province.  It  forms  with  Palestine  an  excellent 
type  of  regional  unit  consisting  of  an  elongated  mountainous 
strip  barely  50  miles  wide.  With  the  Mediterranean  on  the  west, 
and  deserts  on  the  south  and  east,  its  only  outlet  to  Ihe  world 
lay  on  the  north. 

French  builders  first  undertook  to  connect  the  province  of 
Lebanon  with  the  sea  by  constructing  the  Beirut-Damascus  line. 
The  tracks  were  subsequently  extended  to  Aleppo,  a  city  whose 
greatness  was  founded  on  its  situation  along  the  natural  road 
which  connects  the  Mediterranean  with  the  Persian  Gulf.  As  a 
railroad  center  Aleppo's  future  looms  bright,  for  the  city  lies 
also  in  the  path  of  the  tracks  which  will  connect  the  Black  Sea 
with  the  Mediterranean. 

In  southern  Syria,  the  outlook  for  French  enterprise  was 
dimmed  for  a  few  years  by  the  construction  of  a  Turkish  line 
from  Damascus  southwards.  Branch  lines  were  carried  to  the 
sea.  Harbor  concessions,  however,  were  granted  to  French  firms. 
French  interests  thus  retained  a  notable  share  of  the  control  over 
the  traffic  in  and  out  of  Syria.  Furthermore,  a  concession  for  a 
line  from  Kayak  to  connect  with  the  Jaffa-Jerusalem  road  which 
they  obtained  in  1914  will  enable  them  to  compete  with  the 
Hejaz  line. 


The  last  railroad  agreement  between  the  French  and  Turkish 
governments  was  signed  on  April  9,  1914,  Concessions  on  the 
part  of  the  Turkish  government  are  bestowed  in  return  for 
French  financial  support.  The  lines  granted  will  tap  northern 
Anatolia  and  Armenia.  Connection  with  the  German  lines  will 
be  made  at  Boli  and  at  Argana.  The  area  tributary  to  this  line 
contains  fertile  plains  and  plateaus.  It  is  known  to  be  rich  in 
mines,  notably  in  copper.  The  advent  of  the  railroad  will 
undoubtedly  brighten  the  outlook  of  the  Turkish  mining  industry. 

In  southern  Arabia  a  railroad  concession  was  awarded  to 
French  promoters  in  1908.  The  line  was  to  connect  the  seaport 
of  Hodeida  with  Sana 'a.  It  was  intended  to  divert  into  Turkish 
territory  the  large  trade  with  the  interior  which  now  passes 
through  Aden.  Strategic  reasons  also  weighed  heavily  in  the 
decision  to  build  this  road.  At  no  time  have  the  Arabs  of  the 
Yemen  shown  s^nnpathy  for  their  Turkish  rulers.  Every  com- 
mander sent  to  quell  their  incessant  rebellions  ascribed  his 
failure  to  lack  of  transportation  facilities.  It  was  mainly  in 
view  of  this  condition  that  steps  were  taken  to  connect  this 
section  of  the  Arabian  table-land  with  the  sea. 

The  Franco-Russian  sphere  is  the  outcome  of  privileges 
originally  conceded  to  Russia  by  Turkey.  The  terms  of  the 
agreement  under  discussion  call  for  the  construction  of  railroad 
lines  as  follows:  The  trunk  line  is  to  start  at  Samsoun  and  to 
end  at  Sivas."  A  westerly  branch  line  will  diverge  from  Tokat 
towards  Yozgat  mthout  reaching  this  city,  however,  or  extending 
beyond  the  divide  between  the  Yechil  and  Kizil  rivers.  A  second 
branch  will  start  at  Tokat  and  reach  Erzindjian,  whence  it  will 
be  turned  northwards  to  Trebizond.  Beyond  Sivas  the  line  will 
be  extended  to  Kharpout  and  the  vicinity  of  the  important 
Argana  copper  mine.  Connection  with  the  Bagdad  railway  will 
be  made  beyond  this  point.  Finally  an  important  branch 
will  leave  the  trunlv  line  at  Kazva  to  extend  to  Kastamuni  and 

The  zone  defined  by  these  projected  lines  covers  the  greater 

"  Asie  Francaise,  Oct  1913,  p.  402. 

The  A 

Frontiers  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  1917,  PI.  VI 




Scale  1 :  IS  000  000 

■  ^*^^^^{aroa  north  of  this  symbol)  French  flllllll||||[| 

S  [..  .S'  claims  extend  over  the  whole  region  Greek  i^V/V^;::::-;;:.:.. 

and  Italian  claims  are  political.  German,  British,and  Frtmch 
^(^  economic.   Greek  claims  are  both  racial  and  economic. 

■<■■■  ■  ■   in  operation,'^*»^under  constrtwtion,»*»»»proJectod.  Fc 
'ship  of  the  lines  see  map  in  Bull,  Amen  Geogr.  Soc,  Dec.  1915. 


The  American  Geographical  Society  of  New  York 

Frontiers  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  1917.  PI 



part  of  northern  Asia  Minor.  It  forms  a  region  in  which  relief 
and  the  rigor  of  the  climate  have  retarded  the  development  of 
the  population.''  These  geographical  disadvantages  are  com- 
pensated by  ample  natural  resources.  The  eastern  section  is 
known  to  contain  a  rich  copper  belt  which  bids  fair  to  b(!Come 
the  site  of  a  thriving  industry.  The  deltaic  strijjs  and  river 
valleys  will  permit  extensive  tobacco  culture  and  fruit  raising. 
The  passing  of  this  zone  under  the  sphere  of  western  inlluence 
is  a  mere  result  of  Russia's  constant  endeavor  to  obtain  a  coast 
line  wliich  will  not  be  closed  to  navigation  during  the  winter. 

The  only  line  owned  by  the  Turks  in  their  country  is  the 
narrow-gauge  railway  known  as  the  Ilejaz  line  which  starts  from 
Damascus  and  is  intended  to  reach  the  holy  town  of  Mecca.  The 
financing  of  this  line  has  been  unparalleled  in  the  annals  of  rail- 
road building.  Ostensibly  the  purpose  of  the  construction  was 
to  provide  traveling  conveniences  to  250,000  pilgrims  who,  it  is 
estimated,  came  annually  from  all  parts  of  the  Mohammedan 
world  to  worship  at  the  Kaaba.  In  the  belief  of  many,  the  lino 
was  built  for  strategical  reasons  and  to  enforce  Turkish  sov- 
ereignty among  the  Arabs,  who  have  always  been  loath  to  admit 
the  Sultan's  claims  to  the  Calii)hate. 

The  funds  for  the  construction  and  equipment  of  the  road 
were  obtained  by  appealing  to  the  religious  feelings  of  the 
230,000,000  Mohammedans  scattered  in  widely  separated  regions 
of  the  globe.  Stress  was  laid  on  the  pious  character  of  the 
undertaking.  According  to  reports,  $14,000,000  were  collected 
soon  after  the  enterprise  was  launched.  Thereafter  about 
$12,000,000  were  contributed  annually  for  several  years.  The 
operation  involved  no  responsibility  to  the  promoters,  headed 
by  Abdul  Hamid,  the  former  Sultan  of  Turkey,  all  the  funds 
being  bestowed  in  the  form  of  donations.  The  road  has  thus  no 
shareholders  and  no  bonded  indebtedness,  its  capital  being  spon- 
taneously wiped  off. 

The  religious  character  of  the  undertaking  is  apparent  in  the 
mosque-wagon  attached  to  each  train.     Seen  from  the  outside, 

»» Hogarth:  op.  cit.,  p.  244. 


the  prayer  carriage  is  distinguished  only  by  means  of  a  diminu- 
tive minaret  six  and  a  half  feet  high.  The  interior  is  fitted  out 
according  to  religious  custom  with  rugs  on  the  floor  and  framed 
Koranic  verses  in  letters  of  gold  on  the  walls.  The  direction  of 
Mecca  is  indicated  by  a  map  at  the  end  of  the  car,  so  as  to  enable 
the  faithful  to  orient  themselves  properly  when  engaged  in 

A  hopeful  view  of  the  future  of  Turkey's  economic  position 
may  be  entertained  by  remembering  that  the  land  is  still  unex- 
ploited  and  that  the  resources  of  its  soil  and  subsoil  await  the 
handling  of  western  energy.  It  is  expected  that  as  fine  a  cereal 
crop  as  can  be  obtained  any^vhere  in  the  world  will  be  raised  in 
the  region  between  Eskishehir,  Angora  and  Konia.  Five  million 
dollars  spent  by  Germans  on  irrigation  at  Chumra  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  last-named  city  has  proved  conclusively  that  a 
thriving  agricultural  industry  can  be  established  on  the  interior 
plateau  of  Asia  Minor.  The  Cilician  plain,  where  cotton  and 
cereals  are  cultivated,  contains  vast  tracts  of  swamp  land  which 
can  be  reclaimed.  Here,  too,  irrigation  would  greatly  improve 
cotton  culture.  Many  of  these  rich  soils  are  parts  of  Turkish 
crownlands  which  have  been  estimated  by  some  to  amount  to  one- 
tenth  of  the  entire  area  of  Turkey.  The  lands  owned  by  the 
Evkaf,  or  Ministry  of  Religious  Foundations,  also  cover  vast 
areas.  Estates  held  under  either  of  these  forms  of  tenure  can 
be  rendered  highly  productive  under  western  management.  The 
southernmost  end  of  the  Bagdad  line  taps  rich  oil  fields  which 
are  situated  in  the  area  of  transition  between  the  plateau  of  Iran 
and  the  Mesopotamian  depression.  The  railroad  traverses  the 
western  end  of  this  oil  basin.  Its  eastern  section  in  Persia  has 
been  developed  since  1908  by  British  firms. 

The  international  control  of  Turkish  railroads  reflects  the 
transitional  character  of  the  land  over  which  they  are  built. 
Ownership  in  Turkish  lines  is  of  practically  no  value  to  so  back- 
ward a  people  as  the  Turks  have  proved  themselves  to  be.  It 
is  of  vital  importance  to  the  industrial  communities  of  the  coun- 
tries which  hold  the  extremities  of  the  roads  of  which  the  Turkish 


system  is  but  a  link.  Germany,  Austria  and  France  at  the 
western  extremity  of  the  transcontinental  line,  Great  Britain  in 
India  at  its  eastern  end,  have  interests  which  affect  a  large 
proportion  of  their  population.  In  the  west  the  great  through 
line  starts  in  some  of  the  busiest  industrial  centers  of  the  world. 
In  the  east  it  taps  coveted  markets.  The  attention  of  European 
manufacturers  is  directed  towards  densely  populated  India  or 
China  simply  because  profitable  trade  is  found  where  numbers 

A  comprehensive  glance  at  the  spheres  of  foreign  influence  in 
Turkey  shows  that  the  most  satisfactory  evidence  of  the  control 
of  geography  over  the  development  of  railway  zones  and  spheres 
of  foreign  influence  in  Asia  Minor  is  obtained  by  mere  reference 
to  the  regions  in  which  adverse  geographical  conditions  prevail. 
The  Italian  and  Russian  spheres  are  both  characterized  by 
physical  and  climatic  conditions  which  have  stood  in  the  way  of 
human  development.  The  map  reveals  the  absence  of  railways 
in  both. 

In  the  more  favored  zones  western  influences  are  shown  by 
the  presence  of  modern  surface  features.  Striking  examples  of 
German  enterprise  can  be  observed  along  their  extensive  sphere 
of  action.  Grain  warehouses  at  Polatli  on  the  Angora  line  receive 
the  crops  of  the  environing  country.  In  the  plains  of  Konia 
canals  and  locks  of  varying  dimensions  have  been  built  and  the 
former  swampy  area  is  fast  becoming  a  heavy  producer  of 
wheat.  Farther  south  near  Adana  over  200,000  acres  have  been 
reclaimed  mainly  for  cotton  growing.  In  this  district  important 
harbor  works  have  been  undertaken  at  Alexandretta  which  it  is 
planned  to  make  both  the  outlet  of  all  southern  Asia  Minor  and 
the  terminal  of  the  sea  route  from  Europe  to  the  east. 

Similarly  French  influence  in  Syria  is  observable  in  the 
macadamized  highways  of  the  Lebanon  no  less  than  in  the 
development  of  a  thriving  silk  indiistry.  In  the  British  zone  of 
the  Meander  valley  mines  have  been  opened  up  by  British  capital. 
Along  with  this  economic  progress  education  is  also  advancing. 
Numerous  European  and  American  schools  were  in  existence  in 


Asiatic  Turkey  prior  to  the  European  war.  The  mere  presence 
of  European  employees  of  the  railroads  in  the  Anatolian  towns 
is  enough  to  infuse  new  thoughts  into  the  minds  of  the  inhabi- 
tants. On  the  whole  the  locomotive  is  performing  its  civilizing 
work  and  Asia  Minor  is  gradually  becoming  Europeanized. 

Summing  up  we  j5nd  that  we  have  dealt  mth  a  connecting 
region  which  may  justly  be  considered  as  the  classical  type  in 
geography.  A  land  which  by  its  position  was  everyman's  land, 
and  which,  because  of  its  geography,  was  of  greater  interest  to 
the  outsider  than  to  its  own  inliabitants.  Being  a  part  of  three 
continents  it  became  part  of  the  life  which  flourished  in  each. 
A  nation  formed  on  such  a  site  belongs  more  to  its  neighbors 
than  to  itself.    In  this  respect  its  future  vnll  resemble  its  past. 


The  peoples  and  ideas  emanating  from  within  the  realm  which 
still  bears  the  name  of  Turkey  have  left  an  indelible  mark  on 
the  rest  of  the  world.  Crossed  by  some  of  the  great  highroads 
of  history,  the  land  is  inspiring  in  every  aspect  in  which  it  is 
regarded.  Its  heritage  of  memories  and  the  prestige  of  a  happier 
and  grander  past  are  undisturbed  by  marks  of  decadence.  Most 
of  the  foundations  of  our  progressive  spirit  were  laid  in  that 
eastern  region.  From  a  purely  scientific  standpoint,  its  human 
grouping  and  surface  configuration  present  highly  interesting 

The  region  is  divisible  into  six  major  geographical  sections. 
Each  forms  a  background  against  which  distinct  types  of  the 
human  family  are  displayed.  The  various  groups  differ  from 
one  another  in  religion  and  language,  often  even  in  race.  A 
fringe  of  fresh  and  verdant  coastland  which  surrounds  the 
elevated  shelf  of  Asia  Minor  is  largely  Greek  and  Christian.  The  '  \j^^v,,  9^ 
only  foothold  which  western  thought,  art  or  temper  ever  obtained  '  r^-^  Qawho-'tNc 
in  Asiatic  Turkey  is  found  within  this  wave-washed  strip  of  ' "  yt\>«* 
land.  The  plateau-heart  of  Anatolia  is  predominantly  Turkish 
and  Mohammedan.  The  Christian  element  scattered  on  its 
steppe-like  surface  is  unable  to  assert  itself  and  yields  to 
Oriental  ascendancy.  The  high  and  broad  mountain  masses 
which  border  it  on  the  east  are  the  home  of  the  Armenoids, 
generally  Christians,  sometimes  Mohammedans,  but  almost  always 
characterized  by  broad-headedness  accompanied  by  a  peculiar 
flattening  of  the  back  of  the  skull.  Beyond  this  mountain  barrier 
Asiatic  Turkey  becomes  entirely  Semitic,  being  mainly  Arabian 
in  speech  and  overwhelmingly  Mohammedan  in  creed.  Three 
main  regions   characterize   this    southern  area.     The   long   and 



narrow  corridor  of  Syria  became  the  liigliway  which  iu  antiquity 
bound  the  flourishing  empires  of  the  Nile  basin  to  the  powerful 
kingdoms  of  the  Hittite  highlands  and  the  ILesopotamian  low- 
lands. Its  motley  population,  containing  representatives  of 
every  race,  is  a  relic  of  former  to-and-fro  human  displacements 
along  its  trough-like  extension.  In  the  adjoining  desert  Bedouin 
tribes  find  their  favorite  tramping  ground.  The  twin  valley  of 
Mesopotamia  is  the  home  of  peoples  in  whom  fusion  of  Semitic 
and  Indo-European  elements  is  observable. 

The  history  of  this  land  is  that  of  its  invaders.  Successive 
streams  of  humanity  poured  into  it  from  four  superabundant 
reservoirs.  Its  central  mountain  zone  was  the  motherland  of  a 
virile  race  whose  sons  went  forth  at  intervals  to  breathe  ^-itality 
into  gentler  populations  scattered  between  the  JEgean  coast  and 
the  valleys  of  the  Nile  and  Mesopotamia.  Armenians  and  a 
number  of  Mohammedan  sects  represent  today  this  Alpine  race. 
Mediterranean  men  proceeded  constantly  from  the  south  and 
west  to  new  homes  in  the  pleasant  valleys  that  connected  eastern 
^gean  shores  with  the  interior  table-land.  Mobile  Semitic  hosts 
abandoned  the  plateau  of  inner  Arabia  before  the  time  of  our 
earliest  records  and  drifted  naturally  northwards  towards  the 
fertile  Tigris-Euphrates  basin  or  the  commercial  routes  of 
Syi'ia.  Finally  a  Turki  element,  lured  out  of  its  mountain  cradle 
in  the  Altai  by  scattered  grass  lands  extending  westwards, 
swarmed  in  successive  hordes  into  Asia  Minor  and  even  beyond, 
well  into  the  heart  of  Europe. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing  fundamental  wanderings,  the 
inflow  of  an  Iranian  element,  composed  of  men  of  Aryan  speech, 
may  be  observed.  This  contingent  marched  out  of  the  plateau 
of  Iran  and  reached  the  Turkish  highland  without  having  to 
scale  its  slopes.  As  a  result  of  this  migration  Persian  words 
permeate  Armenian  ^  extensively.  The  Turks  also  have  appro- 
priated a  certain  amount  of  Persian  words  and  culture  from  the 

*  Fully  one-third  of  Armenian  consists  of  words  of  Persian  stock.  Some  Armenian 
philologists  point  to  the  existence  of  a  small  remnant  of  highly  ancient  words  which 
cannot  be  traced  to  Aryan  forms  and  which  probably  represent  the  siirs'ival  of  a 
langnase   indigenous  to  the  Armenian  highlands. 


same  source.    Eacially,  however,  the  eastern  element  was  absorbed 
by  the  Armenoid  population. 

The  present  inhabitants  of  the  diversified  domains  of  the 
Sultans  have  been  welded  by  the  run  of  history  into  a  shadowy 
political  unity  which  has  failed  to  harmonize  their  incompatibili- 
ties of  origin  and  ideals.  Turkey  is  a  thoroughly  theocratic 
state.  Its  sovereign-caliph  and  his  subjects  have  always  consid- 
ered it  their  most  important  mission  to  bring  Islam  to  the 
infidel.  So  great  is  the  hold  of  ideals  over  the  human  mind, 
however,  that  the  non-Mohammedan  populations  have  clung  pas- 
sionately to  their  religious  beliefs.  We  are  forced  to  seek  in 
creed  the  main  distinguishing  traits  which,  outwardly  at  least, 
divide  the  inhabitants  of  Turkey  into  groups  of  different  names. 
We  shall  see,  however,  that  in  the  minds  of  many  of  them, 
language  or  historical  traditions  have  little  significance.  At  the 
same  time  it  is  believed  that  distinctions  of  a  more  fundamental 
character  will  be  brought  out  in  the  course  of  this  chapter. 

The  Greeks 

Our  knowledge  of  the  first  appearance  of  Greeks  in  Asia 
Minor  has  undergone  radical  revision  in  recent  years.  Their 
prehistoric  culture  can  be  traced  as  far  back  as  the  Neolithic. 
The  chief  interest  of  modern  discovery  centers  around  the  now 
accepted  fact  that  Greek  culture  originally  invaded  the  region 
from  the  south  and  that  the  Indo-European  element  which 
brought  Aryan  speech  to  the  land  is  a  later  wave  which  flooded 
the  original  Mediterranean  stock  at  some  time  during  the  transi- 
tion from  the  Age  of  Bronze  to  that  of  Iron.^  The  southwestern 
coast  was  first  colonized.  A  northerly  extension  occurred  thence 
and  proceeded  mainly  along  the  coast.^ 

The  sequence  of  geological  events  preceding  man's  appear- 
ance upon  the  ^gean  coast  of  Asia  had  imparted  features 
which  were  destined  to  favor  human  development  to  an  excep- 

*H.  E.  Hall:  The  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  London,  1913,  pp.  31-79. 
'  R.   Dussaud :    Les   civilisations  pr^hglleniques   dans  le  bassin   de  la  Mer   Eg^e, 
Paris,  1914,  pp.  414-455. 


tional  degree.  A  land-bridge  connecting  the  Balkan  and  Anatolian 
peninsulas  occupied  the  site  of  the  ^gean  Sea  at  the  dawn  of 
quaternary  times.  The  subsidence  of  the  land  during  this  period 
was  accompanied  by  heavy  fracturing  trending  in  east-w^est 
lines.  The  ^gean  archipelago,  studded  with  islands  and  sur- 
rounded by  deeply  indented  coasts,  conveys  a  vivid  picture,  on 
the  map,  of  the  crustal  deformity  which  occurred. 

Climate  also  conferred  its  share  of  advantages.  The  long  and 
narrow  valleys  are  sheltered  by  mountains  on  all  sides  except  to 
seaward.  Northerly  air  currents  cannot  reach  them.  Frosts  or 
snows  are  therefore  unusual.*  The  course  of  moisture-laden 
winds  blowing  landward  from  the  seas  that  wash  the  three  coasts 
of  Asia  Minor  is  arrested  by  the  mountainous  rim  of  the 
peninsula.  Precipitation  is  almost  entirely  expended  upon  the 
narrow  shore  lands.  Copious  rainfall  and  flowing  rivers  thus 
provide  this  historic  Anatolian  fringe  with  patches  of  luxuriant 
vegetation  and  green  valleys.  The  interior  plateau,  on  the  other 
hand,  remains  parched  and  barren  during  the  summer  months. 

A  splendid  stage  for  Greek  history  was  thus  built  during  the 
prehuman  period.  Early  Mediterranean  oncomers  discovered 
sheltered  havens  and  fertile  inlets  along  the  entire  development 
of  the  fancifully  dissected  coast.  A  natural  festoon  of  outlying 
islands  increased  their  security  by  providing  them  with  advanced 
posts  for  the  detection  of  hostile  raids.  Erosion  along  the 
parallel  lines  of  east-west  rifts  had  carved  fair  valleys  in  which 
the  winding  rivers  of  classical  literature  found  a  channel.  But 
above  all,  the  sea  contributed  commerce  and  cosmopolitanism, 
both  great  elements  of  world  power.  These  in  turn  favored  the 
growth  of  tolerance, — a  trait  which  has  ever  marked  the  western 
mind  and  w^hich,  at  that  particular  spot,  was  to  constitute  a 
bastion  destined  to  remain  impregnable  to  the  opposing  spirit  of 
the  east.^ 

Intermediate  site,  low  relief  above  sea  level  and  genial  climate 

*  D.  G.  Hogarth:  The  Nearer  East,  New  York,  1902,  p.  102. 

«D.  G.  Hogarth:    Ionia  and  the  Near  East,  Oxford,   1909;   J.  L.  Myres:    Greek 
Lands  and  the  Greek  People,  Oxford,  1910. 



7^  Amtrican  GtogratJikal  Sociefy  of  New  Yorii 

Frontiers  of  Language  and  Nalionalily  In  Europe,  1917.  PI.  VII 


combined  to  give  the  Greeks  a  full  share  of  the  joy  of  life.  These 
are  the  physical  elements  upon  which  the  striking  cultural 
superiority  of  Hellenism  is  founded  and  without  the  concourse 
of  which  it  has  never  set  permanent  foot  anywhere.  The  brilliant 
florescence  of  Greek  civilization  in  pagan  time  attained  its 
apogee  wherever  these  three  geographical  factors  prevailed.  The 
Byzantine  Empire  succumbed  before  eastern  onslaught  because  it 
was  gradually  converted  into  an  Asiatic  state  and  thus  exceeded 
the  boundaries  marked  by  nature  for  Greek  humanity. 

The  sixth  century  of  the  pagan  era  was  the  Golden  Age  of 
Hellenism  in  Asia  Minor.  The  elongated  seaw^ard  valleys  became 
the  seat  of  flourishing  and  independent  nations.  A  strong  demo- 
cratic spirit  prevailed  among  their  inhabitants.  City  states  or 
self-governing  communities  were  numerous.  Their  merchant 
princes  drew  on  the  vast  eastern  rearland  for  supplies  which  they 
sold  to  Europe.  They  also  collected  heavy  tolls  from  freight 
going  eastwards.  A  double  stream  of  wealth  thus  flowed  into 
their  treasuries.  The  prosperity  of  this  period  has  never  since 
been  paralleled  in  the  region. 

Creative  art  found  a  home  upon  a  site  so  eminently  favored 
by  nature.  The  heart  and  mind  of  its  inhabitants  throbbed 
responsively  to  the  stirring  events  which  were  the  result  of  their 
country's  situation  at  the  junction  of  the  most  important  sea  and 
land  highways  of  the  then  known  world.  There  the  antagonism 
between  east  and  west,  out  of  which  so  much  world  history  has 
been  made,  broke  into  violent  clashes  after  periods  of  commercial 
interchange.  Talent  was  spurred  to  high  achievement  under  the 
stimulus  of-  foreign  contact,  wealthy  patronage  and  genial 
environment.  Imposing  ruins  and  prolific  discoveries  of  master- 
pieces of  art  convey  ample  testimony  of  nature's  concentrated 
prodigality  on  this  famous  coastland. 

i  The  present  Greek  occupants  of  the  Anatolian  shores  reflect 
the  pleasant  character  of  their  environment  in  the  lightness  of 
heart  which  is  one  of  their  distinguishing  characteristics.  Their 
craving  for  gaiety,  society  and  enjoyment  is  unfailing.  Even  the 
gloom  of  Asiatic  dominion  does  not  prevent  merrymaking  at 


every  opportunity.  In  these  respects  the  Greeks  share  to  an 
eminent  degree  the  feelings  of  the  nations  of  the  western  world. 

With  the  exception  perhaps  of  the  Circassians,  the  Greeks  are 
the  handsomest  of  the  inhabitants  of  Asiatic  Turkey.  Classical 
forms  of  the  head  and  of  the  general  cast  of  countenance  are  met 
in  every  nook  of  the  Anatolian  seaboard.  Their  profiles  are 
those  of  the  gently  curving  lines  of  ancient  Greek  statues  and 
medals.  Among  women  graceful  carriage  of  the  head  and  neck 
adds  to  their  charm.    The  men  are  erect  and  firm  of  gait. 

Fishing  and  sailoring  are  the  hereditary  occupations  of  the 
coastal  Greek  populations  of  Asia  Minor.  Inland  they  become 
traders.  The  "corner"  grocery  or  the  village  butcher  shop  is 
generally  owned  by  a  Greek.  In  recent  years  the  Greek  has 
learned  to  play  the  part  of  the  promoter  in  the  growing  develop- 
ment of  Asia  Minor.  He  is  often  the  middleman  who  brings 
western  capital  to  eastern  opportunity.  Herein  his  role  differs 
but  slightly  from  that  of  his  Lydian  or  Carian  ancestors. 

The  true  Greek  is  met  only  as  far  inland  as  a  whiff  of  the 
salt  sea  air  can  be  inhaled.  Eastward,  on  the  Anatolian  table- 
land, Greek  communities  of  the  ancient  Phrygian  and  Cappa- 
docian  lands  differ  from  kindred  coastal  populations  as  widely 
as  the  fascinating  greenswards  of  the  one  vary  from  the  semi- 
arid  steppe  of  the  other.  Once  beyond  the  range  of  maritime 
influences,  Greeks  often  forget  their  own  language  and  adopt 
Turkish  instead.  This  is  frequently  the  case  in  many  of  the 
inland  settlements  where  Turkish  is  now  the  only  medium  of  oral 
expression  for  Christian  thought.®  Racially,  too,  the  Greeks  of 
the  inland  towns  and  villages  betray  Alpine  or  Armenoid  origin 
rather  than  Mediterranean  descent.  Short  stature,  ample  chest 
development  and  broad-headedness  are  conspicuous  among  them. 
The  rock-hewn  villages  south  of  Mt.  Argaeus  afford  a  clue  to  the 
origin  and  antiquity  of  these  mountain  Greeks.^  They  are 
descendants  of  the  natives  who  were  conquered  by  the  armies 

•  In  many  of  these  Anatolian  communities  Greek  is  written  with  Turkish  characters. 
^  G.  de  Jerphanion:   La  region  d'Urgub    (Cappadoce),  La  G4ogr.,  Vol.  30,  No.  1, 
July  15,  1914,  pp.  Ml. 


of  Greek  pagan  states  or  by  Byzantine  troops.  The  conquerors 
brought  language  and  culture  to  the  upland  populations  but  were 
numerically  insufficient  to  impose  a  new  racial  stratum.  Later 
the  wave  of  Turkish  invasion  drove  out  Greek  and  forced  Asiatic 
speech  on  the  same  mountain  populations  without  always  replac- 
ing Christianity  by  Mohammedanism. 

Duality  of  language  is  sometimes  accompanied  by  a  strange 
duality  of  creed  among  Anatolian  Greeks.  At  Jevizlik,  on  the 
road  between  Trebizond  and  Gumushchane,  dwell  crypto-Christian 
Greeks  who  publicly  profess  Mohammedanism  while  maintaining 
in  secret  the  Greek  orthodox  faith.®  The  inauguration  of  a  con- 
stitutional form  of  government  in  1908,  with  its  promise  of 
religious  liberty,  gave  the  members  of  the  community  an  oppor- 
tunity to  renounce  their  outward  form  of  faith  and  proclaim 
complete  adherence  to  the  religion  they  had  never  really  for- 

To  the  philologist  these  ancient  Greek  communities  are  veri- 
table treasure  grounds,  especially  when  found  in  mountainous 
districts.  Archaic  forms  of  speech  are  in  current  use  among 
their  inhabitants.  In  many,  the  purity  of  the  ancient  Greek 
dialects  of  Asia  Minor  has  been  preserved  with  but  slight  con- 
tamination from  later  literary  influences.  The  very  names  of 
those  who  speak  these  vernaculars  show  interesting  connection 
with  the  classical  period  of  Hellenism.  Socrates  or  Pericles  will 
cook  daily  for  the  traveler,  and  Themistocles  supply  him  with 
tobacco.  More  than  that,  they  all  make  themselves  intelligible 
in  the  style — and  the  spirit,  too — of  inscriptional  language.  But 
the  old  Hellenic  dialects  should  not  be  confused  with  the  still 
unknown  Lycian,  Lydian  and  Carian  languages  found  in  inscrip- 
tions. There  is  reason  to  believe  that  these  primitive  speeches 
of  the  Anatolian  plateau  represent  exceedingly  early  stages  in 
the  development  of  Indo-European  forms. 

^any  of  the  Greek  communities  owe  their  survival  to  the 
proficiency  of  their  members  in  a  particular  industry.  The 
settlements  of  Greek  miners  scattered  in  the  Pontic  and  Tauric 

*  In  the  Levant  they  are  called  Mezzo-Mezzos. 


mining  districts  are  instances  in  point.  The  Turkish  conquest  of 
the  Byzantine  Empire  was  accomplished  by  Asiatic  barbarians 
who  knew  how  to  fight  but  included  no  artisans  in  their  ranks. 
They  were  therefore  obliged  to  rely  upon  the  populations  of  the 
conquered  lands  for  the  maintenance  of  industrial  and  commer- 
cial  activity.  This  notorious  incompetence  of  the  Turk  for  any 
pursuit  other  than  that  of  soldiering  is,  at  bottom,  the  prime 
cause  of  the  survival  of  Christian  communities  within  Ottoman 

The  Tukks 

The  appearance  and  establishment  of  the  Turks  in  a  land 
which  was  not  that  of  their  origin  follows  their  life  as  nomad 
tribesmen  of  the  vast  steppeland  of  central  Asia.  They  were 
men  at  large  upon  the  world's  largest  continent,  the  northerners 
of  the  east  who  naturally  and  unconsciously  went  forth  in  quest 
of  the  greater  comforts  afforded  by  southern  regions.  The 
flatlands  which  gave  birth  to  their  race  lie  open  to  the  frozen 
gales  of  the  north.  Their  continental  climate,  icy  cold  or  burning 
hot  in  turn,  is  cut  off  from  the  tempering  influences  prevailing 
behind  the  folds  of  tertiary  mountain  piles  to  the  south.  As  the 
steppemen  migrated  southward  their  gradually  swelling  numbers 
imparted  density  to  the  mass  they  formed  because  expansion  on 
the  east  or  west  was  denied  them.  China  and  the  Chinese, 
admirably  sheltered  by  barriers  of  deserts  and  mountains, 
stopped  their  easterly  extension.  Christian  Russia  stopped  them 
on  the  west,  though  at  a  heavy  cost  to  herself,  for  no  obstacle 
had  been  raised  by  nature  to  meet  their  advance.  The  open  plain 
of  central  Asia  merges  insensibly  into  that  of  north  Europe. 
That  is  why  incidentally  Russia  is  half  Tatar  today.  The 
Asiatic  was  forced  upon  her.  She  sacrificed  herself  by  absorbing 
him  into  her  bosom,  saving  Europe  thereby  from  this  eastern 
scourge,  but  forfeiting  the  advantages  of  progress. 

Cut  off  from  east  and  west  in  this  manner,  the  only  alterna- 
tive left  to  the  Turk  was  to  scale  the  plateau  region  of  western 
Asia  and  to  swarm  into  the  avenues  that  led  him  to  conquered 


territory  where  lie  succeeded  in  attaining  power  and  organizing 
his  undisciplined  hosts  into  the  semblance  of  a  state.  The 
presence  of  the  Turk  upon  the  land  to  which  he  conferred  his 
Mongolian  name  and  the  very  foundation  of  the  Turkish  state 
can  in  this  manner  be  attributed  to  outward  causes  rather  than 
to  local  development.  It  was  essentially  a  process  of  trans- 
plantation. The  consolidation  and  rise  to  power  of  the  Ottoman 
Empire  between  the  thirteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries  were 
largely  due  to  foreign  conditions,  for  during  that  interval  Europe 
was  busily  engaged  in  extirpating  feudalism  and  the  objection- 
able phases  of  medieval  clerical  influences  from  its  soil. 

The  Turks  and  their  name  were  first  known  to  the  western 
world  in  the  sixth  century  of  our  era.  But  their  invasion  of 
Asia  Minor  should  rather  be  considered  as  a  gradual  infiltration 
begun  in  prehistoric  times.  Hittite  carvings  represent,  among 
others,  a  recognizable  Mongoloid  type  of  Tatar  soldiers  who 
fought  as  allies  of  the  great  mountain  state.^  Pig-tails,  high 
cheek-bones  and  oblique  eyes  have  been  conspicuously  modeled 
by  the  sculptor.  Tatar  migrations  are  thus  discerned  in  the 
morning  of  the  history  of  Asia  Minor.  The  early  invaders  were 
steadily  reinforced  from  the  east  by  their  kinsmen.  The  rise 
of  the  Seljuk  Turks  to  dominance  was  the  explosion  of  energy 
accumulated  in  the  course  of  the  centuries  in  which  this  move- 
ment of  Altaic  tribes  had  persisted.  The  consolidation  of 
Ottoman  power  marked  its  culmination.  A  single  tribe  could 
never  have  acquired  sufficient  strength  to  establish  a  mighty 
empire  had  not  its  ranks  been  swollen  by  members  of  kindred 
groups  encountered  during  its  migration.  This  is  what  actually 
happened  when  Jenghiz  Khan  and  Timur  appeared  on  the  stage 
of  history.  Turkish  accounts  describe  both  as  fiery  leaders,  men 
who  could  command  the  adherence  of  the  vast  swarm  of  descend- 
ants of  their  kinsmen,  in  whose  footsteps  they  marched.  Sultan 
Osman,  the  founder  of  the  present  Turkish  dynasty  and  reputed 
to  be  of  the  same  caliber,  likewise  drew  on  a  human  legacy  of 
centuries  for  the  accomplishment  of  his  designs. 

»J.  Garstang:   The  Land  of  the  Hittites,  London,  1910,  p.  318. 


Unfortunately,  the  Turks  bear  a  name  which  is  utterly  void 
of  significance.  They  themselves  apply  it  to  every  Mohammedan 
inhabitant  of  Asia  Minor  without  discrimination  of  race  or 
origin.  But  for  fully  eight  centuries  they  have  stocked  their 
harems  with  women  seized  from  conquered  populations.  It  is  no 
exaggeration  to  say  that  this  human  tax  has  been  levied  on 
almost  every  family  of  the  Caucasus,  western  Asia  and  the 
countries  of  the  Balkan  peninsula.  Today  the  net  result  of  this 
variegated  intermixture  is  that  the  Tatar  origin  of  the  average 
Turk,  so  called,  is  entirely  concealed  by  the  mingling  with  Medi- 
terranean, Armenoid-Alpine  and  even  Nordic  elements.  Except 
in  a  few  isolated  instances  the  Turki  type  of  central  Asia  is 
rarely  met  within  Turkish  boundaries.  Clearly  no  valid  claim 
to  racial  distinctiveness  can  be  set  up  by  the  Turks. 

In  religion  the  Turk  is  no  innovator.  He  has  merely  taken 
unto  himself  the  idealism  of  Arabia.  And  yet  his  efficient  wield 
of  the  fine  edge  of  Mohammedan  fanaticism  failed  to  sever  the 
ties  which  bind  Islam  to  this  land.  Even  his  language  is  not  his 
own.  The  splendor  of  Arabian  syntax  and  the  supple  elegance 
of  Persian  style  alone  confer  literary  flavor  upon  it.  Over  70 
per  cent  of  the  words  in  Turkish  are  Arabic  retained  in  unalloyed 
purity.  A  scant  sprinkling  of  Tatar  words  merely  recalls  by 
their  sound  the  raucous  articulations  which  form  the  nomad's 
speech,  while  their  paucity  is  a  true  measure  of  the  limited  range 
of  concepts  which  find  lodgment  in  his  mind. 

Turkish  nationality  is  equally  meaningless.  The  descendants 
of  Asiatic  nomads  became  masters  of  western  Asia  without  ever 
conferring  the  boon  of  government  or  of  nationality  upon  the 
land  and  its  peoples.  In  Gibbon's  mordant  words  'Hhe  camp 
and  not  the  soil  is  the  country  of  the  genuine  Tatar."  And 
Turkey  is  still  a  vast  field  in  which  the  Turk  has  pitched  his  tent 
and  merely  waits,  knowing  that  the  day  is  not  far  off  when  he 
will  have  to  break  camp  and  seek  new  pasturages  for  his  herds 
and  flocks.  But  the  site  on  which  he  has  settled  for  the  past  five 
centuries  had  been  the  seat  of  a  highly  organized  government. 
Seeing   himself  master   of  this   estate   the   Turk  uifliesitatingly 


adopted  its  institutions.  Thus,  under  the  mantle  of  Islamic 
theocracy,  Byzantine  government  and  customs  have  continued  to 
flourish  in  Ottoman  dominions.  Barring  special  features  belong- 
ing to  Mohammedanism,  the  ceremonials  of  the  Sultan's  court 
may  be  traced,  step  by  step,  to  Byzantine  forms.  The  very 
absolutism  of  the  caliphs  is  alien  to  the  fundamentally  demo- 
cratic character  of  both  Tatar  societies  and  Koranic  teaching. 
It  is  Byzantine  and  a  relic  of  the  despotism  of  the  Roman 

In  speaking  of  the  Turks  it  is  necessary  to  carry  two  distinct 
types  in  mind.  The  pure  Tatar  vagrant,  true  to  his  native 
indolence,  which  unfits  him  for  sedentary  occupation,  is  in  the 
minority.  The  mass  of  the  Turkish  population  consists  of  a 
mixed  element  in  which  the  racial  strain  of  given  localities  per- 
sists along  with  characteristics  imparted  by  fusion  with  Turki 
conquerors.  This  mingling  is  indicated  further  by  the  spirit 
which  moves  this  people  in  the  performance  of  their  daily  tasks. 
Its  members  are  recruited  among  the  plodding,  gentle-mannered 
and  kind-hearted  peasants  of  the  land.  Local  influence  accounts 
for  these  qualities.  Occasionally,  however,  the  foreign  strain  will 
crop  out.  Then,  like  their  nomad  ancestors,  who,  from  peaceful 
shepherds  roaming  leisurely  from  patch  to  patch  of  green,  are 
transformed  into  fiends  incarnate  by  the  approach  of  a  thief  or 
a  beast  of  prey,  or  whom  a  passing  storm  will  throw  into 
fits  of  uncontrollable  rage  which  vents  itself  in  passionate  out- 
bursts of  shrieking  and  gesticulation,  the  Turkish  peasants  can 
cast  their  natural  softness  of  character  to  the  winds  and  become 
either  bloodthirsty  murderers  smiting  unarmed  Christians  or  else 
heroes  performing  gallant  deeds  on  the  battlefield. 

The  majority  of  this  Turkish  population  finds  a  congenial 
home  on  the  Anatolian  upland.  Their  ancestors  beheld  here  an 
environment  in  which  the  physical  characteristics  of  the  plateaus 
of  central  Asia  were  reproduced.  They  took  to  it  naturally. 
The  table-land  is  a  rolling  expanse  mournfully  devoid  of  vegeta- 
tion, save  for  rare  clusters  of  stunted  trees.  Scanty  plots  of 
grass,  surrounding  sickly  pools  or  streams,  resemble  holes  in  a 


ragged  garment  spread  over  its  surface.  Sun-baked  in  summer, 
chilled  in  winter,  with  a  climate  too  deficient  in  moisture  for 
the  favorable  development  of  human  societies,  the  land  could 
only  appeal  to  Asiatic  sons  of  semi-arid  areas.  In  recent  years, 
the  tendency  of  Turks  to  retire  to  this  region  is  observable 
wherever  the  industry  of  Christian  populations  of  the  encircling 
coastland  has  rendered  life  too  arduous  for  Turkish  love  of 

The  penetration  of  this  table-land  by  nomads  from  the  heart 
of  Asia  goes  on  today  as  in  the  past,  albeit  with  abated  intensity. 
It  is  no  rare  occurrence  in  Asia  Minor  to  meet  Tatars  or 
Turkomans  who  have  been  on  a  slow  westerly  march  for  periods 
of  from  five  to  ten  years  at  a  time.  Most  of  them  come  from 
the  Kirghiz  steppes.  A  vague  desire  to  change  their  residence 
from  a  Christian  to  a  Mohammedan  country  impels  their  wan- 
derings, according  to  their  own  accounts.  Constantinople  looms 
as  an  objective  nebulously  impressed  in  their  minds.  But  the 
goal  is  rarely  attained.  In  reality  their  migration  is  as  uncon- 
scious as  that  of  their  forefathers  and  merely  carries  them  out 
of  sheer  necessity  from  pasturage  to  pasturage  in  the  manner 
it  affected  former  generations. 

Mohammedan  Immigrants 

Ever  since  the  establishment  of  Turkish  authority  in  western 
Asia  the  policy  of  the  Sultan's  officials  has  been  directed  towards 
attracting  Mohammedan  settlers  from  foreign  countries  to  the 
unpopulated  districts  of  Turkey.  Particularly  at  the  end  of 
unsuccessful  wars,  special  efforts  are  made  to  induce  Moslem 
inhabitants  of  lost  provinces  to  return  mthin  Turkish  bound- 
aries, where  land  often  exempt  from  taxation  is  assigned  to  them. 
Widely  distributed  Circassian,  Tatar  and  Turkoman  settlements 
owe  their  origin  to  this  Turkish  method  of  increasing  the 
Mohammedan  element  in  the  country.  The  Bithynian  peninsula, 
where  Cretaceous  limestones  and  sandy  Eocene  beds  provide 
excellent  soils,  is  a  region  favored  by  immigrants. 

Eussia's  southwesterly  spread  of  empire  is  responsible  for 


the  movement  of  some  500,000  Circassians  from  the  Caucasus 
highlands  to  Asiatic  Turkey.  Lithe  of  figure,  brilliant-eyed  and 
nimble  in  mind,  these  immigrants  are  morally  and  physically  far 
superior  to  their  new  countrymen.  They  bring  with  them  the 
higher  standard  of  living  of  their  native  land.  Their  dwellings 
are  more  solidly  built  than  the  customary  shanties  or  hovels  of 
the  Anatolian  table-land,  and  their  food  is  of  the  average 
European  quality.  Wherever  settled,  they  live  in  a  degree  of 
comfort  unknown  to  the  Turkish  peasant.  Flourishing  farming 
communities  have  grown  up  around  their  villages.  In  cities  they 
are  distinguished  by  a  natural  aptitude  for  commerce,  and  many 
an  able  government  official  has  been  recruited  from  their 

Tn  race,  language  and  religion  the  Circassians  of  Turkey  present, 
according  to  tribal  origin,  the  confusion  existing  in  their  cradle 
land.  The  Kabardian  group  of  the  Uzun  Yaila  are  of  western 
Caucasus  extraction  and  speak  an  incorporative  language.  The 
Chechen  settled  in  Syria  are  derived  from  Daghestani  highlanders. 
In  some  cases  Circassians  bear  Christian  names,  but  worship  in 
mosques.  Representatives  of  central  Asiatic,  European  and  even 
Semitic  races  are  found  among  them. 

I  A  colony  of  Noghai  Tatar  refugees  was  founded  in  the  lower 
Jeihun  valley  after  the  Crimean  War,  at  which  time  it  consisted 
of  some  60,000  individuals.  Their  numbers  were  speedily 
reduced,  however,  by  the  malaria  and  fevers  of  the  unhealthful 
Cilician  coast  land.  A  decimated  remnant  is  now  engaged  in 
farming  the  marshy  lands  originally  bestowed  on  their  fathers. 
They  maintain  excellent  relations  with  the  Turks,  with  whom  they 

The  Turkomans  of  Asia  Minor  are,  according  to  their  state- 
ments, refugees  from  Muscovite  Christianity.  In  reality  they 
seek  escape  from  Russian  pressure  exerted  to  force  them  to 
abandon  nomadism.  This  name  is  applied  generally  to  immi- 
grants coming  from  Turkestan  who  preserved  their  roving 
habits.  The  cruel  Turki  type  of  lineament  and  expression  is 
observable  on  their  faces.    They  are  Sunnis,  or  orthodox  Moham- 


medans,   and  a  Turkish-speaking  people,  but  have  little  inter- 
course with  native  Turks. 

The  Karapapaks,  or  Black  Caps,  known  also  by  the  name  of 
Terekimans,  are  Shiites,  or  adherents  of  the  eastern  branch  of 
Mohammedanism,  from  Russian  Armenia,  who  have  crossed  the 
Turkish  frontier  and  settled  near  Patnoz  in  the  Van  vilayet.  The 
original  seat  of  this  people  is  between  Chaldir  and  Daghestan. 
Racially  they  are  of  Turki  stock.  Tatar  types  predominate 
among  them,  although  Circassian  and  Persian  physiognomies  are 
by  no  means  uncommon. 

The  Lazis  of  northeasternmost  Turkey,  w^ho  are  sometimes 
known  by  the  name  Tchan,  form  the  connecting  link  between  the 
Caucasian  and  Anatolian  populations.  Many  of  them  have  for- 
saken their  Russian  homes  in  the  past  thirty  years  for  the  land 
of  their  kinsmen  on  the  Turkish  side  of  the  frontier.  They 
occupy,  in  fairly  dense  communities,  villages  nestling  on  the 
forested  seaward  slopes  of  the  Pontic  Alps,  as  well  as  the  narrow 
strip  of  coast  east  of  Platana.  Former  generations  looked  on 
them  as  pirates  or  brigands.  They  now  follow  less  irregular 
pursuits,  but  still  bear  the  reputation  of  being  daring  smugglers. 
The  Turkish  navy  recruits  sailors  from  among  them. 

By  race  the  Lazis  are  allied  to  the  Georgian  group  of  Cau- 
casus peoples,  and  their  intermixture  with  ancient  Armenian 
populations  is  probable.  Their  adherence  to  Mohammedanism  is 
lax.  They  speak  a  southern  dialect  of  the  Grusinian  language 
closely  allied  to  Mingrelian  but  mingled  with  Greek  and  Turkish 
words.  In  some  localities  Turkish  entirely  replaces  their  ver- 
nacular. The  limits  of  their  language  in  Turkey  coincide  with 
the  western  boundary  of  the  sanjak  of  Lazistan.  They  extend 
thence  eastward,  in  a  belt  fringing  the  southern  base  of  the 
Caucasus,  all  the  way  between  the  Black  and  Caspian  seas.^"' 

^^  Many  Moslem  immigrants  from  eastern  Europe  are  also  found  in  Asia  Minor. 
Bosnians,  Albanians,  Pomaks  and,  in  general,  members  of  every  Mohammedan  com- 
munity in  the  Balkan  peninsula  consider  Asia  Minor  as  a  favorable  land  in  which  ta 



Fig.  59. 

Fig.  60. 

YiG.  59 — "Turkish"  crowd  in  an  Anatolian  city  ( Trebizond ) .  A  gathering  in 
these  Turkish  cities  contains  representatives  of  almost  every  race  in  the  world. 

Fig.  60 — A  group  of  Maronite  women.  Their  sturdy  appearance  suggests  their 
highland  origin. 


Mohammedan  Dissenters 

A  number  of  communities  whose  origin  is  wrapped  in 
obscurity  are  found  off  well-beaten  avenues  on  the  Anatolian 
table-land.  A  mild,  temperate  lot,  broad-shouldered  and  open- 
faced,  they  have  much  in  common,  in  spite  of  diversity  of  worship 
and  isolation.  Racially  they  present  few  of  the  Turki  features. 
Their  speech  is  usually  Turkish,  but  they  keep  rigidly  apart  from 
the  Turks.  They  are  Mohammedans  in  name  only.  Having 
secured  immunity  from  the  fanaticism  of  the  masters  of  the  land, 
they  have  secretly  maintained  ancestral  beliefs  to  their  full 
extent.  When  the  light  of  ethnographic  research  shall  have 
been  fully  shed  on  their  rites,  it  is  likely  that  the  tran- 
sition of  religious  thought  from  the  paganism  of  Hellenic 
times  to  the  Christianity  of  the  Byzantine  era  will  be  made 

To  this  group  belong  the  inhospitable  Tahtajis  (known  also" 
as  Chepmi  and,  in  their  westernmost  extension  in  the  Aidin 
vilayet,  as  Allevis),  who  are  the  woodcutters  of  the  upper 
recesses  of  the  Lycian  mountains.  A  people  of  almost  primitive 
manners,  they  form  a  community  of  about  5,000  souls.  Eastern 
and  western  culture  swept  by  their  mountain  homes,  leaving  the 
faintest  of  traces  among  them.  Having  neither  priests  nor 
churches  they  are  held  in  disrepute  by  the  Turks.  Similarity 
with  eastern  religions  can  nevertheless  be  traced  in  their  wor- 
ship. They  wail  over  the  corpses  of  their  dead  as  do  the 
Egyptians.  A  vague  connection  with  Iranian  ideas  is  discernible 
in  the  belief  they  hold  regarding  the  incarnation  of  the  devil  in 
the  form  of  a  peacock.  They  cannot  be  induced  to  discuss  their 
rites  with  strangers.  In  their  simple  minds  faith  is  all  in  all, 
and  well  accentuates  the  separatist  tendency  determined  by  their 
rugged  mountains. 

A  more  important  group,  the  Kizilbash,  present  racial  char- 
acteristics peculiar  to  the  Nordic  race,  although  they  too  have 
mingled  extensively  with  the  Armenoid  natives  of  the  Anatolian 
mountains  over  which  their  settlements  are  scattered.    The  name 


is  pure  Turkish  for  ''red  head,"  but  cannot  be  traced  to  head- 
gear in  Turkey.  In  Persia  however  allied  communities  are  known 
whose  members  wear  scarlet  caps.  The  bends  of  the  Kizil 
Irmak^^  and  of  the  Yechil  Irmak  contain  their  villages.^-  They 
also  have  settlements  in  the  highlands  which  extend  from  the 
Taurus  to  Upper  Mesopotamia. 

A  Turkish-speaking  people  of  peaceful  habits,  engaged  exclu- 
sively in  the  tillage  of  their  lands,  submissive  to  authority, 
frugal  and  industrious,  such  are  the  Kizilbash  in  the  midst  of 
their  Turkish,  Kurdish  and  Armenian  neighbors.  They  are 
usually  on  excellent  terms  with  the  Christians.  But  to  this  day, 
after  centuries  of  occupation  of  the  valleys  of  the  Sakaria  and 
Halys,  they  have  remained  as  foreigners  among  the  Turks  who 
colonized  their  territory  long  after  them.  Probably  on  account 
of  religious  divergences  the  newcomers  have  always  held  them 
in  contempt. 

It  is  not  unlikely  that  the  Kizilbash  are  lineal  descendants  of 
the  Galatae  of  Asia  Minor.  This  western  people  entered  the 
peninsula  through  the  notch  cut  by  the  valley  of  the  Sakaria — 
an  avenue  also  chosen  by  the  Phrygians  sung  by  Homer.  Later 
the  Cimmerians  also  followed  the  same  route.  All  these  inva- 
sions from  the  west  brought  blondness  into  Turkey — though  not 
of  the  pure  Nordic  type,  for  the  roads  leading  out  of  northern 
Europe  had  their  longest  stretches  in  the  brunet  territory  of 
central  and  southern  Europe.  Nevertheless  mingling  incurred  in 
the  course  of  migration,  as  well  as  after  settlement,  has  not 
obliterated  entirely  the  fair  ancestral  type.  The  strongest  argu- 
ment in  favor  of  the  relationship  between  the  Galatae  and  the 
Kizilbash  lies  in  the  identity  of  the  territory  occupied  by  both 
peoples.  The  racial  distinction  between  the  two  lies  in  the 
greater  admixture  of  Tatar  blood  in  the  Kizilbash  of  our  times. 
Gradual  change  of  the  Galatian  of  European  provenience  into 

"R.  Leonhard:  Paplilagonia,  Berlin,  1915,  pp.  359-373;  J.  W.  Crowfoot:  Survivals 
among  the  Kappadokian  Kizilbash  (Bektash),  Journ.  Anthrop.  Inst.,  Vol.  30,  1900, 
pp.  305-320. 

**  The  distribution  of  Kizilbash  villages  in  the  Yechil  Irmak  valley  is  shown  in 
G.  de  Jerphanion's  Carte  du  Bassin  du  Yechil  Irmak,  1:200,000,  Paris,  1914. 


the  Kizilbasli  type  of  Asiatic  affinity  was  accompanied  by  the 
replacement  of  Celtic  by  Tatar  culture. 

Galates  to  the  Greeks  meant  any  western  barbarian.  The 
term  was  applied  to  the  foreigners  whose  coming  was  always 
marked  by  destruction  and  who,  in  the  third  and  second  cen- 
turies B.C.,  terrorized  Thrace  before  crossing  into  Asia  Minor. 
Here  they  introduced  Celtic  forms  of  speech  which  were  current 
in  their  settlements  as  late  as  the  fourth  century  of  our  era.  At 
that  time  the  language  spoken  in  parts  of  Anatolia  was  similar 
to  the  dialect  of  the  Traveri,  a  Celtic  tribe  on  the  Moselle  whose 
name  has  been  perpetuated  in  that  of  the  city  of  Treves.^' 
Arrian,  a  native  of  Bithynia,  describing  the  customs  of  the  Celts 
gives  accounts  of  usages,  such  as  the  worship  of  the  oak,  which 
prevailed  in  his  country  and  which  on  investigation  are  found  to 
have  their  counterparts  in  Europe. 

In  religious  thought,  the  Kizilbash  may  be  classed  as  the  most 
liberal  among  the  Mohammedans  of  Turkey.  Their  interpreta- 
tion of  the  Koran  exempts  them  from  keeping  fasts  and  allows 
them  the  use  of  wine.  They  permit  their  women  to  go  about 
with  a  freedom  which  has  never  been  tolerated  among  Sunnis. 
Christian  rites,  such  as  the  custom  of  praying  over  bread  and 
wine,  are  performed  among  them.  Fragmentary  survivals  of 
pagan  observances  likewise  form  part  of  their  worship. 

The  Kizilbash  are  closely  affiliated  with  the  Bektash  confra- 
ternity, a  once  powerful  Islamic  organization  which  still  o^\tis 
a  large  number  of  convents  (tekkes)  and  churches  in  Turkey. 
Indiscriminate  use  of  the  two  names  has  led  to  much  confusion 
in  the  writings  of  travelers.  It  seems  preferable  to  restrict 
the  name  of  Kizilbash  to  the  group  of  Anatolian  people  whose 
mountain  origin  is  amply  proven  by  somatic  traits  and  whose 
cultural  development  denotes  amalgamation  with  invaders  of  the 
table-land.  The  term  Bektash  can  then  be  applied  to  the  form  of 
religion  to  which  this  people  adheres  at  present.  The  connection 
is  probably  founded  on  the  ease  with  which  Bektash  proselytism 

"  J.  G.  Frazer :   The  Golden  Bough,  the  Magic  Art  and  the  Evolution  of  Kings, 
London,  1911,  Vol.  2,  p.  126,  footnote  2. 


drew  recruits  from  among  Kizilbash  populations.  In  the  light 
of  this  distinction  the  so-called  Bektash  people  of  the  Lycian 
mountains  are  merely  a  sub-group  of  the  Kizilbash,  to  whom  they 
are  related  in  part  by  race,  language  and  religion. 

The  Balikis,  or  Belekis,  living  on  the  southern  fringe  of 
Sasun,^*  are  probably  also  a  remnant  of  the  old  highland  popu- 
lation. The  Mohammedanism  they  profess  is  tainted  with  dim 
reminiscences  of  Christian  worship  and  was  probably  adopted  as 
a  self-preservatory  measure.  Religious  beliefs  weigh  lightly 
however  on  this  community.  Its  members  possess  neither  church 
nor  mosque.  A  term  of  residence  among  them  would  probably 
enable  an  observer  to  discover  survival  of  very  ancient  customs. 
The  passing  traveler  can  do  little  more  than  note  the  unusual 
freedom  with  which  their  women  go  about  unveiled  or  note  the 
mixture  of  Arabic,  Kurdish  and  Armenian  words  in  their 

The  Avshars,  descended  from  Persian  immigrants  mingled 
with  native  hill  populations,  are  settled  mainly  on  the  eastern 
slopes  of  the  Anti-Taurus  facing  the  northern  end  of  the 
Binbogha  range.^^  The  two  elements  which  are  blended  in  this 
people  are  also  represented  in  their  religion.  The  newcomers 
brought  Shiite  Mohammedanism  and  insured  the  predominance 
of  their  views  over  the  relics  of  the  nature  cults  of  the  aboriginal 
groups.  Traces  of  Christian  influence  are  observable  in  their 
daily  life.  Around  Cesarea  these  Avshars  give  the  shape  of  a 
cross  to  the  loaves  of  unleavened  bread  they  bake.  In  view  of 
the  deep-rooted  aversion  of  Mohammedans  towards  any  trace  of 
Christian  symbolism,  it  is  evident  that  we  are  here  in  the  pres- 
ence of  an  old-established  usage  rather  than  one  adopted  in 
post-Mohammedan  times.  But  in  speech,  custom  and  occupation 
the  conmiunity  differs  m  no  respect  from  neighboring  Turks. 

The  nomad  element  of  the  Anatolian  plateau  is  represented 
mainly  by  the  Yuruks,  whose  wanderings  range  from  the  northern 
landward  slopes  of  the  Cilician  Taurus  to  the  mountainous  tract 

"H.  F.  B.  Lynch:  Armenia,  London,  1901,  Vol.  2,  p.  430. 

"Earl  Percy:  Highlands  of  Asiatic  Turkey,  London,  1901,  pp.  89-90. 


surrounding  Mt.  Olympus.  They  are  divided  into  tribes  of 
varying  size,  some  not  exceeding  twenty  tents.  Their  number  is 
estimated  at  about  200,000.  Roving  over  barren  districts,  the 
members  of  this  group  are  half-starved  human  products  bred  in 
areas  of  defective  food  supply.  The  men  know  no  other  occupa- 
tion than  that  of  tending  their  sheep  and  horses.  The  women 
are  noted  carpet-weavers.  Strangers  passing  within  sight  of 
their  tent  settlements  can  generally  rely  on  finding  the  nomad's 
proverbial  hospitality  under  their  felt  roofs. 

In  common  with  kindred  plateau  communities,  the  Yuruks 
hold  severely  aloof  from  the  Turks.  But  they  have  adopted 
Turkish  speech,  and  it  is  gradually  replacing  their  ancient  ver- 
nacular. They  have  sometimes  been  connected  with  European 
gipsies,  although  the  little  that  is  known  concerning  their  history 
and  traditions  hardly  warrants  such  an  assumption.  A  promis- 
ing field  for  ethnographic  research  still  awaits  exploitation 
among  their  settlements.  They  call  themselves  Mohammedans 
and  circumcise,  but  have  no  priests  or  churches.^® 

The  Aptals  of  the  lofty  valleys  of  northern  Syria  also  have 
nomadic  habits  and  appear  to  be  closely  related  to  the  gipsies. 
Although  they  claim  to  be  Sunnis  they  rarely  intermarry  with 
settled  Mohammedans.  Their  roaming  life  carries  them  from 
village  to  village,  generally  in  the  capacity  of  musicians  and 
entertainers.  According  to  their  traditions  they  were  expelled 
from  the  lower  Tigris  regions  in  the  ninth  century." 

The  Armenians 

The  table-land  on  which  Armenian  life  unfolded  itself  was 
faulted  into  blocks  and  covered  by  flows  of  huge  volcanoes  after 
the  Miocene.  Pontic  ranges  fringe  it  on  the  north  and  thereby 
forbid  access  to  the  Black  Sea.^^  On  the  south,  the  folds  of  the 
Anti-Taurus  mountains  likewise  act  as  successive  barriers.    But 

"  C.  Wilson:  Handbook  for  Travelers  in  Asia  Minor,  Transcaucasia,  Persia,  etc., 
London,  1911,  p.  68. 

*^  The  gipsies  of  Syria  are  known  by  the  name  of  Nawar,  or  Zotts. 

*'  Cf.  inset  on  accompanying  map  entitled  "  Part  of  Asiatic  Turkey  showing  Dis- 
tribution of  Peoples." 


no  mountain  obstacles  intervene  to  the  east  or  west  of  Armenia. 
Close  racial,  linguistic  and  historical  relations  can  therefore  be 
traced  between  Armenians  and  Persians  today.  Furthermore, 
the  existence  of  important  Armenian  communities  scattered  all 
the  way  west  of  Armenia  to  the  coasts  of  the  ^gean  becomes 
intelligible.  The  very  crowning  of  Armenians  as  Byzantine 
emperors  may  ultimately  be  explained  by  this  east-west  extension 
of  relief  in  western  Asia. 

The  heart  of  the  Armenian  plateau  is  found  in  the  gently 
folded  limestones  and  lacustrine  deposits  surrounding  Lake  Van. 
Here  an  elevated  plain  relieves  the  ruggedness  of  environing 
peaks.  Here,  too,  our  earliest  knowledge  of  Armenian  history  is 
centered.  But  the  formation  of  nationality  upon  the  surrounding 
sites  of  intricate  relief  was  a  long-drawn  process.  A  highland 
dissected  into  numerous  valleys  could  not  become  the  seat  of  a 
united  people.  The  region,  being  broken  up,  favored  division. 
Accordingly  feudalism  flourished  undisturbed  throughout  its 
extent.  Each  valley  or  habitable  stretch  was  governed  by  its 
ovni  princeling.  These  petty  chiefs  relied  on  the  security  provided 
by  their  rugged  environment  and  were  naturally  disinclined  to 
acknowledge  authority  emanating  from  outside  their  valley 

The  plain  of  Van  has  always  loomed  large  in  the  history  of 
Armenia.  This  interesting  depression  occupies  the  southeastern 
corner  of  the  great  central  plateau  and  lies  surrounded  by 
volcanoes  which  were  centers  of  lively  eruptive  activity  during 
the  Pleistocene.  Together  with  the  plain  of  Mush  it  forms  a 
single  basin  which  was  once  a  lake  bed.  The  heavily  saline 
waters  of  Lake  Van  still  cover  its  deepest  section.  The  exposed 
lake  bottom  consists  of  volcanic  matter  carrying  fertilizers  in 
abundance.  Rich  brown  loams  contributed  to  the  region's  famed 
fertility.  Between  the  tenth  and  ninth  centuries  b.c.  the  Vannic 
community  became  the  nucleus  of  a  confederacy  of  mountain 
tribes  forming  the  kingdom  of  Urartu,"  which  extended  to  the 

*•  The  Mexican  parallel  is  too  striking  to  be  omitted  here.  The  southern  end  of 
the  plateau  of  Anahuac,  on  which  the  waters  of  Lake  Texcuco  receded  within  historical 

-    o 

,:=     o 

c    to 

S    S 

I    o 

V ""        Ctf        ''- 

^  rt  ■" 

^  ^  ^ 

rt  -O  " 

d  ^  o 

M  TO  !_ 

'ph  H 


heads  of  the  valleys  debouching  on  Assyrian  territory.^"  After 
successful  resistance  against  Assyria  the  independence  of  the 
Armenian  state  became  well  established  about  800  b.c. 

The  ancient  history  of  the  Armenians  is  closely  related  to  that 
of  the  Hittites.  The  appearance  of  the  former  is  coeval  with 
the  disappearance  of  the  latter.  The  probability  of  a  common 
origin  is  strong.  Enough  light  has  been  shed  on  the  history  of 
the  Armenian  table-land  prior  to  700  b.c.  to  enable  us  to  divide 
its  political  subdivisions  into  two  great  groups.  The  Vannic 
states  of  the  kingdom  of  Urartu  held  sway  in  the  northern 
ranges.  Hittite  dominance  extended  to  the  southern  group  of 
mountains.  It  may  be  assumed  that  the  Armenians  of  the 
present  day  are  direct  descendants  of  these  ancient  populations, 
due  allowance  being  made  for  the  invasion  of  Iranian  peoples 
who  brought  eastern  culture  to  the  land.  The  free  inflow  of  this 
eastern  element  was  impeded,  however,  by  the  highly  dissected 
table-land  of  Armenia.  It  trickled  westward  without  ever  assum- 
ing the  proportion  of  a  flood.  Hence  the  Armenian  physical  type 
is  preserved  with  considerable  purity  beneath  the  shroud  of 
Aryan  culture. 

The  Armenians  call  themselves  Hai  and  trace  their  descent 
to  a  mythical  mountain  chief  Haik.  Hai-istan  is  the  name  of 
their  native  land  in  Armenian.  The  word  Armenia  itself  is  of 
Persian  derivation  and  foreign  to  Armenian.  A  remote  possi- 
bility of  the  connection  of  Hai  with  the  old  name  Hit  or  Hatti 
may  be  advanced  in  view  of  the  frequency  with  which  the  elision 
of  the  letter  t  and  the  replacement  of  d-t  sounds  by  y  occur  in 
Armenian.-^  The  etymology  of  the  name,  however,  still  awaits 
more  thorough  elucidation. 

Although   the    relation   between   the    Hittite    and    Armenian 

times,  is  the  center  of  the  stage  of  Mexican  history.  Surrounding  this  open  land 
numerous  narrow  valleys  were  peopled  by  independent  tribes  which  eventually  banded 
together  under  the  leadership  of  the  community  living  near  the  central  body  of  water. 
This  lake  confederacy  became  Cortez's  most  powerful  opponent  when  the  conquistadores 
undertook  their  memorable  expedition.  Cf.  F.  J.  Payne:  History  of  the  New  World 
Called  America,  Oxford,  1899,  pp.  450-463. 

""D.  G.  Hogarth:  The  Ancient  East,  New  York,  1914,  p.  74. 

^^  Notably  *  is  entirely  eliminated  from  the  third  person  singular. 


languages  yet  remains  to  be  determined,  and  the  secrets  of  the 
old  Vannic  language  are  not  fully  revealed,  enough  is  known  to 
prove  Armenian  an  Aryan  infiltration  from  the  west.  Herodotus 
refers  to  them  in  a  natural  manner  as  the  ^pvy^v  anomoi  (VII, 
73),  ''Phrygian  colonists."  It  is  significant  to  note  that  this 
Greek  appellation  was  bestowed  on  the  Armenians  at  a  time 
when  western  Asia  was  better  known  to  the  civilized  countries 
of  the  world  than  it  is  at  present.  Modern  research,  however, 
places  the  inhabitants  of  the  plateau  of  Anatolia  and  of  the 
Armenian  mountain  land  in  the  same  racial  type. 

Planted  squarely  on  the  scene  of  the  secular  conflict  between 
the  civilization  of  Europe  and  Asia,  Armenia  became  the  prey 
of  the  victor  of  the  moment.  But  the  united  influence  of  site  and 
configuration  was  more  than  once  during  this  long  struggle 
strong  enough  to  confer  independence  on  the  Armenian.  As  a 
buffer  between  eastern  and  western  empires  the  country  enjoyed 
three  distinct  periods  of  native  rule  prior  to  the  Ottoman 

Throughout  these  vicissitudes,  Armenian  life  centered  mainly 
around  its  mountain  home.  Nevertheless,  altitude  alone  does  not 
suffice  to  explain  the  characteristics  of  the  people.  Climate  must 
also  be  taken  into  account.  Armenians  are  distributed  in  a  belt 
extending  one  degree  on  either  side  of  the  line  of  north  latitude 
39°.  Within  this  zone  the  products  of  the  soil  as  w^ell  as  the 
customs  are  those  of  temperate  regions  bordering  on  the  warm. 
The  narrow  highland  valleys  are  wonderfully  fertile.  Wheat  is 
harvested  before  July  at  an  elevation  of  3,600  feet  in  many  dis- 
tricts. The  country  enjoys  fame  for  the  variety  and  excellence 
of  its  fruits. 

Little  wonder,  then,  that  traits  which  distinguish  populations 
reared  in  sunny  lands  should  also  prevail  among  the  dwellers  of 
this  rugged  mountain  zone.  Voluble  in  the  extreme,  endowed 
with  a  highly  developed  imaginative  sense  and  with  an  innate 
tendency  to  aggrandize  and  glorify  the  facts  of  ordinary  life,  the 
Armenian  is  often  an  eastern  counterpart  of  the  celebrated 
Tarasconese  created  by  Daudet's  genial  fancy. ' 


But  a  rocky  environment  is  equally  reflected  in  the  minds  of 
the  Armenians.  Harshness  of  manner  and  a  certain  degree  of 
uncouthness  are  present  along  with  tenacity  of  purpose  and 
moral  fortitude.  Through  the  latter,  endurance  of  Turkish  per- 
secution, which  has  generally  assumed  exceedingly  savage  form, 
was  made  possible.  Armenians  are  also  known  for  their  martial 
spirit.  Dwellers  of  many  of  the  less  accessible  recesses  of  the 
Tauric  or  Armenian  highlands  held  their  Turkish  foes  in  check 
for  centuries  and  managed  to  maintain  a  state  of  semi-inde- 
pendence in  their  conqueror's  land  until  confronted  by  modern 

Again,  the  influence  of  the  mountain  home  of  the  Armenians 
is  expressed  in  their  art.  Poems  and  songs  often  extol  the 
fairness  of  the  valleys  where  rest  will  be  found  after  descent 
along  interminable  slopes.  Sometimes  the  beauty  of  lakes, 
embosomed  in  high  plateaus,  fires  the  poet's  fancy.  Towering 
summits  figure  in  legend  as  steeples  from  which  melodious 
chimes  send  forth  their  tones.  Armenian  music,  too,  resounds 
with  echoes  that  seem  to  reverberate  from  valleys  cut  deep  in 
the  sides  of  their  mountains. 

Perhaps  it  is  these  varied  influences  which  convert  the  rough 
and  mannerless  mountain  boors  into  the  most  polished  and  cul- 
tured citizens  of  Turkish  cities.  Armenians  have  the  reputation 
of  being  energetic  business  men.  Their  honesty  was  proverbial 
among  the  Turks,  who  generally  intrusted  the  management  of 
estates  or  domains  to  their  hands.  Among  them  alone  throughout 
the  inland  districts  of  Asiatic  Turkey,  western  progress  found 
receptive  minds. 

The  size  of  the  Armenian  population  of  Asiatic  Turkey  has 
never  been  accurately  determined.  The  inaccuracy  of  Turkish 
statistics  is  notorious.  Furthermore  the  boundaries  of  Turkish 
administrative  provinces  have  been  drawn  with  the  sole  view  of 
creating  groups  in  which  the  Mohammedan  element  would  pre- 
dominate. The  estimate  of  2,100,000  Armenians  for  Asiatic 
Turkey  given  by  so  reputable  a  writer  as  Major-General  Sir 


Charles  Wilson"  is  undoubtedly  high.  Cuinet's  figures  given  by 
Selenoy  and  Seidlitz  -^  probably  come  nearer  the  truth.  The 
wholesale  massacre  of  Armenian  males  which  has  been  system- 
atically conducted  by  the  Turks  for  the  past  twenty  years  and 
which  culminated  in  the  massacres  and  deportations  of  the  past 
two  years,  makes  it  improbable  that  over  1,000,000  Turkish 
Armenians  still  live.  Prior  to  the  European  war,  the  only  dis- 
tricts of  any  size  in  which  they  constituted  a  majority  of  the 
population  were  found  west  of  Nimrud  Dagh  in  the  plains  sur- 
rounding Mush  as  well  as  in  the  Kozan  district  north  of  the 
Cilician  plains.** 

The  Kurds 

An  Alpine  zone  of  transition  connecting  the  plains  of  northern 
Mesopotamia  with  the  surrounding  mountains  on  the  north  and 
east  became  the  homeland  of  the  Kurds.  In  a  broad  sense  it 
is  the  drainage  area  of  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates.  It  is  also  the 
site  of  important  mountain  gaps  through  which  human  move- 
ments from  east  to  west  or  vice  versa  have  proceeded.  Before 
the  consolidation  of  Turkish  authority  in  this  region,  a  matter  of 
less  than  a  century  ago  and  still  in  an  imperfect  stage  of  com- 
pletion, Kurdish  clans,  each  under  the  sole  leadership  of  their 
respective  chieftains,  controlled  the  pass  through  which  traffic 
from  the  southern  lowlands  or  the  eastern  plateau  was  directed 

**  Handbook  for  Travelers  in  Asia  Minor,  Transcaucasia,  Persia,  etc.,  London, 
1911,  p.  75. 

"  Peter7)ianns  Mitt.,  Vol.  42,  Jan.  1S96,  p.  S;  and  for  details  V.  Cuinet:  La 
Turquie  d'Asie,  Paris,  1891-94,  Vols.  1-4. 

"  The  Armenian  population  of  Turkey  is  divided  by  creed  into  three  distinct  com- 
munities. The  vast  nnvjority — probably  about  ninety  per  cent — belong  to  the  Gregorian 
sect  of  Christianity.  Adherents  of  the  Roman  Catholic  faith  are  found  chiefiy  in 
western  Asia  Minor.  Protestant  congregations  have  sprung  up  around  the  educational 
institutions  maintained  by  British  or  American  missionary  societies.  Let  it  be  noted 
here  that  many  Mohammedan  communities  in  Armenia  consist  of  Armenoid  individuals 
whose  membership  in  the  fold  of  Islam  is  the  result  of  forcible  conversions  since  the 
rise  of  Ottoman  power.  The  Dersimlis,  who  inhabit  the  region  between  the  two  main 
branches  of  the  Euphrates,  have  the  reputation  of  being  crypto-Christians  of  Armenian 
blood.  ^Moslems  of  Armenian  origin  are  also  known  in  the  village  of  Karageben  on 
the  Tehalta  river  east  of  Divrik.  In  Russia  the  Armenians  number  a  scant  million 
souls.  Half  of  this  community  is  scattered  in  the  valley  of  the  Arax  and  in  the 
Erivan  province. 

The  American  Geographic 




38 -CT 

The  American  Geographical  Sociefy  of  New  York 

Frontiers  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  1917,  PL  VIII 




( Afier  Supan,  b<tsed  on  Cui/vet, 
Selerwy  cund  v.  Seydblz.) 



towards  the  Anatolian  table-land.  They  exacted  heavy  tolls  from 
passing  caravans  and  derived  their  chief  source  of  revenue  from 
these  levies. 

Their  manner  of  living  conforms  with  the  intermediary 
character  of  their  habitat.  The  semi-nomads  of  the  plains  and 
southern  hills  seek  cool  uplands  during  the  summer  months.  In 
winter  they  descend  to  the  warm  plains  with  their  flocks  and 
herds  and  mingle  with  their  Arab  neighbors.  Their  instinct 
for  seasonal  migrations  has  been  developed  to  such  an  extent 
that  they  cannot  refrain  from  maintaining  their  semi-annual 
movements  in  the  Armenian  districts  to  which  they  have  been 
forcibly  removed  by  the  Turkish  government,  desirous  of  insur- 
ing Mohammedan  predominance  in  the  Christian  valleys  of 

Language  and  religion  carry  the  Kurds  back  to  eastern 
ancestry.  However  diverse  their  dialects,  Aryan  roots  forming 
the  framework  of  their  speech  have  survived  in  spite  of  the 
admixture  of  Turkish  and  Arabian  words.  By  creed  they  are 
generally  upholders  of  Shiite  tradition  in  its  westernmost  con- 
fines. But  their  religious  views  vary  from  tribe  to  tribe  and 
present  as  composite  a  character  as  their  race.  Many  are 
Sunnis.  Wandering  into  eastern  Asia  Minor  since  hoary 
antiquity  they  have  culled  from  Paganism,  Christianity  and 
Islamism  alike.  The  predominance  of  the  ideals  which  inspire 
these  faiths  among  the  individual  clans  probably  affords  a  clue 
to  the  period  of  their  arrival  in  the  localities  which  they  now 

Similarly,  the  racial  relation  of  the  Kurds  with  peoples  found 
east  of  their  land  is  well  established.-'  They  undoubtedly  belong 
to  the  European  family,  though  perhaps  not  in  the  sense  sug- 
gested by  von  Luschan,  who  would  connect  them  with  inhabitants 
of  northern  Europe.  From  the  writer's  own  observations  the 
"generally  blue  eyes  and  fair  hair"  are  by  no  means  dominant 
in  the  regiments  of  Hamidyeh  cavalry  recruited  exclusively  from 

"  F.  von  Luschan :  The  Early  Inhabitants  of  Western  Asia,  Ann.  Rept.  Smith- 
sonian  Inst,  for  1914,  pp.  561-562. 


among  Kurdish  tribesmen.-"  The  three  groups  studied  by  the 
eminent  anthropologist  near  Karakush,  on  the  Nimrud  mountain, 
and  at  Sinjirli  were  probably  remarkably  pure,  as  might  be  inferred 
from  the  nature  of  their  secluded  districts.  As  early  invaders  of 
a  transition  land  the  Kurds  have  intermingled  extensively  with 
both  highland  and  lowland  populations.-'  The  Kurd  varies 
therefore  according  to  region,  the  inhabitants  of  the  elevated 
sections  being  stocky  and  of  massive  build,  while  the  tall  and 
sallow  Semitic  type  appears  among  those  on  the  'southern 

The  Kurds,  particularly  in  the  semi-nomadic  state,  are  noted 
freebooters.  Travel  in  the  districts  they  occupy  is  generally 
unsafe.  Armenians  and  other  Christians  find  them  an  inexorable 
foe.  They  are  none  too  loath  to  prey  even  on  Turks,  although  as 
a  rule  the  latter  obtain  immunity  in  return  for  the  lenient  dealing 
of  the  government  in  cases  of  Kurdish  depredations  on  non- 
Moslem  communities.  The  strong  arm  of  an  organized  police 
alone  will  end  the  lawlessness  with  which  their  name  is  coupled 
in  Turkey. 

Good  qualities  are  not  wanting  among  them.  A  Kurd  is  gen- 
erally true  to  his  word.  The  rude  code  of  honor  in  vogue  among 
their  tribes  is  rarely  violated,  and,  whenever  disposed,  the  Kurd 
can  become  as  hospitable  as  his  Arab  neighbors.  The  tempering 
influence  of  a  settled  existence  among  sedentary  tribes  is  marked 
by  harmonious  intercourse  with  surrounding  non-Kurdish  com- 
munities. At  bottom  their  vices  are  chiefly  those  of  the  restless 
life  they  lead  in  a  land  in  which  organized  government  has  been 
unknown  for  the  past  eight  centuries. 

_The  Syeians 
Syria  is  the   elongated  land  passage,  barely  fifty  miles   in 
width,  which  connects  northern  Africa  with  western  Asia.    It  is 

"  "  Rarely  of  unusual  stature  .  .  .  complexion  dark "  is  Wilson's  description. 
Handbook  for  Travelers  in  Asia  Minor,  Transcaucasia,  Persia,  etc.,  London,  1911,  p.  64. 

*'  Mark  Sykes:  The  Kurdish  Tribes  of  the  Ottoman  Empire,  Journ.  Anthrop.  Inst., 
Vol.   38,   1908,  pp.  451-486. 

**  B.  Dickson:  Journeys  in  Kurdistan,  Oeogr.  Journ.,  Vol.  35,.  No.  4,  April  1910, 
p.  361. 

Fig.  62 — A    Kurdisli    village    in    Upper    Mesopotamia    with    characteristic    stone 
shanties  peculiar  to  semi-arid  regions. 

Fig.  G3— a  harvest  scene  in  Upper  Mesopotamia  with  Kurds  at  work. 


one  of  the  world's  best-defined  natural  regions.  The  sea  on  the 
west,  and  the  desert  on  the  east,  sharply  mark  off  its  fringe-like 
extension.  On  the  north  the  Amanus  ranges  constitute  a  wall 
that  has  proved  well-nigh  impassable  to  Semites.  To  the  south 
the  land  naturally  ends  in  the  Sinai  peninsula.-® 

The  province  is  mountainous  in  its  northern  half.  Its  moun- 
tains are  the  monuments  that  throw  light  on  the  utter  failure  of 
the  cause  of  human  progress  in  northern  Syria.  A  single 
redeeming  feature,  the  Orontes  river  valley,  favored  foreign 
contact.  At  its  mouth  on  the  Mediterranean  western  ideas 
filtered  into  the  land  while  a  blend  of  eastern  influences,  Persian 
and  Arabian,  flowed  down  with  its  waters.  All  converged  at 
Antioch,  the  region's  greatest  center  of  life  and  a  true  product 
of  the  Orontes'  lower  course.  Absence  of  relief  in  southern 
Syria,  however,  was  coupled  to  a  Mediterranean  climate  and 
fertile  soils.  These  permitted  the  development  of  the  flourishing 
civilizations  of  antiquity.  Herein  lies  the  physical  basis  of  the 
historical  evolution  of  the  Syrian  fringe  and  the  explantion  of 
the  growth  of  nations  and  of  world  religions  in  its  southern 

As  a  land-bridge  of  early  humanity  Syria  was  necessarily  the 
scene  of  much  coming  and  going  at  a  time  when  the  civilization 
of  the  world  was  largely  confined  to  what  is  now  known  as 
Asiatic  Turkey.  Its  population  therefore  presents  a  mixed 
character.  Hittites,  Arameans,  Assyrians,  Egyptians,  Oreeks, 
Romans,  Arabs  and  Turks  conquered  the  land  in  turn  and 
imparted  their  native  customs  to  its  inhabitants.  The  inhabitants 
of  its  southern  area  are  now  transformed  almost  beyond  the 
possibility  of  analysis.  The  settlements  of  the  elevated  and 
broken  northern  area,  on  the  other  hand,  represent  very  ancient 

The  mountains  of  Syria  harbor  strange  denizens  in  their 
northern  end.  In  the  northern  Lebanon  many  villages  of  the 
western  slopes  are  inhabited  by  the  Metauilehs,  who  are  Shiite 

='»De  Torcy:  Notes  sur  la  Syrie,  La  G4ogr.,  Vol.  27,  No.  3,  March  15,  1913,  pp. 
161-197;  No.  6,  June  15,  1913,  pp.  429-459. 


dissenters  and  bear  unenviable  reputation  for  ignorance  and 
inhospitality.^^  Their  own  traditions  point  to  Persian  or  Arabian 
origins.  Religion  seems  to  confirm  the  former  claim.  At  the 
same  time  they  are  known  to  the  Syrians  as  a  sturdy  mountain 
people.  Scattered  through  the  same  mountain  districts  the 
Ismailyehs,  another  highland  folk  who  under  the  name  of  Assas- 
sins enjoyed  sinister  fame  during  the  Middle  Ages,  maintain 
their  abode  in  inaccessible  valleys.  The  epithet  which  is  coupled 
to  their  name  is  an  altogether  illogical  rendering  of  the  Arabic 
*'hasheeshin"  and  does  not  convey  any  worse  meaning  than  that 
of  ''hasheesh"  fiends.     They  live  mainly  in  groups  around  old 

Saracen  castles. 


The  Ansariyehs 

The  Ansariyehs,  or  Nusariyehs,  form  an  important  group 
among  northern  Syrians.  Their  settlements  are  generally  con- 
fined to  the  grassy  seaward  slopes  of  the  mountains  stretching 
north  of  the  Nahr-el-Kebir  towards  the  Gulf  of  Alexandretta. 
They  also  occupy  villages  in  the  plains  surrounding  Antioch.  In 
recent  years  they  have  shown  a  tendency  to  abandon  their  moun- 
tain homes  for  the  less  arduous  life  of  the  plains.  Officially  they 
are  regarded  as  Mohammedans  and  bear  Mohammedan  names, 
but  the  religion  wliich  differentiates  them  from  the  other  inhabi- 
tants of  northern  Syria  teaches  Christian  and  Sabean  doctrines 
alike.  It  is  believed  that  they  still  maintain  observances  of 
exceedingly  ancient  nature  cults.  The  fundamental  principles  of 
their  creed  are  transmitted  by  word  of  mouth  and  with  injunction 
to  secrecy.^^  Their  deification  of  the  conception  of  fertility  is 
couched  in  highly  metaphorical  language  in  which  the  produc- 
tivity of  the  earth  and  of  the  human  race  is  extolled.  By  making 
proper  allowance  for  the  imagery  which  clothes  the  wording  of 
their  prayers  it  will  probably  be  found  that  their  religion 
resolves  itself  into  a  relic  of  the  worship  of  the  mother-goddess 

••  L.  Gaston  Leary:  Syria,  the  Land  of  Lebanon,  New  York,  1913,  p.  10. 
'*  R.  Dussaud :  Les  Nossairis,  Bibl.  de  I'Ecole  dea  Hautes  "Etudes,  Sciences,  Philoso- 
phie  et  Eistoire,  Paris,  1900,  Vol.  129. 


which  was  deeply  rooted  throughout  the  mountain  districts  of 
Asia  Minor.j  Hints  of  nocturnal  orgies  accompanying  their 
worship  should  be  taken  with  a  grain  of  suspicion,  as  orthodox 
Mohammedans  are  prone  to  such  imputations  whenever  dissen- 
sion from  the  Koran  is  suspected.  In  this  Mohammedans  merely 
follow  the  lead  of  Byzantine  Christians  in  whose  eyes  the  relics 
of  Anatolian  paganism  were  as  obnoxious  as  the  heresies  of  their 
own  times. 

*  The  ancestors  of  the  Ansariyehs  and  other  small  sects  in 
northern  Syria  were  closely  related  to  their  powerful  Hittite 
neighbors.  These  peoples  all  occupy,  together  with  the  Druzes 
and  Maronites,  the  southern  limit  of  known  Hittite  monuments.^^ 
Their  land  is  the  frontier  zone  between  Syria,  Asia  Minor  and 
the  Armenian  highland.  It  is  studded  with  ruined  strongholds 
which  figured  prominently  in  ancient  battlej 

The  Druzes 

The  southern  Lebanon  and  Anti-Lebanon  ranges  in  the  rear- 
land  of  the  Haifa-Beirut  coast  ^^  are  inhabited  by  Druzes. 
Tribes  of  this  people  are  met  as  far  southeast  as  the  Hawran 
volcanic  uplift,  whither  they  have  steadily  emigrated  from  the 
Lebanon  in  the  course  of  the  past  hundred  years  and  where  they 
have  succeeded  in  dislodging  the  former  Bedouin  inhabitants. 
These  Druzes  are  best  known  for  their  warlike  disposition. 
Although  numerically  inferior  to  the  Christian  population  of 
their  native  districts,  their  bellicose  qualities  have  won  them 
predominance  in  central  Syria.  In  religion  they  are  pure  mono- 
theists.  Their  standard  of  morality  is  high.  They  call  them- 
selves Mohammedans  but  do  not  maintain  mosques  and  rarely 
practise  polygamy.  Orthodox  Moslems  generally  repudiate  them 
on  account  of  the  discrepancy  between  their  teachings  and  the 
tenets  of  the  Koran.    As  far  as  can  be  determined  the  doctrines 

'''J.  Garstang:  The  Land  of  the  Hittites,  London,  1910,  pp.  15,  16. 

"  About  forty  towns  and  villages  are  held  by  the  Druzes  in  the  southern  Lebanon. 
In  the  Anti-Lebanon  districts  they  people  eighty  villages  and  share  possession  of  about 
two  hundred  with  their  Christian  kinsmen,  the  Maronites. 


of  the  Mosaic  law,  the  Gospels,  the  Koran  and  Sufi  allegories 
are  represented  in  their  creed.  Often  when  with  Christians  they 
will  not  hesitate  to  assert  belief  in  Christianity.  The  leaven  of 
Iranian  influences  which  pervades  their  doctrines  estranges  them 
from  the  surrounding  Semitism  just  as  their  highland  home 
separates  them  from  the  plainsmen  settled  around  them.  The 
dominance  of  this  eastern  strain  in  their  thoughts  does  not,  how- 
ever, necessarily  indicate  racial  migrations.  Historical  testi- 
mony is  available  to  prove  that  the  known  form  of  Druze  religion 
can  be  traced  to  the  teachings  of  Hamze,  a  Persian  disciple  of 
Hakem.'*  The  case  is  more  probably  that  of  an  infiltration  of 
foreign  ideals  and  its  retention  within  a  region  deprived  by  its 
relief  from  intercourse  with  the  more  progressive  life  of  the 
surroundino:  lowland. 


The  Makonites 

Closely  related  to  the  Druzes  are  their  northwestern  neigh- 
bors, the  Maronites,  a  Christian  people,  who  seceded  from  the 
Roman  Church  in  the  great  schism  that  followed  the  council  of 
Chalcedon  in  451  a.d.^^  They  form  a  compact  mass  settled  on  the 
western  slopes  of  the  Lebanon  mountains  between  the  valleys  of 
the  Nahr-el-Kebir  and  the  Nahr-el-Barid.  Mountain  isolation 
and  intermarriage  among  them  have  maintained  an  old  type  with 
remarkable  purity.  Being  better  farmers  than  warriors  they 
have  suffered  from  the  oft  repeated  depredations  of  their  war- 
like  neighbors.^®     Enmity   with    their    Mohammedan    neighbors 

^*  Hakem  was  a  Fatimite  caliph  of  Egypt,  who  ruled  in  the  early  eleventh  century. 
He  incurred  the  hatred  of  his  subjects  by  causing  the  incarnation  of  God  in  himself  to 
be  preached  in  Cairo  by  Darasi,  his  chaplain.  Both  became  so  unpopular  that  they 
were  forced  to  escape  from  the  capital  to  the  Lebanon,  where  they  succeeded  in  imposing 
their  doctrines  on  the  mountaineers.  The  name  Druze  is  believed  to  be  derived  from 

**  In  recent  years  the  Maronites  have  submitted  to  the  authority  of  the  Vatican. 
In  return  certain  privileges,  such  as  that  of  retention  of  Syriac  liturgy,  have  been 
accorded  to  them.  They  constitute  a  veritable  theocracy,  all  tribal  and  commvinity 
affairs  being  handled  by  the  clergy. 

^'  The  French  military  expedition  to  the  Lebanon,  undertaken  in  1860,  was  caused 
by  the  massacre  of  over  12,000  Maronites  by  the  Druzes  in  that  year." 


dates  from  the  time  of  the  Crusades  when  the  Maronites  had 
sided  with  the  Christian  knights. 

The  Jews 

I — 

The  Jews  of  Turkey  include  a  small  remnant  of  the  captivity- 
settled  around  Jerusalem  and  in  Mesopotamia."  After  the 
destruction  of  Jerusalem,  the  valley  of  the  Tigris  became  the 
most  important  seat  of  the  Hebrews.  Parthian  tolerance  granted 
them  a  partial  autonomy  under  the  authority  of  a  chief  chosen 
from  among  the  descendants  of  the  house  of  David.^^  This 
liberal  regime  ended  with  the  decline  in  power  of  the  Abbasside 
caliphs  of  Bagdad.  The  Jews  were  then  forced  to  abandon 
Chaldea.  Many  emigrated  to  Spain.  Later,  under  the  reign  of 
Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  they  were  compelled  to  flee  from  Spanish 
persecution  and  seek  a  home  again  in  Turkey.  Descendants  of 
these  emigrants,  known  as  Sephardim,  are  settled  in  cities  of 
Asia  Minor  and  Syria.  Small  colonies  of  Ashkenazim  Jews 
are  also  scattered  in  various  Turkish  towns.  An  old  colony 
of  a  few  hundred  Samaritans  survives  in  the  vicinity  of 

The  Jews  are  an  exceedingly  composite  people  and,  contrary 
to  popular  belief,  do  not  represent  as  pure  a  type  of  the  Semitic 
race  as  the  Bedouin  Arabs.  Southern  Syria  was  a  prey  to 
invaders  from  every  quarter  of  the  compass.  It  was  the  clashing 
ground  of  Hittite  and  Nilotic  civilizations.  From  the  west, 
Mediterranean  seafaring  populations  swarmed  in  from  earliest 
antiquity.  At  least  three  great  waves  of  Semitic  migrations 
overwhelmed  the  land  prior  to  the  coming  of  the  Arabs.  The 
Jew,  therefore,  represents  the  fusion  of  four  distinct  races  of 
men.  The  purity  he  has  retained  is  that  of  the  fused  type.  His 
language  alone  is  Semitic.  His  physical  appearance  recalls 
Hittite  traits  more  prominently  than  Semitic  and  this  probably 
accounts  for  the  frequent  mistaking,  in  western  Europe  and  in 
the  United  States,  of  Armenians  for  Jews. 

"  This  group  comprises  about  90,000  souls  in  Syria  and  40,000  in  Mesopotamia. 
'*  E.  Aubin:   La  Perse  d'aujourd'hui,  Paris,  1908,  p.  418. 



The  Arameans  are  either  direct  ancestors  of  modern  Jews  or 
else  close  congeners  of  early  Hebrews.  Both  peoples  are  closely 
allied.  They  represent  one  of  the  many  waves  of  Semitic 
humanity  which  have  rolled  out  of  Arabia's  highland  steppes.  A 
period  of  settlement  in  the  fertile  districts  around  the  mouth  of 
the  Euphrates  and  Tigris  precedes  their  spread  throughout 
Mesopotamia  and  northeastern  Syria.  References  to  their  his- 
tory abound  in  sacred  texts,  as  well  in  inscriptional  remains  " 
found  throughout  western  Asia.  The  accounts,  however,  are 
fragmentary  and  so  far  have  made  possible  only  partial  recon- 
stitution  of  their  history.  An  Aramean  nation  or  a  number  of 
Aramean  states  undoubtedly  existed  in  the  tenth  century  b.c. 
This  body  subsequently  acquired  considerable  power  and  founded 
colonies  all  over  Mesopotamia  and  Syria.  Damascus  and 
Hamath,  both  in  the  latter  province,  became  the  greatest  centers 
of  Aramean  power,  omng  to  the  natural  resources  of  the  districts 
around  their  sites  as  well  as  to  their  commanding  position  on 
important  trade  routes. 

It  seems  established  that  the  vast  territory  designated  by  the 
Assyrians  by  the  name  of  ''Mat  Aram,"  or  land  of  Aram,  did 
not  necessarily  contain  Aramaic  populations.  It  was  more 
probably  conquered  by  Arameans,  who  imposed  their  language 
on  the  subjugated  peoples.  Soon  after  the  capture  of  Damascus 
by  the  Assyrians  in  732  b.c.  the  Aramean  nation  disappears  from 
history.  Aramaic,  however,  survived  and  was  even  adopted  by 
the  victors.^"  But,  in  common  with  other  Semitic  languages,  it 
could  not  withstand  the  advance  of  Arabic.  The  only  locality  in 
which  it  is  now  spoken  is  found  northeast  of  Damascus  in  the 
environs  of  the  villages  of  Malula,  Bakha  and  Yubb  Adin,  where 
the  natives  still  use  a  dialect  similar  to  the  Palestinian  Aramaic 
spoken  thirteen  centuries  ago.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that 
this   sub-group  of  Syrians   represents   today  the   old  Aramean 

'•  The  Elephantine  papyri  discovered  on   the  island  of  Elephantine   in   southern 
Egypt  between  1003  and  lOOC  contain  Aramaic  texts  of  prcat  historical  value. 
*"  0.  Procksch:  Die  Volker  Altpalilstinas,  Leipzig,  1914,  p.  30; 


stock  in  as  pure   a  degree   as  is  consistent   with   the   secular 
mingling  of  peoples  which  has  taken  place  in  the  region.*^_J 


The  Yezidis 

The  Sinjar  range  of  hills  stretching  in  a  westerly  direction 
from  Mosul  is  the  only  upland  of  importance  in  the  Mesopo- 
tamian  valley.  The  largest  compact  mass  of  Yezidis  are  domi- 
ciled in  this  hilly  country.  A  minor  group  occupies  the  Samaan 
mountains  in  Syria.*- 

The  appellation  of  devil-worshipers  which  generally  accom- 
panies the  name  of  Yezidi  conveys  a  totally  erroneous  impression 
regarding  their  beliefs.  They  recognize,  in  fact,  a  benign  deity, 
the  Khode-Qanj,  who  reigns  supreme  over  creation  but  with 
whom  is  associated  an  inferior  divine  essence,  the  Malik-i-Tawus, 
or  Peacock  King,  who  is  lord  of  all  evil  and  whom  they  consider 
necessary  to  propitiate  in  order  to  avert  misfortune.  But  the 
ceremonies  and  sacrifices  performed  in  honor  of  the  subordinate 
deity  do  not  interfere  with  the  primary  worship  with  which  the 
God  of  Good  is  revered.*'  This  interpretation  of  divinity  bears 
deep  analogy  to  the  Iranian  cult  which  revolves  around  the  cen- 
tral figures  of  Ormuzd  and  Ahriman,  respectively  the  good  and 
the  evil  principle.  The  language  of  the  Yezidis,  which  is  akin 
to  Kurdish,  brings  added  evidence  of  the  eastern  derivation  of 
their  culture. 

According  to  their  own  traditions  the  Yezidis  came  originally 
from  the  districts  of  the  lower  Euphrates.  Certain  Sabean 
features  of  their  religion  indicate  intimate  contact  with  Semitic 
populations.  Little  is  known  about  their  curious  religious  cele- 
brations, to  which  strangers  are  never  admitted.  Their  practice 
of  bowing  before  the  rising  sun  is  a  clear  relic  of  Zoroastrian 
influence.      They    also    perform    rites    which    have    analogy    to 

*^  At  the  end  of  the  pre-Islamic  period  the  region  west  of  the  Euphrates  to  the 
eastern  slopes  of  the  Lebanon  mountains  was  known  to  the  Arabs  as  "  Beit  Aramyeh," 
or  the  land  of  the  Arameans. 

"H.  Lammens:  Le  Massif  du  Gebal  et  les  Yezidis  de  Syrie,  Melanges  FacultS 
Orient.  Univ.  Beyrouth,  1907,  pp.  366-407. 

*"  W.  B.  Heard:  Notes  on  Yezidis,  Journ.  Anthrop.  Inst.,  Vol.  41,  pp.  200-219. 


Christian  commemorations.  In  a  land  overrun  in  all  directions 
no  simple  feature  of  the  views  they  hold  can  account  for  their 
origin.  The  religion  of  the  moment  was  imposed  by  the  domi- 
nant element  over  all  the  peoples  of  Asiatic  Turkey.  Hence  a 
given  group  merely  shows  successive  strata  of  religious  invasions. 

The  sturdily-built  Yezidi  is  active  and  hardy.  His  energy 
sets  him  apart  from  the  lithe-limbed  and  easy-going  Arabs.  His 
vigor  and  fighting  blood  saved  him  from  the  frightful  persecu- 
tions for  which  the  particularly  obnoxious  feature  of  his  dual 
deity  was  responsible.  Byzantine  bishops  and  Arabian  mollahs 
in  turn  reserved  the  wildest  thunder  of  their  intolerance  for  the 
Yezidi,  whom  they  execrated  beyond  all  others  among  heretics 
and  unbelievers.  This  hatred  of  the  presumed  worshiper  of  the 
devil  has  not  yet  been  outlived,  and  a  devout  Mohammedan  will 
today  spit  upon  the  ground  and  mutter  a  curse  whenever  the 
abhorred  name  crosses  his  lips. 

The  Yezidis  enjoy  fame  as  agriculturists  who  know  how  to 
exact  good  yield  from  their  mountain  farms.  They  live  a  retired 
life  and  rarely  allow  strangers  to  travel  through  the  Sinjar 
range.  The  modern  armament  of  Turkish  expeditions  has 
cowed  the  present  generation  into  a  submission  which  their 
fathers  would  have  scorned.  But  they  still  remain  unwilling  tax 
payers  who  rely  on  the  natural  disinclination  of  Turkish  tax 
collectors  to  mountain- climbing.  J 

The  Nestorians 

The  Nestorians,  a  Christian  sect,  are  descendants  of  the  fol- 
lowers of  Nestorius,  who  seceded  from  established  orthodoxy  in 
the  sixth  century.  They  inhabit  scattered  villages  in  a  region 
which  changes  from  mountain  to  plain  as  it  extends  west  of  the 
Persian  frontier  to  the  Tigris  river,  roughly  between  latitudes 
34°  and  38°.  On  the  north  they  rarely  venture  beyond  the 
Bohtan  river.  The  mountainous  tract  produces  a  manly  set,  who 
have  more  than  held  their  own  against  the  martial  Kurds. 
Poverty  and  dependence  mark. the  lot  of  the  plainsmen  in  spite 
of  their  industry  as  agriculturists. 


To  say  that  the  inhabitants  of  Turkey  have  religious  nation- 
ality is  perhaps  the  happiest  way  of  accounting  for  the  presence 
of  large  numbers  of  independent  communities  owing  political 
allegiance  to  the  Sultan.  The  bond  of  faith  in  the  case  of  the 
Nestorians  is  one  of  remarkable  strength,  because  this  community 
represents  the  persecuted  remnant  of  the  ancient  church  of  cen- 
tral Asia.  Owing  to  its  situation  on  the  very  outskirts  of  early 
Christianity  the  church  became  engaged  in  propagating  the 
Gospel  on  a  scale  exceeded  only  by  the  see  of  Rome  in  the  sixth 
and  sixteenth  centuries.'**  Consciousness  of  this  tradition  has  not 
forsaken  the  Nestorians  of  the  present  day.  The  great  influence 
wielded  by  their  patriarch  or  religious  head,  the  Mar  Shimun, 
as  he  is  called,  is  a  relic  of  former  authority. 

The  speech  of  the  Nestorians  is  a  Syriac  dialect  in  which 
Persian,  Arabic  and  Kurdish  words  have  found  place.  Religious 
services  are  conducted,  however,  in  the  uncontaminated  language. 
The  Nestorians  call  themselves .  Syrians  and  refuse  to  recognize  '^^ 

any  other  appellation.  Owing  to  this  fact  much  confusion  has 
arisen  in  the  minds  of  travelers  who  have  attempted  to  describe 

The  Chaldeans 
The  Chaldeans  are  racially  akin  to  the  Nestorians,  with  whom 
they  formed  a  single  religious  community  prior  to  the  seven- 
teenth century.  The  hope  of  obtaining  relief  from  Mohammedan 
persecution  induced  an  important  section  of  the  old  community 
to  join  the  church  of  Rome  at  that  time.  In  recent  years,  how- 
ever, many  have  forsaken  Roman  Catholicism  and  formed  a  new 
sect  which  is  known  by  the  name  of  New  Chaldeans.  Protestant 
communities  of  this  people  as  well  as  of  Nestorians  and  Jacobites 

The  Jacobites 
The  rugged  limestone  district  around  Midyad  is  the  home  of 
another   mountain    people    known    as    the    Jacobites.      Banded 

**  A.  P,  Stanley :  Lectures  on  the  History  of  the  Eastern  Church,  New  York, 
1909,  p.  58. 


together  by  the  ties  of  religion  they  form  a  community  of  hus- 
bandmen living  aloof  from  their  neighbors  of  divergent  religious 
views.  They  are  described  as  of  warlike  nature  and  independent 
spirit.  Language  also  differentiates  them  from  other  Ottoman 
groups,  a  Syriac  dialect  differing  considerably  from  Nestorian 
being  in  use  among  them.^^  In  Turabdin  they  speak  an  Aramaic 
dialect  known  as  Turani.  The  Jacobites  are  noted  for  their  apti- 
tude for  business.  The  important  colony  of  traders  founded  in 
the  eighteenth  century  in  the  vicinity  of  Bagdad  owes  its  origin 
to  the  desert  traffic  and  the  Indian  trade  by  way  of  Basra. 

This  people  traces  its  religious  origin  to  the  teachings  of 
Jacobus  Baradeus,*®  who,  in  the  middle  of  the  sixth  century, 
traveled  through  Asia  Minor  and  consolidated  scattered  groups 
of  Monophysite  recusants  into  a  single  body.  They  constituted 
a  large  sect  during  the  Middle  Ages,  but  defections,  notably  in 
favor  of  the  Roman  Church,  have  thinned  their  numbers  consid- 
erably since  then.  At  present  they  muster  hardly  more  than 
15,000  individuals. 

The  Sabeans 

We  are  still  in  the  dark  concerning  the  history  of  the 
Sabeans,  a  people  of  Semitic  origin  who  profess  Christianity. 
That  they  once  formed  a  powerful  nation  is  attested  by  numerous 
ruins  and  inscriptions.  This  state  began  to  decline  in  the  first 
century  of  the  Christian  era  and  had  completely  disappeared  by 
500  A.D.  They  call  themselves  Mendai  and  are  often  known  by 
the  name  of  Christians  of  St.  John.  The  community  is  small, 
numbering  hardly  3,000  souls,  mostly  goldsmiths  and  boat- 
builders  who  ply  their  trade  in  the  Arab  encampments  of  the 
Amara  and  Muntefik  sanjaks  in  the  vilayet  of  Basra.  They  talk 
a  Semitic  dialect  and  dress  like  the  Arabs,  from  whom  they  can 
scarcely  be  distinguished.  Their  original  homeland  is  believed 
to  have  been  Yemen. 

"  H.  Trotter:  Oeogr.  Journ.,  Vol,  35,  No.  4,  1910,  p.  378. 

"  F.  J.  Bliss:  The  Religions  of  Modern  Syria  and  Palestine,  New  York,  1912. 


^■-/^ip.'\»>C'j'«.v-^!igi,".'."^'.'f;;".  tt  • 

Fig.  64. 

Fig.  65. 

Fig.  64 — Kurd  children  of  the  Armenian  borderland.     The  poverty  of  the  land  is 
reflected  in  their  appearance  no  less  than  in  the  arid  background  of  the  photograph. 
Fig.  65 — A  family  of  sedentary  Arabs  in  Mesopotamia. 





THE  PEOPLES  OF  TURKEY       ^^_  307 

The  Ahabs 

The  Arab  folk,  sparsely  distributed  over  the  Syrian  desert 
and  forming  the  majority  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  featureless 
downs  of  Mesopotamia,  represent  the  ebbing  of  the  last  tide  of 
Semitic  invasion.  In  the  sandy  waste  of  their  western  extension, 
their  tribes,  shifting  perpetually  from  seat  to  seat,  like  the  dunes 
around  which  they  roam,  consist  of  Bedouin  or  ' '  tent  men. ' '  The 
contribution  of  these  nomads  to  society  is  as  insignificant  as  the 
yield  of  the  unproductive  lands  of  their  wandering.  Towards  the 
east,  however,  where  two  mighty  rivers  bring  fertility  and  life  to 
the  soil,  the  genius  of  the  race  blossomed  untrammeled  and  gave 
Mohammedan  civilization  to  the  world. 

The  purest  living  representatives  of  the  Semitic  race  are  found 
among  these  Bedouins.  Civilization  pursued  its  steady  growth 
around  their  tent  homes  without  affecting  their  lives.  Better 
favored  belts  encircling  the  Syrian  desert  attracted  the  human 
migrations  which  took  place  in  western  Asia.  From  the  last  out- 
liers of  the  hill  system  fringing  the  southern  Taurus  to  the 
northern  confines  of  the  Arabian  peninsula,  the  patriarchal  state 
of  society  prevailing  today  differs  little  from  the  condition  in 
which  a  dreamer  well  past  middle  age  found  it  fourteen  centuries 
ago  and  brought  it  within  the  pale  of  modern  thought  by  inspiring 
it  with  the  enthusiasm  of  his  own  belief  in  a  single  God.  Stripped 
of  his  religion  and  of  his  rifle,  the  Bedouin  stands  today  before 
the  historian  as  the  living  image  of  long  remote  ancestors  whose 
invasions  caused  profound  upheavals  in  the  societies  established 
east  and  west  of  his  present  tramping  ground. 

But  the  Arab  settled  in  the  long  elongated  plain  watered  by 
the  Tigris  and  Euphrates  can  never  lay  claim  to  equal  purity  of 
stock.  He  lives  in  a  land  which  by  virtue  of  a  great  twin  river 
system  gave  rise  to  the  oldest  civilization  of  the  world.  Its 
inhabitants,  whether  aboriginal  or  invaders  from  the  table-land 
on  the  east,  derived  more  than  mere  sustenance  from  prox- 
imity to  these  mothering  watercourses.  Surrounded  by  desert 
and  mountain,  this  region  naturally  became  a  seat  of  population. 


Its  native  element,  already  much  mixed,  was  assimilated  to  a 
large  extent  by  the  Arabs  Since  the  period  of  their  appearance 
in  Mesopotamia. 

The  floating  masses  of  Bedouins  have  successfully  resisted 
Turkish  effort  to  induce  them  to  abandon  nomadism.  Occa- 
sionally, as  in  the  belt  of  Tauric  precipitation  or  along  the 
borders  of  the  zone  of  Mediterranean  rains  no  less  than  under 
the  benign  influence  of  Mesopotamian  rivers,  they  become  seden- 
tary. They  are  then  known  as  fellaheen.  But  the  change  is 
incompatible  with  their  immemorial  restlessness  and  implies  loss 
of  caste  in  their  own  eyes. 

Names  and  Peoples  of  Some  Nok-Turkish  Villages  in  Asia  Minor 
Peoples  designated  as  follows : 

Alevi    Al. 

Armenians Ar. 

Avshars Av. 

Chaldeans  Ch. 

Circassians Cir. 

Greeks   Gr. 

Karapapaks Kpk. 

Kizilbash    Kz. 

Kurds  Kd. 

Nestorians N. 

New  Chaldeans  N.  Ch. 

Tatars Ta. 

Turkomans  Tkn. 

Yezidi   Yd. 

Name  of  Village 


Name  of  Village 


Aghje  Kaleh  Kd. 

Agh-ova   Kd. 

Aivali Gr. 

Ak-bunar   Cir. 

Akdam Ar. 

Akhlat Kd. 

Akstafa   Kpk. 

Alaklissia Gr. 

Alexandropol   Ar. 

Alkosh  N.  Ch. 

Altea   Gr. 

Angora   Ar, 

Arabja  Keupri Gr.  &  Cir. 

Ardia   Cir. 

Arji  N. 

Atess  N. 

Avviran  Gr. 

Bazarjik  Kd. 

Berar Ar. 

Bey   Ch. 

Birgami Kd. 

Chateran  Ar. 

Chevirme Kd. 

Chukh   Ar. 

Deliler Kd. 

Derendeh Ar. 

Diz-deran  Kd. 

Ekrek Ar. 

Feshapur Ch. 

Funduk Cir. 



Name  of  Village  Peoples 

Furinji  Kd. 

Garib Kd. 

Garni Ar. 

Gemerek Ar. 

Gunderno Ar. 

Gunig-kaleh   Ar. 

Gurgujeli Tkn. 

Gurun Ar. 

Haik Ar. 

Hamsi   Gr. 

Hanefi Al. 

Harras Kd. 

Helais  Kd. 

Homova Ar. 

Hoshmat Ar. 

Inevi Tkn. 

Instosh Ar. 

Isbarta Gr. 

Isoglilu Kd. 

Jenan Kd. 

Jessi Kd. 

Kaialik   Kd. 

Kainar  Cir. 

Karacku  Kd. 

Kara-geben Ar. 

Keklik-oghlu   Kd. 

Kelebesh   Gr. 

Kemer  Av. 

Keupri Tkn. 

Kezanlik    Cir. 

Khakkaravokh Kd. 

Khasta-Khaneh  Av. 

Khusi N. 

Kinskh Kd. 

Kizil-doghan Gr. 

Kilisse  Ar. 

Koehannes   N. 

Koch-hissar Ar. 

Kojeri  Ar. 

Koshmet  Kz. 

Kotni Kd. 

Kula Gr. 

Kwaneb N. 

Maden   N. 

Madrak Kd. 

Mansuriyeh Ch. 

Melendis Gr. 

Mervanen   N, 

Name  of  Village  Peoples 

Misli Qy 

Mush  plain _^. 

Nerdivan g;^^ 

Nerib g;^^ 

Nigdeh Qj.^ 

Niksar Qj.. 

Norchuk ^j.^ 

Omar Kd. 

Orbiilu j^d. 

Pekarieh   ^_ 

Pingan ^r. 

Porrot  Kd. 

Pulk Ar. 

Rabat Kd. 

Redvan   Yd. 

Samsat  Kd. 

Sekunis n. 

Semil Yd. 

Serai  j^_ 

Shabin  Kara-Hissar Ar. 

Shahr Ar. 

Sha-uta  N. 

Sheik  Adi Yd. 

Sheikh  Amir Kd. 

Sheikhan Kd. 

Shen   Kd. 

Shernak Kd. 

Sultan  Oghlu Tkn. 

Tadvan Ar. 

Takvaran   Kd. 

Tashan Ar. 

Tashbunar  Cir. 

Terzili  Ar. 

Thorub Ch. 

Tokat Ar. 

Tomarze Ar. 

Top-agaeh Ar. 

Tor Tkn. 

Ulash  Ar. 

Uzum  Yaila Cir. 

Vurla Gr. 

Yakshi-khan  Ta. 

Yalak Av. 

Yarzuat  Ta. 

Yeni  Keui Kd. 

Zara Ar. 

Zela Ar. 


Classification  op  the  Peoples  of  Asiatic  Turkey 







AlU'vis  (see 


A  nearly  ehs 




Syrian  mts.  and  Cili- 
cian  plains 






Syrian  mts. 






South  of  Tauric  and 
Armenian  nits. 

300.000  ♦ 










Armenian     highland, 
Taurus    and    Anti- 


Asdias  (see 

Taurus  ranges 










Mixed     Moham- 
medan   and 

Mixed    Arabic, 
Kurdish    and 

Near  Sasun 




Mixed     Moham- 
medan   and 


Near  Mosul 




Roman  Catholic 

Syriac,  Kurdish 
and  Arabic 

Near    Diarbekr    and 
Jezireh  ;    Sert    and 


Chepmis  (see 

Khabur  basin 



Mixed    Tnrki    and 



Anatolia,  N.Syria,  N. 






Lebanon;  Anti-Leba- 
non, Ilawran  mts., 
around  Damascus 






Coast  districts,   min- 
ing districts,    large 






Northern  Syria 




Christian       (Jlono- 


Syria,  Mesopotamia 



Mixed       Semitic, 
and  Armenoid 



Jerusalem  ;    environs 
of  Damascus 









Armenoid     mixed 

Sliia,  or  mixture  of 


Angora  and  Sivas  vil- 


with  Turki 

Sliiism,       Pafian- 
and  Christianity 

ayets  ;  Dersim 




Aryan    lan- 

West  of  the  Sakaria 
river;    Kurdistan 



Georgian  branch  of 
the  Caucaso-Thi- 
betan  peoples 



Lazistan  ;    north     of 
Chonik  Su,  around 






Mt.    Lebanon,    Anti- 



Probably  Armenoid 



Northern  Lebanon 

under  50.000 





Basin    of    the    Great 
Zab  ;   valleys  of  the 
Holitan  and  Khabar 


New  Chaldeans 










Amara  and   Muntefik 
sanjaks  of  the  Basra 






Near  Niiblus 




Christian    and   Mo- 


Syria     and    Mesopo- 






Lycian  mts. 






Anatolia  and  Cilician 


Terekiinans  (see 







Angora,    Adana    and 
Aleppo  vilayets 



Turki  mixed    with 



Anatolia  mainly 


Yezidis  or  Asdais 

Mixed      Armenoid 



Kurt  Dagh  on  the  W. 


!ind  Indo- 

mixture  of  the  old 

to  Zakho  E.  of  the 


Babylonian  relig- 
ion ;  Zoroastrian- 
ism,  Manichaeism 
and  Christianity 

Tigris;    Badi    near 
Mosul ;  Sinjar  range 





Konia  vilayet  . 




'  The  flgnres  for  Armenians  and  Greeks  require  revision  in  view  of  the  systematic  efforts  of  the  Turks  to 
extirpate  these  two  peoples.  The  massacres  of  the  entire  Greek  population  of  villages  of  the  .^Esean  coasts 
and  atrocities  of  a  most  inhuman  character  perpetrated  on  the  Armenians  of  inland  communities  have  largely 
depleted  the  ranks  of  these  two  Christian  subject  groups. 

'  Hellenes,  or  subjects  of  the  King  of  Greece,  number  about  20,000. 


The  Christians  of  the  Turko-Persian  Borderland 
I.     Mosul  and  the  Valley  of  the  Tigris  {by  families)  ' 
District  of  Mosul, 

City  of  Mosul  2,000  R.  C 

City  of  Mosul 1,200  J. 

City  of  Mosr.l 400  R.  C.  s. 

Telkief   2,000  R.  C. 

Bagdaii-    700  J. 

Bartila 300  R.  C. 

Batnai    400  R.  C. 

Tel  Uskof   450  R.  C. 

Alkosh    700  R.  C. 

Dohuk    150  R.  C. 

Bait  Kupa 300  R.  C. 

Mar  Yakob  &  Sheus  100  R.  C. 

Total 8,700                    8,700 

District  of  Sapna. 

Mangesliie    200  R.  C. 

Dihie    30  P. 

Daviria 100  R.  C. 

Tinn   70  R.  C. 

Aradin    200  R.  C. 

Haszia  &  Benata  50  R.  C. 

Bibaidi   30  N. 

Diri 40  N. 

Dirginie   35  N. 

Lower  Barnai,  Maisie,  Chamankie,  etc  120  R.  C. 

Total  875                       875 

District  of  Zakhu. 

Zakhu  100  R.  C. 

Bait  Daru   90  R.  C. 

Peshawur  .  . ; 110  R.  C. 

Bersiwi    70  R.  C. 

Sharnish    50  R.  C. 

Margu  &  Baiju 95  R.  C. 

Wasta 80  R.  C. 

Total    595  595 

^  Figures  supplied  by  Dr.  W.  W.  Rockwell,  Editor  of  the  American  Committee  for 
Armenian    and    Syrian    Relief.       See    Rockwell:    Pitiful    Plight,    second    ed.,    pp.    66. 

"Abbreviations;  R.  C:  Roman  Catholic  Uniata,  "Chaldeans."  R.  C.  s.:  Roman 
Catholic  Uniats,  "  Syrian  Catholics."  J. :  Jacobites.  N. :  Nestorians,  "  Assyrian  Chris- 
tians."   P.:  Protestants, 


TABLE  III— C out i mud 
District  of  Bohtan. 

Tilkubn 60  R.  C. 

Jazera    ( Jezireb)     1^"^0  R.  C. 

^AFansuria   60  P. 

Hassan   70  N. 

Shakh 30P. 

Mar  Akha   30  P. 

]\lar  Yohanuan   10  P. 

A  few  other  villages 50  N. 

Total    460                        460 

District  of  Zibar. 

Esan  30  N. 

Argin   7  N. 

Shusbu  &  Sharman  25  N. 

Shaklawa  (iu  Akra)   500  R.  C. 

Akra  300R.C. 

Total    S62                        S62 

District  of  E.  Berwar. 

Aina  d'Nuni   50  N. 

Dun    35N. 

Ikri  &  Malakhta 40  N. 

Bait  Baluk   20  N. 

Four  villages,  including  Halwa,  Khwara  50  N. 

Dirishki    20  N. 

Maiyi    25  N. 

Haiyiz    30  N. 

Bishmeyayi    20  N. 

lad    20N. 

Tashish 30  N. 

Musakka    20  N. 

Three  small  villages   25  N. 

Jadeda    15  N. 

Chalik    30  N. 

Kaneba  Labi 20  N. 

Total    450                        450 


II.     The  Highlands  of  Kurdistan 

Tyari    5.000 

Tkhuma   2,500 

Baz  SOO 

Tal                                     700 

Diz   '  ^  ^  ^ : 600 

Jilu 2,500 


TABLE  111— Continued 

Berwar  (Qudslianis  included)   900 

Lewan  (west  of  Julamerk)   300 

Serai  (45  miles  east  of  Van)   300 

Eleven  villages  around  Serai 400 

Norduz  (on  Van- Julamerk  road)   200 

Albak  (near  Bashkala)    300 

Gawar    400 

Six  villages  in  Nerwan  &  Rekan 200 

Shemsdinan  &  Bar  Bhishu  (estimated)   200 

Total  families 15,300  15,300 

Grand    total    27  242 

Total  individuals  at  six  to  a  family 103  452 


The  science  of  geography  attains  its  highest  usefulness  when 
called  into  the  service  of  man.  Having  in  mind  the  influence  of 
regional  environment  upon  human  societies  and  particularly  upon 
language  and  nationality  as  shown  in  the  foregoing  chapters,  let 
us  next  look  at  the  bearing  of  our  conclusions  on  the  determina- 
tion of  international  frontiers.  The  problem  consists  in  ascer- 
taining the  logical  or  natural  limit  of  the  spread  of  language 
and  nationality.  Growing  at  first  in  listless  response  to  environ- 
ment, natural  frontiers  eventually  attain  a  stage  where  intelligent 
conformity  to  the  same  environment  becomes  necessary.  Here 
the  linguistic  factor  based  on  a  sound  geographical  foundation 
acquires  practical  value  though  it  is  not  necessarily  the  only 
determining  element. 

The  spirit  of  nationality  represents  the  highest  development 
of  the  idea  of  self-preservation.  Its  growth  can  be  traced  from 
the  individual  to  the  family,  thence  to  the  tribe  and  city,  until 
the  formation  of  the  political  state  is  obtained.  In  the  last 
stages  of  this  process,  nationality  attains  perfection  through 
homogeneity  of  its  component  individuals.  The  men  who  com- 
pose a  single  nation  must  think  together.  Their  ideals  and  aims 
must  be  one  and  they  must  be  conscious  of  a  conunon  destiny. 
Language,  as  the  currency  of  thought,  naturally  becomes  the 
unifier.  To  a  notable  degree  areas  of  homogeneous  language  in 
Europe  have  been  spared  the  havoc  of  battle  or  siege.  On  the 
other  hand,  linguistic  borderlands  have  ahvays  been  scenes  of 
armed  struggle  and  destruction. 

Community  of  origin  is  not  essential  among  members  of  the 
same  nation.  The  bond  of  language  and  identity  of  historical 
destiny    suffice   for    the    creation    of   nationality.  -  An   English- 



speaking  immigrant  on  United  States  soil,  imbued  with  the  spirit 
of  the  principles  on  which  the  country's  independence  is  founded, 
finds  himself  in  a  state  of  response  to  the  idea  of  American 
nationality.  And  yet,  the  idea  of  nationality  is  no  mere  integra- 
tion of  historical  associations.  It  stands  enthroned  in  the  land. 
The  poet  touches  his  compatriot's  heart  by  recalling  the  murmur 
of  the  forest  or  by  a  picture  of  the  winding  shore.  Through  the 
charm  of  living  green  enshrined  in  circling  hills,  at  times  through 
an  appreciation  of  the  solemn  peak  rising  heavenward,  man 
found  love  of  homeland.  A  strong  tie  between  humanity  and  the 
land  was  created  by  these  relations. 

Nationality  cannot  depend  on  language  alone,  for  it  is  founded 
on  geographical  unity.  The  past  thousand  years  of  European 
history  contain  sufficient  proof  of  the  fact.  The  three  southern 
peninsulas  Spain,  Italy  and  Greece  are  homelands  of  an  equal 
number  of  nations.  A  single  language  is  current  in  each.  To  the 
north  a  similar  differentiation  of  nations  adapts  itself  to  regional 
divisions.  Plains,  mountains  and  seas  have  limited  European 
nationalities  to  definite  number  and  extension. 

Thus  every  people  acquires  a  peculiar  genius  which  expresses 
itself  in  characteristic  fashion  and  cannot  be  made  to  assume  a 
guise  alien  to  its  own  spirit.  It  absorbs  the  idealism  of  its 
captors  and  molds  it  into  its  own  form.  The  poet's  intuition 
rarely  echoed  deeper  truth  than  in  the  oft-quoted  passage  which 
immortalized  the  spirit  of  Hellas: 

Graecia  capta  ferum  vietorem  cepit,  et  artes 
Intulit  agresti  Latio. 

Europe  was  stirred  to  the  consciousness  of  nationality  by  the 
French  Revolution.  Nations  began  finding  themselves  when  the 
doctrine  of  man's  equality,  proclaimed  on  French  soil,  found 
responsive  welcome  among  the  peoples  of  the  continent.  But  the 
new  spirit  caused  dismay  in  every  court  circle.  The  inevitable 
reaction  that  followed  was  reflected  in  the  treaty  of  Vienna  of 
1815,  when  national  aspirations  were  ignominiously  ignored  and 


peoples  belield  themselves  bartered  as  chattels.  The  delegates  in 
attendance  sat  as  representatives  of  djmastic  interests.  Their 
interest  in  remodeling  the  political  map  of  Europe  was  absorbed 
wholly  by  the  idea  of  securing  compensation  for  the  spoliation 
of  the  territorial  property  of  their  sovereigns.  Their  labors 
meant  triumph  for  autocratic  rule.  Popular  clamor  for  national 
grouping  was  unheeded.  Instead  of  quieting  Europe,  the  treaty 
of  Vienna  was  a  ^'irtual  admission  on  the  part  of  less  than  three 
dozen  men  that  Europeans  were  incapable  of  bearing  the  glorious 
burden  of  their  own  destinies.  The  tares  of  monarchical  despot- 
ism were  left  to  stain  the  field  of  popular  freedom. 

But  the  seed  sown  by  the  great  act  of  the  French  Revolution 
was  hardy.  It  was  too  late  to  eradicate  liberal  spirit  from 
European  society.  A  mighty  struggle  of  ideas  ushered  in  the 
revolts  of  1S30  and  1848.  Twenty  odd  years  more,  and  for  the 
first  time  in  its  history  western  Europe  was  parceled  into  lin- 
guistic nations.  The  birth  of  Germany  during  this  period  was 
significantly  heralded  by  an  outburst  of  patriotic  literature  which 
for  fire  and  enthusiasm  was  unprecedented.  Geibel's  demand  for 
a  united  Germany  in  Heroldsrufe  was  but  the  echo  of  the 
aspirations  of  millions  of  his  countrymen.  France  emerged  out 
of  these  ordeals  without  loss  of  her  linguistic  territory.  The 
area  of  German  speech  received  marked  attention.  In  truth  the 
morning  of  modern  German  nationality  may  be  said  to  have 
broken  in  1815.  A  year  prior  to  this  historic  date,  the  decision 
had  been  reached  at  the  treaty  of  Paris  (March  30,  1814)  to 
unite  the  German  states  into  a  single  confederation.  The  domi- 
nating thought  of  European  diplomacy,  at  the  time,  was  to  pre- 
vent a  recurrence  of  Napoleonic  disturbances. 

"With  their  restricted  territories,  as  well  as  by  the  jealousies 
which  animated  their  rulers,  the  German  states  lay,  an  easy  prey, 
at  the  mercy  of  any  ambitious  foreign  leader.  In  their  union, 
Europe  hoped  to  lay  the  foundations  of  continental  peace.  Such 
a  federation,  it  was  thought,  would  safeguard  the  other  European 
countries  from  a  concerted  German  attack,  as  it  seemed  highly 
improbable   that   the   entire   confederacy   would   join   in   a   war 


undertaken  by  any  one  of  its  members  for  purposes  of  self- 
aggrandizement.  By  this  arrangement  provision  was  made  for 
the  strengthening  of  a  number  of  weak  states  without  the 
creation  of  a  new  powerful  unit  in  the  group  of  European 
nations.  Thirty  million  Germans,  comprising  by  far  the  majority 
of  the  German-speaking  inliabitants  of  the  period,  were  thus 
politically  welded  for  the  first  time  in  modern  history. 

[The  idea  of  nationality  had  received  scant  attention  in  Ger- 
maiiy  before  the  nineteenth  century.  Kant,  Fichte  and  Hegel 
contributed  powerfully  to  its  awakening.  Hardly  had  the  concept 
become  familiar  to  German  thought  before  its  relation  with  lan- 
guage became  established.  The  trend  of  feeling  on  the  subject 
is  best  expressed  by  Arndt  about  half  a  century  before  the 
fruition  of  Bismarck's  life  project  at  Versailles: 

Was  ist  das  deutsche  Vatei'land? 

So  nenne  endlich  mir  das  Land ! 

So  weit  die  deutsche  Zunge  klingt 

Und  Gott  im  Himmel  Lieder  singt, 

Dass  soil  es  sein,  dass  soil  es  sein, 

Das  gauze  Deutschland  soil  es  seiii.^     1 

A  literary  history  of  a  country  is,  in  great  measure,  the 
mirror  of  its  political  growth.  The  development  of  social  apti- 
tudes, of  intellectual  faculties  or  of  material  wants  within  a 
given  area  is,  in  the  last  resort,  an  expansion  of  the  living  forces 
which  make  for  nationality  and  which,  ultimately,  find  their  way 
to  literary  records.  Nationality  and  literature  are  thus  bound 
together  by  geography  and  history.  Whatever  be  the  period 
under  observation,  the  spirit  of  the  day  pervades  them  both. 
A  striking  example  of  this  relation  is  observable  in  medieval 

*  What  is  the  German's  Fatherland  ? 
O  name  at  length  this  mighty  land! 
As  wide  as  sounds  the  German  tongue, 
And  Germans  hymns  to  heaven  are  sung, 
That  is  the  land; 
That,  German,  is  thy  Fatherland. 
[Translation  from  J.  F.  Chamberlain's  Literary  Selections  as  an  Aid  in  Teaching 
Geography,  Jou'rn.  of  Geogr.,  Sept.  1916,  p.  12.] 


France,  Avhere  the  troubadours  personified  the  feudal  conditions 
which  prevailed  in  the  country.  And  furthermore  literature,  as 
a  human  product,  partakes  of  all  the  limitations  which  are  subtly 
imposed  by  the  land  on  the  fancy.  It  varies  therefore,  accord- 
ing to  region,  in  mental  temperament,  tastes  and  emotions  or 
modes  of  thought. 

So  because  it  is  part  of  life  and  a  hving  influence,  literature 
has  always  consolidated  the  nation-forming  power  of  language. 
Poetry,  especially,  is  often  an  intensified  reflection  of  national 
thought  and  life.  In  the  words  of  Irving,  "Poets  always  breathe 
the  feeling  of  a  nation."  The  cultivation  of  literature  serves 
national  ends.  In  the  very  child,  love  of  country  is  instilled 
through  the  medium  of  doggerel — sometimes  through  lines  of 
exquisite  simplicity.  In  thus  strengthening  the  idea  of  nation- 
ality, literature  may  be  compared  to  the  statue  hewn  from  the 
marble  of  language  by  patriotic  and  artistic  thought. 

Belgian  writers,  in  this  respect,  occupy  a  place  of  their  own 
in  European  literature.  Verhaeren  and  Maeterlinck  voice  the 
depth  of  their  sincerity  in  the  language  of  their  Walloon  col- 
league Lemonnier.  Love  of  country  in  Spaak,  a  Fleming,  is  sung 
in  French  verse: 

Oui,  sois  de  ton  pays.    Connais  I'idolatrie 
De  la  terre  natale !    Et  porte  en  toi  I'orgueil 
Et  le  tourment  de  ses  jours  de  gloire  et  de  deuil. 

Antoine  Clesse,  the  poet  of  Mons,  likewise   expresses  popular 
feeling  in  French: 

Flamands,  Wallons, 

Ne  sont  que  des  prenoms 

Beige  est  notre  nom  de  famille. 

No  matter  how  the  works  of  these  poets  are  analyzed,  in 
the  inmost  souls  of  these  writers  it  is  the  land  that  speaks. 
Belgium  is  fathomed  in  their  hearts.  Their  eyes  lingered  lov- 
ingly on  the  scenery  in  the  midst  of  which  they  lived.  Flat  roads 
winding  interminably  over  flat  lands,  chimes  whose  tones  mellow 
with  age  ring  from  the  crumbling  tops  of  old  towers,  rustic 


feasts  enlivened  by  the  roaring  mirth  and  joviality  celebrated  by 
Flemish  painters,  these  are  the  visions  which  are  evoked  by  the 
French  words  assembled  by  Belgian  writers  in  their  composi- 
tions. One  would  seek  in  vain,  however,  for  these  Belgian  scenes 
in  French  literature.  Like  the  Belgicisms  which  abound  delight- 
fully in  every  Belgian  writer's  works,  they  portray  the  soul  of 
Belgian  poetry  as  sincerely  as  they  afford  genuine  glimpses  of 
Belgian  lands.  The  same  subtle  sensation  of  the  living  earth 
has  been  felt  on  the  troubled  surface  of  mountainous  Switzerland. 
For  of  Swiss  lands  and  life  few  descriptions  will  ever  combine 
the  charm  and  faithfulness  which  characterize  the  works  of 
Gottfried  Keller,  foremost  among  the  country's  writers  who 
drew  on  the  joint  inspiration  of  flaming  patriotism  and  the 
incomparable  beauty  of  Swiss  landscape. 

And  how  often  has  the  written  or  spoken  word  fanned  the 
flame  of  nationality  among  downtrodden  peoples !  The  story  is 
the  same  from  land  to  land  and  age  to  age.  The  soul  of  a  nation 
in  bondage  is  wrapped  around  its  patriotic  literature.  Genera- 
tion after  generation  of  Bohemians,  Finns  or  Poles  have  drunk  at 
the  national  fount  of  poem  and  song.  Within  the  peasant's 
thatched  home  as  in  the  city  abode,  the  well-worn  volume,  preg- 
nant with  past  glory,  becomes  the  beacon  of  hope.  It  lights  the 
darkness  of  oppression's  heaviest  hours.  For  men  of  feeling, 
destiny  will  ever  be  hailed  in  the  word  that  stirs.  The  harvest 
reaped  by  Cavour  was  of  Dante's  sowing. 

In  the  bitter  linguistic  struggles  waged  in  Europe  two  grati- 
fying facts  are  discernible.  The  dominance  of  the  majority  by 
an  intellectually  gifted  minority  prevails  in  every  country  and 
age.  Furthermore,  the  survival  of  oppressed  minorities  in  the 
midst  of  oppressing  majorities  appears  to  be  general.  The  one 
is  the  reward  of  competence;  the  other  is  the  triumph  of  right 
over  might.  Both  are  victories  of  the  human  will.  Both  have 
been  purchased  by  dint  of  hard  struggle.  Humanity  is  the  better 
for  them. 

Neither  has  conquest  always  been  able  to  introduce  a  new 
language.      The    widening    sphere    of   Roman   influence    carried 


the  original  dialect  of  the  capital  to  the  confines  of  the  world. 
But  it  is  unlikely  that  Latin  was  spoken  in  the  Nubian 
provinces  or  other  outlying  districts  to  a  greater  degree  than 
English  is  spoken  in  India  today.  It  was  only  the  language  of 
the  dominant  element  and  the  one  in  which  official  transactions 
were  recorded.  As  a  rule  the  oldest  language  of  a  country  is 
spoken  by  its  peasants.  The  tillers  of  the  soil  usually  represent 
the  oldest  stratum  in  the  population  of  a  region.  The  principle 
holds  in  territories  which  have  borne  the  brunt  of  successive 
invasions.  It  is  the  same  in  Macedonia,  Poland  or  Transylvania. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  land-owning  class  is  generally  recruited 
from  among  past  invaders. 

The  value  of  language  as  a  national  asset  was  shown  in 
France  during  the  trying  days  of  war  when  the  very  existence 
of  the  country  was  at  stake.  Respect  for  the  mother-tongue  is 
deeply  immured  in  every  Frenchman's  heart.  In  no  other 
country  does  the  feeling  reach  the  same  pitch.  The  French 
educational  system  provides  ample  facilities  for  the  early  initia- 
tion of  students  to  the  beauties  of  their  vernacular.  The  clear 
and  connected  thought  for  which  French  writing  stands  pre- 
eminent, its  capacity  for  expressing  the  most  subtle  shades  of 
meaning,  are  largely  results  of  literary  discipline. 

A  perusal  of  war-time  literature  cannot  sufficiently  indicate  the 
part  played  by  French  language  in  periods  of  stress.  One  must 
preferably  have  had  the  privilege  of  acquaintance  mth  corre- 
spondence exchanged  between  relatives  and  intimates.  Patriotism 
pours  unfaltering  from  the  artless  lines  never  intended  for 
strangers'  eyes.  It  is  as  if  the  crowded  consciousness  of  French 
nationality  found  constant  release  through  its  language.  Every 
observant  foreigner  in  France  has  been  struck  by  this  fact.  In 
some  instances  where  perception  was  more  than  usually  attentive 
we  find,  as  in  E.  Wharton's  "Fighting  France,"  that: 

"  It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  the  Freneh  are  at  this  moment  drawing  a  part  of 
their  national  strength  from  their  language.  The  piety  with  which  they  have  cher- 
ished and  cultivated  it  has  made  it  a  precious  instrument  in  their  hands.  It  can  say 
so  beautifully  what  they  feel  that  they  find  strength  and  renovation  in  using  it ;  and 


the  word  once  uttered  is  passed  on,  and  carries  the  same  help  to  others.  Countless 
instances  of  such  happy  expression  could  be  cited  by  any  one  who  has  lived  the 
last  year  (1915)  in  France.  On  the  bodies  of  young  soldiers  have  been  found  let- 
ters of  farewell  to  their  parents  that  made  one  think  of  some  heroic  Elizabethan 
verse;  and  the  mothers  robbed  of  these  sons  have  sent  them  an  answering  cry  of 

One  of  the  most  remarkable  instances  of  the  influence  of 
poetry  on  national  destiny  is  found  in  Serbian  nationality,  which 
has  been  cast  altogether  in  the  mold  of  the  country's  epic  bal- 
lads or  ''pjesmes."  Although  primarily  inspired  by  the  valorous 
deeds  of  legendary  heroes,  these  indigenous  compositions  describe 
Serbian  life  and  nature  with  extraordinary  verisimilitude  and 
beauty.  They  are  national  in  a  significant  sense,  not  merely 
because  the  very  soul  of  the  Serbian  people  is  displayed  in  their 
lines,  but  also  because  they  have  perpetuated  Serbian  history 
and  language.  The  purity  of  the  Serbian  tongue,  its  freedom 
from  alien  words,  no  less  than  the  maintenance  of  historical  con- 
tinuity in  Serbia  are  due,  in  a  large  measure,  to  the  wandering 
of  native  minstrels — the  guzlars — who  went  to  and  fro  reciting  or 
singing  the  wonderful  exploits  of  their  noted  countrymen.  Their 
unconscious,  though  passionate  insistence  provided  the  Serbian 
with  the  only  schooling  in  national  sentiment  which  he  has  under- 
gone for  generations  beginning  with  half-mythical  times.  How- 
ever slow,  the  method  was  effective,  for  it  prevented  atrophy  of 
national  hopes.  Without  this  influence  the  Serbians  would 
probably  have  degenerated  iitto  a  people  listless  and  inert  to  the 
call  of  nationality.  The  very  name  of  Serbia  might  never  have 
been  recorded  in  modern  history. 

The  guzlars  were  therefore  peddlers  of  nationality.  The  most 
convincing  evidence  of  their  vital  contribution  to  the  formation 
of  the  modern  Serbian  state  is  found  during  the  five  hundred 
years  in  which  the  Turk's  benumbing  rule  was  felt  in  the  land. 
Marko  Kraljevitch,  the  popular  hero-knight,  feudal  lord  and 
outlaw,  according  as  occasion  demanded,  embodies  Serbian 
resistance  and  Serbian  revolt  against  Moslem  invaders.  The 
stirring  accents  in  which  tales  of  his  deep  attachment  to  Serbia 
were  recounted  awakened  exultant  delight  in  the  heart  and  brain 


of  listeners  and  inspired  them  to  the  hope  of  liberation  from  the 
hated  yoke.  Serbia  was  prepared  for  the  day  of  national  inde- 
pendence by  means  of  this  slow  and  century-long  propaganda. 

Replete  with  the  glow  and  color  of  Serbian  lands,  the  pjesme 
voices  Serbia's  national  aspirations  once  more  in  the  storm  and 
stress  of  new  afflictions.  Its  accents  ring  so  true  that  the  geog- 
rapher, in  search  of  Serbian  boundaries,  tries  in  vain  to  discover 
a  surer  guide  to  delimitation.  For  Serbia  extends  as  far  as  her 
folk-songs  are  heard.  From  the  Adriatic  to  the  western  walls 
of  Balkan  ranges,  from  Croatia  to  Macedonia,  the  guzlar's  ballad 
is  the  symbol  of  national  solidarity.  His  tunes  live  within  the 
heart  and  upon  the  lips  of  every  Serbian.  The  pjesme  may 
therefore  be  fittingly  considered  the  measure  and  index  of  a 
nationality  whose  fiber  it  has  stirred.  To  make  Serbian  territory 
coincide  with  the  regional  extension  of  the  pjesme  implies  defin- 
ing of  the  Serbian  national  area.  And  Serbia  is  only  one  among 
many  countries  to  which  this  method  of  delimitation  is  appli- 

In  Finland,  nationality  is  embodied  in  the  heartening  lines  of 
the  "Kalevala,"  that  Iliad  of  the  north  which  takes  its  coloring 
from  nature  with  no  less  delightful  sensitiveness  than  the 
Homeric  masterpiece.  The  lines  of  the  poem  define  this  Finnish 
epic  as: 

Songs  of  ancient  wit  and  wisdom, 
Legends  they  that  once  were  taken 

From  the  pastures  of  the  Northland, 
From  the  meads  of  Kalevala. 

In  this  poem  the  beauty  and  color  of  Finland's  inland  seas 
and  the  bleakness  of  surrounding  plains  are  painted  in  bold 
strokes  and  with  loving  effusiveness.  The  Finn  finds  in  its  lines 
a  reminder  of  the  scenes  among  which  he  has  been  reared  and 
the  link  which  binds  him  to  his  past  and  to  his  land.  As  a 
mosaic  of  national  life  pieced  together  by  patriotism  the  Kalevala 
occupies  a  unique  position  among  literary  productions  of 
northern  countries.    Even  a  note  of  Asiatic  melancholy  pervades 


its  verses  as  if  to  recall  the  share  of  Asia  in  the  formation  of 
Finnish  national  life. 

The  lyrics  and  songs  collected  in  the  Kalevala  were  brought 
together  in  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century  at  a  critical 
period  of  Finnish  history  when  national  feeling  had  sunk  to  its 
lowest  ebb.  Swedes  and  Eussians  vied  with  one  another  in  their 
efforts  to  denationalize  Finland  and  bring  the  peninsula  within 
the  sphere  of  their  respective  influence.  No  sooner  was  the 
Kalevala  published,  however,  than  Finnish  nationality  asserted 
itself  with  renewed  vigor.  Today  after  the  lapse  of  almost  a 
century  since  this  revival,  Finland's  spirit  of  national  independ- 
ence is  diffused  more  widely  than  ever  among  its  people.  Such 
was  the  influence  of  a  literary  echo  of  their  land. 

Among  the  peoples  of  Turkey,  nationality  and  literature 
become  largely  expressions  of  religious  feeling.  It  could  not  be 
otherwise  in  a  country  in  which  creed  is  the  only  medium  of 
intellectual  progress.  The  oppressed  native  found  refuge  from 
the  tyranny  of  his  Turkish  masters  in  his  church.  His  natural 
yearning  for  a  higher  life  found  solace  only  within  the  sanctu- 
aries of  his  faith.  All  the  education  he  received  was  obtained  in 
schools  attached  to  the  churches. 

But  to  unravel  the  hopeless  confusion  which,  at  first  glance, 
seems  to  permeate  human  groupings  in  Turkey  is,  in  the  main, 
a  problem  of  geography.  The  region  consists  of  a  mountainous 
core  and  a  series  of  marginal  lowlands.  Its  elevated  area  is  a 
link  in  the  central  belt  of  mountains  which  extends  uninter- 
ruptedly from  Asia  into  Europe.  This  long  chain  of  uplifts  is 
the  original  seat  of  an  important  race  of  highlanders  collectively 
known  as  Homo  alpinus.^  As  far  as  is  ascertainable  to  date,  the 
mountaineers  of  Turkey  have  all  the  anatomical  characteristics 
pertaining  to  this  branch  of  the  human  family.  Their  religion 
and  language  may  differ  but  the  physical  type  remains  unchanged. 
Basing  themselves  on  this  relation,  anthropologists  have  assumed 
that  Asiatic  Turkey  is  the  brood-home  of  a  sub-species  of  Homo 

*  J.  L.  Myres:  The  Alpine  Races  in  Europe,  Geogr.  Journ.,  Vol.  28,  1906,  No.  6, 
pp.  637-553. 


alpinus  which  is  gradually  acquiring  recognition  as  a  primordial 
Armenoid  element.-^  This  type  exists  in  its  greatest  purity  today 
among  the  Mohammedan  dissenters  of  the  Anatolian  table-land 
as  well  as  among  the  Druzes  and  Maronites  of  Syria. 

By  geographical  position,  Asiatic  Turkey  is  the  junction  of 
land  thoroughfares  which  trend  from  south  to  north  as  well  as 
from  east  to  west.  Its  aboriginal  population  came  inevitably 
into  contact  with  the  races  whose  migrations  are  known  to  have 
begun  about  4,000  b.c.  A  second  group  of  peoples  is  thus  obtained 
in  which  the  old  strain  is  considerably  modified.  Armenians, 
Turks,  upland  Greeks,  Jacobites,  Nestorians  and  most  of  the 
Kurds  represent  this  mixed  element.  A  third  group  consists  of 
lowlanders  who  never  made  the  ascent  of  Turkish  mountains  and 
consequently  carry  no  traces  of  Hittite  ancestry.  Maritime 
Greek  populations  and  Arabs  fall  under  this  classification. 

In  the  main  we  see  that  the  mountain  bears  in  its  central  part 
a  homogeneous  and  coherent  people.  Distance  from  the  core 
has  slight  effect  upon  the  physical  characteristics  of  the  moun- 
taineers, as  long  as  they  do  not  forsake  the  upland  for  the  low- 
land. Their  ideas,  however,  undergo  modifications  which  can  be 
interpreted  as  concessions  to  the  views  of  more  powerful  peoples 
with  whom  contact  is  established.  Customs,  however,  generally 
remain  unchanged  even  if  they  have  to  be  maintained  in  secrecy. 

Nevertheless,  relief  alone  cannot  account  for  the  variety  of 
peoples  and  religions  in  Asiatic  Turkey.  The  easternmost 
fringe  of  Christianity  emerging  sporadically  out  of  an  ocean  of 
Mohammedanism  discloses,  by  the  variety  of  its  discordant  ele- 
ments, the  extent  to  which  distance  from  Constantinople,  the 
religious  capital  of  the  eastern  church,  had  weakened  the  power 
of  ecclesiastical  authority.  Armenians,  Nestorians,  Chaldeans, 
Jacobites  and  Maronites,  one  and  all  heretics  in  the  eyes  of 
Orthodox  prelates,  were  merely  independent  thinkers  who  relied 
on  the  remoteness  of  their  native  districts  in  order  to  protest, 
without  peril  to  themselves,  against  the  innovations  of  Byzantine 

'  F.  von  Luschan :  The  Early  Inhabitants  of  Western  Asia,  Ann.  Rept.  Smithsonian 
Inst,  for  1914,  p.  577. 


theologians,  or  to  stand  firm  on  the  basis  of  the  rites  and  doc- 
trines of  early  Christianity. 

From  the  social  standpoint  the  eastern  half  of  Asiatic  Turkey 
deserves  investigation  as  the  seat  of  an  immemorial  conflict 
between  nomadism  and  sedentary  life.  Every  stage  of  the  transi- 
tion between  the  two  conditions  may  be  observed.  The  feuds 
which  set  community  against  community  in  Turkey  often  origi- 
nate in  the  divergent  interests  of  nomad  and  settled  inhabitant, 
and  are  enforced  by  economic  factors.  As  an  example  the  Kurds 
of  the  Armenian  highlands  may  be  mentioned.  The  perpetuation 
of  nomadism  in  their  case  is  the  result  of  extensive  horse- 
breeding  * — their  chief  source  of  revenue — which  compels  them 
to  seek  low  ground  in  winter. 

Viewed  as  a  whole,  Asiatic  Turkey  h^s  changed  from  an  ideal 
nursery  of  hardy  men  to  a  land  of  meeting  between  races  and 
peoples  as  well  as  between  their  ideals.  It  may  be  safely  pre- 
dicted that  the  future  of  its  inhabitants  bids  fair  to  be  as 
intimately  affected  as  their  past  by  the  remarkable  situation  of 
the  country  and  its  physical  features.  One  can  only  hope,  for 
their  sake,  that  a  thorough  invasion  of  highland  and  lowland  by 
the  spirit  of  the  west  will  not  be  delayed  much  longer.  This 
much  may  be  said  now,  that  the  establishment  of  Christian  rule 
in  the  land  would  probably  be  attended  by  wholesale  conversions 
to  Christianity  in  many  so-called  Mohammedan  communities, 
where  observance  of  Islamic  rites  has  been  dictated  by  policy, 
rather  than  by  faith. 

In  dealing  with  the  varied  influences  which  engage  attention 
in  a  study  of  linguistic  areas  the  student  is  frequently  compelled 
to  pause  before  the  importance  of  economic  relations.  Inspection 
of  a  map  of  Europe  suggests  strikingly  that  zones  of  linguistic 
contact  were  destined  by  their  very  location  to  become  meeting- 
places  for  men  speaking  different  languages.  They  correspond 
to  the  areas  of  circulation  defined  by  Eatzel.^    The  confusion  of 

*  D.  G.  Hogarth:  The  Nearer  East,  New  York,  1902,  pp.  198-199. 
»  F.   Ratzel:    Politische  Geographie,   2nd  ed.,   Munich,   1903.     Cf.   Chap.   16,   "  Der 
Verkehr  als  Raumbewaltiger,"  pp.  447-534. 


languages  on  their  site  is  in  almost  every  instance  the  result  of 
human  intercourse  determined  by  economic  causes.  Necessity, 
far  more  than  the  thought  of  lucre,  compels  men  to  resort  to 
intercourse  with  strangers.  In  Belgium,  after  the  Norman  con- 
quest, the  burghers  of  Flanders  were  able  to  draw  on  English 
markets  for  the  wool  which  they  converted  into  the  cloth  that 
gave  their  country  fame  in  the  fairs  of  Picardy  and  Champagne.* 
We  have  here  a  typical  example  of  Eatzel's  ''Stapellandern"  or 
*' transit  regions." 

In  very  small  localities  the  spread  of  language  brought  about 
by  economic  changes  has  occasionally  come  under  the  scrutiny 
of  modern  observers.  At  Grimault,  in  the  ancient  land  of  Bur- 
gundy, the  deterioration  of  the  local  patois  due  to  intensive 
working  of  quarries  between  1860  and  1880  has  been  studied  by 
E.  Blin.^  Laborers  from  remote  districts  were  attracted  by  the 
prospect  of  work.  Some  intermarried  with  the  natives.  The 
influx  of  the  foreign  element  was  followed  by  the  replacement 
of  the  locality's  vernacular  by  French. 

In  west-central  Europe  the  line  of  traffic  along  the  Rhine  at 
the  end  of  the  twelfth  century  ran  from  Cologne  to  Bruges  along 
the  divide  between  French  and  Flemish.  Lorraine,  a  region  of 
depression  between  the  Archean  piles  of  the  Ardennes  and 
Vosges,  invited  access  from  east  and  west  and  was  known  to 
historians  as  a  Gallo-Romanic  market  place  of  considerable 

In  our  time  the  river  trade  between  Holland  and  Germany 
along  the  Rhine  has  caused  expansion  of  Dutch  into  German 
territory  as  far  as  Wesel  and  Crefeld.  The  intruding  language, 
however,  yields  to  German  wherever  the  latter  is  present.® 
Prevalence  of  French  in  parts  of  Switzerland  is  generally 
ascribed  to  travel  through  certain  Alpine  passes.^"    The  area  of 

•R.  Blanchard:   La  Flandre,  Paris,  1906. 

^  Bull.  Com.  Trav.  Hist,  et  Scien.,  Sec.  Odogr.,  Vol.  29,  1914,  p.  xli. 
*J.  Vidal  de  la  Blache:   fitude  sur  la  Valine  Lorraine  de  la  Meuse,  Paris,  1908, 
pp.   165-180. 

»  Cf.  inset  on  pp.  63-64,  Andrec's  Handatlas,  6tli  ed.,   1915. 
*°  J.  Brunhcs:  La  Geographic  hiimaine,  Paris,  1912,  pp.  598-599. 


human  circulation  between  Lake  Constance  and  Lake  Geneva  has 
endowed  Switzerland  with  35  ditferent  dialects  of  German,  16 
of  French,  8  of  Italian  and  5  of  Romansh/^  The  penetration  of 
German  into  the  Trentino  has  already  been  explained.  In 
Austria  the  entire  valley  of  the  Danube  has  provided  continental 
trade  with  one  of  its  most  important  avenues.  Attention  is 
called  elsewhere  to  the  Balkan  peninsula  as  an  intercontinental 
highway.  In  a  word,  language  always  followed  in  the  wake  of 
trade  and  Babel-like  confusion  prevailed  along  channels  wherein 
men  and  their  marketable  commodities  flowed. 

This  retrospect  also  leads  to  the  conclusion  that  the  influence 
of  physical  features  in  the  formation  of  European  nationalities 
has  been  exerted  with  maximum  intensity  in  the  early  periods 
of  their  history.  This  was  at  the  time  when  man's  adaptation 
to  environment  was  largely  blind  and  unconditioned  by  his  own 
will.  Freedom  from  this  physical  thralldom  is  attained  only 
through  man's  practical  knowledge  of  human  necessities  and  a 
sound  vision  of  the  welfare  of  his  descendants.  Manifestations 
of  nature  can  then  be  made  subservient  to  the  human  will.  In 
this  regard  historians  may  eventually  be  induced  to  divide 
their  favorite  study  into  two  main  periods  characterized  respec- 
tively by  man's  submission  to,  or  his  intelligent  control  of, 
environment.  A  proper  understanding  of  this  conception  may 
contribute  to  the  establishment  of  frontiers  with  a  view  to 
eliminating  conflicts  due  to  relics  of  national  or  historical  incom- 

The  development  of  modern  boundaries  should  be  regarded 
as  a  process  originating  in  barriers  first  provided  by  nature  and 
subsequently  elaborated  by  the  human  will  for  its  purposes. 
Gradually  however  natural  features  of  the  land  lose  value  as 
national  boundaries.  This  is  the  result  of  man's  progress,  of 
the  development  of  railways  or  wireless  stations.  It  is  the 
removal  of  natural  obstacles;  the  conquest  of  distance  by  speed. 
All  these  advances  tend  to  promote  intercourse.  They  are 
opening  the  vista  of  a  day  when  an  international  boundary  will 

"L.  W.  Lyde:  The  Continent  of  Europe,  London,  1913,  p.  383. 


have  no  greater  importance  in  world  affairs  than  the  limiting 
line  of  a  city  plot. 

National  frontiers,  at  best,  become  established  by  virtue  of 
historical  accidents.  At  given  times  and  in  order  to  promote 
fellowship  among  nations  it  becomes  necessary  to  define  the 
areas  over  which  certain  principles  of  political  jurisdiction  are 
recognized  as  valid  by  a  given  body  of  men.  A  national  frontier 
in  the  strictest  sense  of  the  term  cannot,  therefore,  be  limited 
by  the  surface  feature  which  has  shaped  its  development.  It 
has  generally  outgrown  this  phase  of  its  extension  together  with 
the  constantly  increasing  range  of  activity  of  the  peoples  it  once 
inclosed.  Factors  of  an  ethnological,  economic  or  linguistic 
nature  must,  therefore,  be  considered.  Then  only  will  the  new 
delimitation  be  entitled  to  be  qualified  as  natural. 

The  preeminence  of  the  linguistic  factor  set  forth  in  these 
pages  may  be  illustrated  concisely  by  the  accepted  recognition 
of  the  ''langue  d'oil"  as  the  national  language  of  France  by  all 
Frenchmen  of  the  present  day,  although  this  would  have  been 
impossible  five  centuries  ago.  Adoption  of  the  linguistic  crite- 
rion in  boundary  delimitation  becomes,  therefore,  a  mere  matter 
of  expediency.  Its  worth  is  not  due  to  any  assumed  abstract 
value  of  language.  It  is  merely  a  practical  manner  of  settling 
divergences  regarding  national  ownership  of  border  territories. 
It  is  of  value  because  the  guiding  consideration  in  boundary 
delimitation  or  revision  is  to  eliminate  future  sources  of  conflict. 

The  European  war  is  no  exception  to  the  fact  that  almost 
every  conflict  of  magnitude  has  been  due,  in  part,  to  ill-adjusted 
frontier  lines.  Slight  regard  for  national  aspirations  seems  to 
have  prevailed  in  the  delimitations  determined  upon  by  the  sig- 
natory powers  of  every  important  treaty.  The  seed  of  ulterior 
fighting  was  thus  sown,  for  one  of  the  main  features  of  modern 
history  is  the  growth  of  national  feeling  as  a  dominating  force 
in  human  affairs. 

With  Europe  rid  of  Napoleon,  the  treaty  of  Vienna  was 
framed  by  his  allied  foes  in  1815  for  the  purpose  of  recasting 
the  political  map.    No  heed  was  paid,  however,  to  the  legitimate 


desire  of  smaller  European  nations  to  rule  themselves.  An 
instance  of  some  of  the  gross  blunders  committed  then  was  the 
merging  of  Belgium  and  Holland  into  one  nationality  in  spite  of 
the  protests  of  their  representatives.  Feelings  of  the  bitterest 
nature  between  Belgians  and  Dutch  engendered  by  this  act  ulti- 
mately forced  a  war  between  the  two  countries  in  1830.  It  was 
only  after  their  separation  that  the  enmity  of  the  two  peoples 
gave  way  to  cordial  relations.  Subsequent  history  has  shown 
that  these  two  nations  have  often  been  of  greater  help  to  each 
other  while  retaining  separate  political  entity  than  under  forced 
union.  In  Italy  also  the  progress  made  towards  union  by  Italian- 
speaking  peoples  was  checked  by  this  treaty  and  the  country 
split  once  more  into  a  number  of  small  independent  states.  The 
assignation  of  Lombardy  and  Venetia  to  Austria  led  eventually 
to  the  war  of  1859. 

In  contrast  mth  these  cases,  Germany's  rise  to  power  with 
unprecedented  rapidity  in  the  history  of  the  world  is  a  striking 
instance  of  the  splendid  development  attainable  within  bound- 
aries peopled  by  inhabitants  of  the  same  speech.  With  language 
and  an  efficient  army  in  control  Prussia  only  needed  a  leader  to 
direct  the  gravitation  of  other  German-speaking  states  within  its 
own  orbit.  Bismarck  stepped  in,  the  right  man  at  the  right  time. 
In  1864  he  hurled  the  Prussian  fighting  machine  against  Denmark 
and  wrenched  the  provinces  of  Schleswig-Holstein  from  that 
country.  Two  years  later  he  turned  on  Austria  and  imposed 
Prussian  leadership  on  the  German-speaking  world.  These  war- 
like moves  gave  Prussia  the  ascendency  in  the  North  German 
Confederation.  Only  the  states  of  southern  Germany  were  now 
needed  to  form  the  German  Empire  his  patriotic  mind  had  con- 
ceived. To  enlist  their  sympathies  he  found  it  necessary  to 
strike  at  France.  His  task  was  accomplished  when  a  united  Ger- 
many annexed  Alsace-Lorraine. 

Bismarck's  work  was  flawless  as  long  as  he  added  Germans 
to  the  empire  of  his  creation.  He  erred  grievously,  however,  in 
including  a  small  number  of  Frenchmen  with  Alsace-Lorraine. 
Had  linguistic  boundaries  been  respected  at  the  treaty  of  Frank- 


fort,  and  the  French  districts  of  the  conquered  provinces  left  to 
France,  it  is  safe  to  say  that  Franco-German  relations  would  not 
have  been  marked  by  the  lack  of  cordiality  which  has  charac- 
terized them  since  1871.  From  whatever  standpoint  the  subject 
be  approached,  the  inclusion  of  a  handful  of  Frenchmen  within 
German  territory  was  neither  politic  nor  economic.  Today  Ger- 
mans may  well  ask  themselves  whether  the  move  was  desirable. 

The  task  of  uniting  all  Germans  under  a  single  scepter  was 
not  completed  by  Bismarck.  Ten  million  Germans  are  still  sub- 
jects of  the  Austrian  Emperor.  But  Austria  as  a  political  unit 
stands  on  exceedingly  shaky  foundations.  This  is  due  to  the 
inclusion  within  its  boundaries  of  10  million  Hungarians,  20 
million  Slavs  and  several  million  peoples  of  Romance  speech.  As 
a  result,  Austria  is  likely  to  be  split  into  a  number  of  inde- 
pendent states.  Should  this  dissolution  come  about,  the  natural 
desire  of  Germans  is  to  witness  the  crumbling  of  Austria's 
pieces  into  Germany's  lap.  The  union  of  all  German-speaking 
inhabitants  of  Europe  into  a  single  nation  would  then  become  an 
accomplished  fact. 

Considered  from  the  broad  standpoint  of  human  migrations 
England,  France  and  Italy  may  be  regarded  as  understudies  in 
the  drama  staged  on  the  old  continent.  The  star  performers  are 
Russia  and  Germany,  and  the  issue  is  between  these  two  nations. 
The  grouping  of  European  nations  with  Russia  is  a  mere  result 
of  Germany's  preponderant  strength.  The  end  of  the  conflict 
will  necessarily  witness  the  recasting  of  alliances  along  with 
changes  of  frontier  lines. 

For  at  the  bottom  of  it  all  the  fight  is  between  Slav  and 
Teuton.  It  is  a  grim  and  unrelenting  struggle  for  existence  that 
is  shaping  itself  into  one  of  the  world's  fiercest  racial  contests. 
The  Slavic  peoples  are  steadily  pressing  in  from  the  east  though 
not  with  the  barbarity  which  characterized  their  earlier  onslaughts. 
It  is  the  turn  of  Russians,  Poles,  Bohemians,  Slovenes,  Serbians 
and  Croats,  slowly  to  crowd  on  the  descendants  of  the  blue-eyed 
flaxen-haired  barbarians,  representing  Germanic  peoples. 

This  Slavonic  westerly  push  has  always  been  blocked  by  the 


leading  power  in  the  west.  France  opposed  it  in  the  Napoleonic 
period.  Great  Britain  checked  it  in  the  latter  half  of  the  nine- 
teenth century.  Today  it  is  Grermany's  turn  to  stand  the  brunt 
of  its  pressure.  As  matters  stand  both  Germany  and  Kussia  are 
vigorous,  young  and  fast-growing.  The  two  peoples  have  taken 
root  on  adjacent  land  like  two  sturdy  oaks.  They  are  now  in  the 
stage  at  which  the  soil's  nourishment  at  the  border  suffices  only 
for  one.  The  weaker  must  wither.  The  Teuton  is  expanding 
eastward,  the  Slav  is  spreading  westward.  Their  main  clashing- 
zone  happens  to  be  the  Balkan  peninsula.  The  ceaseless  agitation 
in  this  area  and  its  menace  to  the  world's  peace  is  a  consequence 
of  the  antagonism  between  the  Pan-Slavic  Colossus  and  the  Pan- 
German  Titan. 

Germany's  expansion  is  a  natural  phenomenon.  The  country 
is  overpopulated.  It  must  expand.  The  sea  is  a  barrier  to  its 
westerly  expansion.  The  north  is  uninviting.  The  south  is  being 
drained  of  its  resources  by  active  and  intelligent  inhabitants. 
The  ''Drang  nach  Osten"  of  German  Imperialism  is  therefore 
inevitable.  The  line  of  least  resistance  points  to  the  east,  where 
fertile  territory  awaits  development. 

Little  wonder,  then,  that  the  attention  of  Germany's  far- 
seeing  statesmen  has  been  directed  toward  oriental  countries, 
whose  wealth  of  natural  resources  and  genial  climate  combine  to 
render  them  ideally  attractive.  The  verdant  vales  and  forest- 
clad  mountains  of  Serbia,  Greece  and  Bulgaria  abound  with  raw 
material  needed  for  Germany's  increasing  industries.  Beyond 
the  narrow  watercourse,  intervening  between  Europe  and  Asia, 
at  the  Dardanelles  and  Bosporus  lies  Asia  Minor,  a  land  mar- 
velously  rich  in  minerals  and  susceptible  of  great  agricultural 
development.  Farther  east  the  exceedingly  fertile  Mesopotamian 
valley,  once  the  granary  of  the  civilized  world,  stretches  between 
the  western  Euphrates  and  Tigris,  and  bids  fair  to  provide 
humanity  anew  with  vast  supplies  of  cereals. 

This  is  the  vision  which  has  floated  alluringly  before  the 
minds  of  German  and  Austrian  statesmen,  working  hand  in  hand, 
Austria  paving  the  way  in  the  Balkans,  Germany  forcing  her- 


self  successfully  in  the  control  of  Asia  Minor,  which  today  is  a 
German  colony  in  all  but  name.  By  their  joint  efforts,  the 
Teuton  brothers  have  laid  the  foundation  of  an  empire  whose 
northern  shore  is  washed  by  the  Baltic  and  whose  southern 
boundary  may  extend  to  the  Persian  Gulf.  The  great  obstacle 
to  this  scheme  of  German  expansion  is  constituted  by  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Russia  and  the  predominance  of  the  Slavic  element 
in  the  population  of  the  Balkan  peninsula.  Montenegrins,  Ser- 
bians, Macedonians  and  even  Bulgarians  dread  annexation  by 

At  the  end  of  the  Balkan  wars,  Russia  had  scored  heavily 
against  Germany.  An  enlarged  Serbia  had  been  constituted 
directly  in  the  path  of  Teutonic  advance.  In  addition  to  this 
Slavic  victory,  every  Balkan  country  had  been  strengthened  con- 
siderably by  the  new  delimitation  of  their  frontiers.  For  the 
first  time  in  their  history,  Greeks,  Bulgarians  and  Serbians  found 
that  their  national  border  could  be  made  to  coincide  with  their 
linguistic  boundary.  This  national  sifting  is  by  no  means  com- 
plete in  the  Balkan  peninsula.  But  there  is  no  question  that 
notable  progress  in  the  recognition  of  patriotic  aspirations  was 
made  as  soon  as  the  region  was  rid  of  its  Turkish  masters. 

With  the  history  of  the  past  hundred  years  in  mind,  statesmen 
engaged  in  the  task  of  framing  peace  treaties  may  well  heed  the 
lessons  taught  by  political  geography.  They  might  conclude  then 
that  greater  possibilities  of  enduring  peace  exist  whenever  the 
delimitation  of  new  frontiers  is  undertaken  with  a  view  to  segre- 
gating linguistic  areas  within  separate  national  borders.  Com- 
merce and  industry  will  overcome  ultimately  these  barriers  and 
pave  the  way  to  friendly  international  intercourse.  These  are 
the  lines  along  which  intelligent  statecraft  will  earn  its  reputa- 
tion in  the  future. 

The  practical  value  of  linguistic  frontiers  as  national  bound- 
aries is  due  to  their  geographical  growth.  They  are  natural 
because  they  are  the  result  of  human  intercourse  based  largely  on 
economic  needs.  Having  developed  naturally,  they  correspond  to 
national  aspirations.     Such  being  the  case,  the  task  of  frontier 


delimitation  can  be  made  to  assume  a  scientific  form.  Only  in 
the  case  of  uninhabited  or  sparsely  populated  regions  will  an 
artificial  boundary— say,  of  the  straight  line  type— prove  ade- 
quate. But  in  tenanted  portions  of  the  earth's  surface  where 
human  wills  and  desires  come  into  play  the  problem  cannot  be 
dismissed  so  lightly.  The  ordinary  laws  of  science  must  then  be 
applied.  This,  after  all,  merely  implies  drawing  on  the  stock  of 
common  sense  accumulated  by  the  human  race  in  the  course  of 
its  development.  The  clear  duty  of  statesmen  engaged  in  a 
revision  of  boundaries  is  to  put  the  varied  interests  at  stake  into 
harmony  with  the  facts  of  nature  as  they  are  revealed  by  geog- 
raphy. This  is  possible  because  the  science  deals  with  the  sur- 
face of  the  earth  considered  as  the  field  of  man's  activity.  Its 
data  can  be  drawn  upon  just  as  successfully  as  the  engineer 
draws  upon  the  energy  of  a  waterfall  or  a  ton  of  coal.  Sound- 
ness and  permanency  of  the  labor  of  delimitation  can  thus  be 

The  preceding  remarks  should  not  be  considered  as  implying 
that  a  mountain,  or  a  river,  or  even  the  sea  are  to  be  arbitrarily 
regarded  as  frontiers.  Lines  of  water-parting  deserve  particular 
mention  as  having  provided  satisfactory  national  borders  in  his- 
tory. But  in  boundaries  each  case  should  be  treated  upon  its 
own  merits.    There  was  a  time  when,  in  Cowper's  words: 

Mountains  interposed 
Make  enemies  of  nations  who  had  else 
Like  kindred  drops  been  mingled  into  one. 

And  yet  the  passes  of  the  Alps  refute  the  poet's  statement. 
Their  uniting  function  eventually  overcame  their  estranging 
power.  The  easterly  spread  of  French  language  over  the  Vosges 
concurs  in  the  same  trend  of  testimony.  The  imposing  mass  of 
the  Urals  is  no  more  of  a  parting  than  are  the  Appalachians. 
To  be  pertinent,  it  will  be  necessary,  in  each  instance,  to  con- 
sider the  complex  operations  of  natural  laws  and  the  process  of 
fusing  and  building  up  of  nationality  brought  about  by  their 


The  value  of  mountains  in  the  scheme  of  useful  boundary 
demarcation  has  been  attested  in  the  European  war.  Towns  and 
villages  sheltered  behind  rocky  uplifts  have  suffered  relatively 
little  from  the  devastation  which  has  marked  the  struggle  in  low- 
lands and  plains.  The  fact  is  true  for  the  Vosges  mountains, 
the  Trentino  uplands  and  the  Carpathian  region.  Although 
fighting  of  an  exceedingly  bitter  character  was  maintained  in 
each  of  these  areas,  the  loss  in  property  was  never  extreme. 
This  is  one  of  the  many  instances  where  land  configuration  lends 
itself  advantageously  to  delimitation  work.  The  need  of  trust- 
worthy geographical  information  in  partitioning  and  dividing  up 
territory  is  obvious.  Upon  this  basis  only  can  boundary  revision 
be  satisfactorily  pursued. 

The  long  borderland  of  the  French  language  which  marks  the 
northern  and  eastern  boundary  of  French  lands  from  the  English 
Channel  to  the  Mediterranean,  lies  unruffled  by  political  agitation 
in  its  southeastern  stretch,  where  Italian  and  French  become 
interchangeable  languages.  Modifications  in  this  section  of  the 
political  frontier  hardly  need  be  considered.  Their  occurrence, 
if  any,  will  probably  come  as  peaceful  adjustments  dictated  by 
economic  reasons.  To  the  north,  however,  the  line  has  a  history 
tainted  by  deeds  of  violence.  In  this  stretch  it  forms  the  divide 
between  two  civilizations,  the  French  and  the  German.  These, 
although  having  flourished  side  by  side,  are  distinctly  opposed 
in  spirit  and  method.  Here,  beginning  north  of  the  Swiss  border, 
frontier  changes  appear  inevitable. 

In  the  Vosges  uplift,  certain  facts  of  geographical  import 
have  direct  bearing  on  the  international  boundary  problem.  The 
very  occurrence  of  a  mountain  in  this  zone  of  secular  conflict 
has  a  significance  of  its  own.  Aggression  has  generally  made 
its  way  up  the  steep  slope  and,  since  the  treaty  of  Frankfort  of 
1871,  strategic  advantages  lie  on  the  German  side.  Moreover  the 
crest  line  shows  French  linguistic  predominance. 

In  Lorraine,  the  steady  expansion  of  French  over  German 
territory  reveals  the  assimilative  capacity  of  French  civilization. 
France,  unable  to  send  forth  colonists  because  of  her  lack  of 

The  American  Frontiers  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  1917,  PI  IX 

The  American  Geographical  Society  of  New  Yorl( 

Frontiers  of  Language  and  Nationality  in  Europe,  1917,  PI.  IX 



LANGUAGES       •. 

having  political  significance. 
based  on  sheet  WJYl  c  (Sept]911 )  DelDes'Hajidatlas  and  scnirces 

Scalp  :  I  ftnoO.nOO  w  l  inch  -  142  miles 
I        I  Itahnii 
I        I  Rumoniajt 
I        I  AJbaman  - 
i        I  Greek 
i        I  Swedish 
1       1  Ahmiefftftn 
I        I  Panish 



numbers,  nevertheless  contains  within  herself  by  virtue  of  superior 
civilization  the  ability  to  absorb  the  foreigner.  Of  this,  evidence 
is  to  be  found  in  the  Alsatian's  sympathy  for  France  no  less 
than  in  the  unanimous  verdict  of  impartial  foreigners.  Belgium's 
unhesitating  rally  to  the  French  cause  in  the  present  war  was 
also  the  spontaneous  response  to  the  greater  cultural  appeal 
emanating  from  France.  The  fact  is  attested  by  history  since 
the  earliest  times,  for  much  of  the  civilization  of  Germanic 
peoples  has  invariably  taken  its  source  in  the  inspiring  ideals  of 
the  wonderfully  endowed  inhabitants  of  French  territory. 

Upon  this  historical  basis,  the  intermediate  zone  between 
French  and  German  languages  might  be  converted  into  a  number 
of  buffer-states  which,  from  the  Alps  to  the  North  Sea,  would 
represent  the  borderland  of  the  central  mountain  zone  and  the 
northern  plain.  Switzerland,  Alsace-Lorraine,  Luxemburg  and 
Belgium  have  been  weak  spots  of  European  diplomacy  on  account 
of  geographical  circumstances.  A  just  appreciation  of  this  fact 
alone  can  provide  against  a  continuance  of  past  weakness. 

Whatever  the  result  of  the  present  war,  boundary  rectifica- 
tions from  the  easternmost  wedge  of  Switzerland  to  the  head  of 
the  Adriatic  may  be  expected.  They  were  the  subject  of  nego- 
tiations between  Austria  and  Italy  prior  to  the  latter  country's 
entry  into  the  war  in  1915.  Austria  at  that  time  proposed  to 
cede  to  Italy  a  portion  of  the  Trentino  or  ' '  Siid-Tirol "  as  it  is 
illogically  called  by  the  Germans.  The  territory  which  Austria 
was  willing  to  abandon  to  prevent  Italy  from  joining  the  Allies 
coincided  roughly  with  the  extension  of  Italian  language  north  of 
the  Italian  frontier.  Italian  demands  presented  then  were  based, 
however,  upon  strategic  necessities  as  well  as  linguistic  consid- 
erations. Italy  therefore  outlined  a  frontier  much  nearer  to  the 
Adriatic  watershed. 

The  Italian  claims  may  be  summarized  as  follows :  ^^  From 
Switzerland  the  present  boundary  line  is  to  be  maintained  to 
Mount  Cevedale,  whence  it  is  to  strike  east  to  Ulmenspitze  and 

*'  D.  W.  Freshfield :  The  Southern  Frontiers  of  Austria,  Oeogr.  Journ.,  Vol.  40, 
1915,  pp.  414-436. 


thence  northeast  to  Klausen  passing  through  Gargazon.  From 
Klausen  the  line  leads  to  the  south  until  latitude  46°  30'  is 
reached,  after  which  it  resumes  its  easterly  course,  passes 
through  Tofana  and  reaches  the  old  boundary  at  about  4  miles 
northeast  of  Cortina  d'Ampezzo.  The  population  of  the  last- 
named  district,  formerly  Ladin,  is  now  Italian.     This  boundary 

Fig.  67 — Sketch  map  showing  proposed  changes  in  the  Austro-Italian  frontier 
according  to  Austrian  and  Italian  views. 

revision  will  give  political  validity  to  the  Italian  Alps,  a  region 
which  is  geographically  Italian. 

Through  this  line  the  transfer  of  the  command  of  the  passes 
to  Italy  would  become  an  accomplished  fact.  It  would  mean  that 
the  entrance  to  the  Vintschgau,  the  valley  of  the  Upper  Adige 
and  of  the  gorge  of  the  Eisack  at  Klausen  with  the  issue  of  the 
Brenner  and  Pustherthal  railways  would  be  controlled  by  Italy. 
Moreover  the  frontier  has  the  merit  of  being  identical  with  the 
old  bishopric  boundary  maintained  from  1106  a.d.  to  the  Eefor- 
mation.  The  flaw,  if  any,  in  such  an  eventual  settlement  might 
be  found  in  the  fact  that  the  Botzen  district,  although  econom- 


ically  Italian,  is  Teutonic  in  speech  and  feeling.    The  rest  of  the 
population  in  the  Trentino  favors  annexation  to  Italy. 

The  Austrian  offer  to  Italy  diverges  from  the  Italian  project 
at  nimenspitze  ^^  and  strikes  south,  carefully  avoiding  abandon- 
ment of  territory  of  German  speech  to  Italy.  In  doing  this,  how- 
ever, it  leaves  some  of  the  Italian-speaking  northeastern  districts 
of  the  Noce  valley  in  Austrian  territory.  All  the  mountain  out- 
lets which  open  into  the  Adige  valley  are  retained  by  Austria. 
This  from  the  Italian  standpoint  is  inadmissible,  as  it  would 
leave  the  southern  country  exposed  to  aggression  from  the  north. 
On  the  basis  of  the  Austrian  census  for  1910  the  changes  in 
population  consequent  upon  such  a  boundary  revision  are  as 
follows : 

Italians  and 

Ladins  Germans 

In  territory  offered  by  Austria   366,837  13,892 

In  teiTitory  retained  by  Austria 18,863  511,222 

In  case  the  Italian  claim  is  granted  the  following  changes  will 
result : 

Italians  and 

Ladins  Germans 

In  new  Italian  territory   371,477  74,000 

In  territory  retained  by  Austria  14,229  440,805 

A  margin  of  coastland  along  the  eastern  Adriatic  is  mainly 
Serbian  in  nationality  though  Italian  in  culture.  It  was  once  the 
nest  of  pirates  who  terrorized  the  Adriatic  and  Mediterranean. 
We  catch  historical  glimpses  of  their  retreats  to  the  admirable 
shelters  teeming  along  the  coastland  which  skirts  the  Dalmatian 
mountains.  The  fringe  of  long  islands  deployed  like  a  protecting 
screen  enabled  their  vessels  to  evade  capture.  This  feature  of 
the  region  still  exercises  its  influence,  for  a  strong  naval  power 
in  control  of  such  a  base  might  easily  dominate  the  Mediter- 
ranean lane  of  traffic  between  east  and  west.  The  political  fate 
of  the  eastern  shores  of  the  Adriatic  cannot  therefore  be  sun- 
dered from  their  geographical  aspect. 

"  R.  von  Pfaundler:  Osterreichisch-italienische  Grenzfragen,  Pet.  Mitt.,  Vol.  61, 
1915,  pp.  217-223. 


The  Italians  have  been  exhibited  elsewhere  in  these  pages  as 
a  vanishing  minority  throughout  this  Dalmatian  coast.  We  are 
in  the  presence  of  Serbians,  disguised  under  various  appella- 
tions, among  which  the  most  familiar  are  Croatians,  Slavonians, 
Bosnians,  Herzegovinians,  Montenegrins,  Dalmatians  and  Illyri- 
ans.  All  these  elements  were  susceptible  of  being  strongly  knit 
into  a  single  nationality.  The  inclusion  of  a  sympathizing,  though 
numerically  small,  Slovene  group  could  only  introduce  wholesome 
competition  among  them. 

Nationalism  in  this  region  was  awakened  by  French  achieve- 
ments and  influences  at  the  time  of  its  conquest  by  Napoleon's 
armies.  The  French  provinces  of  Illyria,  which  included  Slovene 
territory  on  the  north  and  extended  as  far  south  as  Montenegro, 
were  converted  in  1816  into  a  kingdom  of  the  same  name  which 
survived,  up  to  1846,  as  part  of  the  Austrian  Empire.  The  taste 
of  political  independence  acquired  by  southern  Slavs  in  that 
interval  of  time  never  lost  its  savor.  Schemes  for  the  formation 
of  an  independent  Jugoslavia  were  naturally  thrown  into  sharper 
relief  through  the  medium  of  linguistic  unity. 

Such  a  south  Slavic  political  entity  must  necessarily  be  iden- 
tified with  Serbia.  Its  extent  is  admirably  defined  by  geo- 
graphical, ethnographical  and  linguistic  lines  all  of  which  coin- 
cide, thereby  pointing  irrefutably  to  national  unity.  The  Drave, 
Morava,  Drina  and  Lim  rivers,  with  the  Adriatic  Sea,  encircle 
this  genuine  Serbian  area.  It  comprises  the  entire  system  of 
parallel  ranges  which  form  the  mountainous  rearland  of  the 
Adriatic.  Because  of  its  arduous  character  the  region  was  never 
thoroughly  mastered  by  foreigners.  Invaders  established  them- 
selves in  force  only  along  the  sections  of  international  highways 
which  cross  the  land.  The  rest  remained  accessible  to  the  Serbian 
natives  only. 

The  defining  of  an  independent  Hungary  presents  little  con- 
fusion if  approached  from  the  main  highway  of  geography. 
Agreement  between  the  land  and  its  inhabitants  appears  to  exist 
here,  for  the  Magyar  is,  in  the  first  place,  a  lowlander  accustomed 
to  live  within  the  precincts  of  a  fertile  plain.    He  has  always 


shunned  the  mountain  and  is  rarely  to  be  met  above  the  600-foot 
contour.  As  soon  as  the  hills  to  the  north  of  the  vast  field  of  his 
birth  are  attained  he  disappears,  leaving  a  few  officials  to  repre- 
sent him.  Slovak,  Eumanian  and  Ruthenian  hillmen  then  come 
upon  the  scene.  On  the  western  side,  west  of  the  Raab,  the 
heights  drained  by  the  river  are  peopled  by  Germans  and,  in  spite 
of  a  complex  boundary  zone,  a  convenient  line  of  demarcation 
could  be  drawn  upon  the  basis  of  elevation.  Southward  the  old- 
time  utility  of  the  Drave  as  the  dividing  line  between  Croat  and 
Hungarian  remains  unimpaired  to  this  day.  In  the  east,  how- 
ever, around  the  confluence  of  this  river  with  the  Danube  and 
towards  the  Theiss  valley  the  swamp  lands  have  repelled  the 
ease-loving  Hungarian  as  effectively  as  the  mountains  to  the  east 
and  north.  The  Serb,  less  particular  in  his  choice  of  residence, 
advanced  northward  as  far  as  the  swampy  land  extends.  In  this 
section  any  physical  map  contains  the  data  for  a  territorial 

With  regard  to  Transylvania,  conditions  may  be  summarized 
as  follows:  the  region  is  scantily  populated,  valleys  constituting 
centers  of  human  habitation  almost  exclusively.  The  inhabitants 
are  overwhelmingly  Rumanians.^*  The  dominating  Hungarian 
element  inhabits  isolated  communities  in  their  midst.  This 
separation  of  the  rival  peoples  is  of  the  utmost  interest  in 
boundary  revision,  for  which  it  provides  a  reliable  geographical 
basis.  Wallis  has  ingeniously  shown"  that  a  line  separating  the 
majority  of  Hungarians  from  Rumanians  can  be  obtained  by 
taking  language  as  a  guide  and  that  this  is  possible  because 
there  exists  no  mixing  of  peoples  in  the  eastern  borderland  of 
Hungarian  language.  In  reality,  throughout  Hungary  the  only 
element  that  has  insinuated  itself  in  the  midst  of  Hungarian, 
Rumanian  or  Slav  populations  is  the  German.  This  element  is 
generally  absorbed  except  where  present  in  large  numbers.  The 
Magyar,  however,  has  never  mingled  with  his  neighbors.    One  is 

"B.  C.  WalHs:  Distribution  of  Nationalities  in  Hungary,  Geogr.  Joum.,  Vol.  52, 
1916,  No.  3,  pp.  177-189. 
*'  Loc.  cit. 


almost  led  to  seek  the  reason  for  his  aloofness  in  his  Asiatic  origin. 

Poland  also  has  its  natural  place  in  the  European  political 
system.  The  majority  of  Poles  live  in  Russian  Poland.  Out  of 
a  total  of  over  20,000,000  Poles  about  12,000,000  are  found  in  the 
'*  governments "  or  administrative  districts  created  by  Russia  in 
the  sections  of  Poland  within  Russia's  boundaries.  These 
districts  are  ten  in  number  and  adjoin  each  other.  Geographically 
they  form  a  unit — the  westernmost  appendage  of  the  vast  united 
Russian  territory  which  aggregates  between  one-sixth  or  one- 
seventh  of  the  total  land  surface  of  the  world.  Detachment  of 
this  Polish  section  from  Russia  and  its  creation  into  part  of  an 
autonomous  Poland  is  practicable  without  serious  loss  to  Russian 
unity.  Slavic  solidarity  would  in  fact  be  consolidated  if  Poland 
were  constituted  a  sovereign  state. 

To  Germany,  however,  an  autonomous  Poland  which  would 
encompass  the  million  Poles  living  in  the  Kaiser's  empire  implies 
abandonment  of  a  territory  which  reaches  far  into  the  heart  of 
the  country.  The  Polish  strip  ends  less  than  a  hundred  miles 
east  of  Berlin.  The  province  of  Posen,  a  considerable  portion 
of  Silesia,  a  narrow  strip  of  West  Prussia  reaching  the  Baltic 
west  of  Danzig  and  the  Masurian  Lakes  district  are  peopled  by 
Poles.  Furthermore,  and  this  is  of  capital  importance  in  German 
eyes,  East  Prussia  which  is  German  by  language  and  tradition, 
as  well  as  Prussian  to  the  core,  would  become  isolated  from  the 
main  mass  of  the  German- speaking  people.  It  is  improbable  that 
such  a  cession  of  territory  will  take  place  as  long  as  Germany 
has  the  power  to  prevent  it.  It  need  only  be  remembered  that 
the  first  partition  of  Poland  was  engineered  by  Frederick  the 
Great  merely  to  join  East  Prussia  to  the  rest  of  his  kingdom. 
Against  this  last  fact,  however,  the  imperative  necessity  for  an 
independent  Poland  to  obtain  an  outlet  on  the  Baltic  will  always 
prevail  in  anti-German  circles. 

Nature  therefore  points  to  the  existence  of  a  real  German 
menace  to  Polish  autonomy.  It  is  needless  to  minimize  the  sig- 
nificance of  the  points  at  issue.  Prussia,  the  dominant  state  in 
the  German  nation,  will  never  consent  to  the  impairment  of  her 


territorial  unity  by  the  surrender  of  her  Polish  sections.  On  the 
other  hand  the  reconstruction  of  Poland  must  be  complete  if  the 
creation  of  a  Balkanic  state  of  affairs  west  of  the  Gulf  of  Danzig 
is  to  be  avoided.  A  partial  reunion  of  Polish-speaking  groups 
under  an  autonomous  government  would  be  the  prelude  to 
irredentist  questions.  This  however  is  precisely  what  an  enlight- 
ened world  is  seeking  to  prevent. 

In  reality  the  German  nation  would  be  the  gainer  by  the 
creation  of  a  reunited  Polish  state.  No  better  barrier  to  Eus- 
sia's  westerly  advance  in  Europe  could  be  devised.  Conversely 
Teutonic  encroachments  on  Slavic  territory — bound  as  they 
inevitably  are  to  be  attended  by  bloodshed — would  be  effectively 
arrested.  A  buffer  state  between  Eussia  and  Germany  is  the 
safest  guarantee  of  peace  between  the  two  nations.  All  the  inex- 
tricable tangles  in  which  Europe  has  been  involved  by  Polish 
problems  can  be  unraveled  by  the  restoration  of  Polish  national 
entity.  The  problem  requires  solution  for  the  sake  of  the  peace 
of  the  world. 

The  problems  arising  along  the  remaining  linguistic  bound- 
aries have  been  exhibited  in  earlier  chapters  and  require  but 
little  mention  here.  In  Schleswig  an  extension  of  Denmark's 
political  frontier  as  far  south  as  the  Danish  language  prevails 
would  be  welcomed  as  the  harbinger  of  lasting  harmony  between 
Danes  and  Germans.  The  historical  frontier  between  the  Danish 
duchy  and  Holstein  could  be  utilized  to  advantage  in  this  change. 
In  this,  as  in  other  cases,  the  principles  of  geography,  modified 
by  national  aspirations  and  economic  needs,  must  in  the  last 
resort  be  recognized  as  practical  and  applicable.  Bohemia,  which 
has  been  showm  to  be  splendidly  laid  off  on  a  physical  map, 
deserves  political  independence  because  it  is  endowed  with  geo- 
graphic individuality.  This  method  of  solving  the  problems 
which  for  centuries  have  burdened  Europe  with  strife  would, 
like  the  splitting  of  Austria  into  national  fragments,  mark  an 
improvement  in  the  lot  of  a  notable  proportion  of  the  population 
of  Europe.  New  impetus  would  be  granted  to  the  development 
of  national  sentiment.    Humanity  owes  much  to  the  free  play  of 


this  feeling.  The  claims  of  world  brotherhood  have  received 
greater  attention  through  its  existence.  The  energies  of  sub- 
merged nationalities  have  hitherto  been  absorbed  by  the  struggle 
for  survival.  Relief  from  this  stress  will  be  accompanied  by 
respect  for  alien  rights  instead  of  hatred  of  the  oppressor. 

Throughout  the  nineteenth  century,  as  well  as  in  the  beginning 
of  the  twentieth,  reconstruction  of  nationalities  was  effected  on 
a  linguistic  basis.  The  part  played  by  language  during  that 
period  is  of  tantamount  importance  to  the  religious  feeling  which 
formerly  caused  many  a  destructive  war.  Practically  all  the 
wars  of  the  last  hundred  years  are  the  outcome  of  three  great 
constructive  movements  which  led  to  the  unification  of  Germany 
and  of  Italy  as  well  as  to  the  disentanglement  of  Balkan  nationali- 
ties. These  were  outward  and  visible  signs  of  the  progress  of 
democratic  ideals.  The  Congress  of  Vienna  failed  to  provide 
Europe  with  political  stability  because  popular  claims  were 
ignored  during  the  deliberations.  At  present,  inhabitants  of  lin- 
guistic areas  under  alien  rule  are  clamoring  for  the  right  to 
govern  themselves.  The  carrying  out  of  plebiscites  under  inter- 
national supervision  can  often  be  relied  upon  to  satisfy  their 
aspirations  and  serve  as  a  guide  to  frontier  rearrangements. 

All  told,  the  growing  coincidence  of  linguistic  and  political 
boundaries  must  be  regarded  as  a  normal  development.  It  is 
a  form  of  order  evolved  out  of  the  chaos  characterizing  the  origin 
of  human  institutions.  The  delimitation  of  international  fron- 
tiers is  as  necessary  as  the  determination  of  administrative 
boundaries  or  city  lines.  Human  organization  requires  it  and 
there  is  no  reason  why  it  should  not  be  undertaken  ^^ith  fair 
regard  to  the  wishes  and  feelings  of  all  affected.  For  nations, 
like  individuals,  are  at  their  best  only  when  they  are  free,  that 
is  to  say  when  the  mastery  of  their  destiny  is  in  their  own 


TgERIVIAN  settlements  in  RUSSIA 

Colonies  of  Germans  in  Russia  are  found  mainly  in  the  Baltic  prov- 
inces and  around  the  banks  of  the  Volga.  According  to  the  census  of  1897 
the  German  residents  of  the  governments  of  Livonia,  Kurland,  Esthonia 
and  St.  Petersburg  numbered  229,084.  The  majority  of  this  northern 
element  is  distributed  along  the  shores  of  the  Gulf  of  Riga. 

The  banks  of  the  Volga  were  first  colonized  by  Germans  in  1763  after 
a  proclamation  issued  by  Empress  Catherine  II  inviting  foreigners  to  settle 
on  either  side  of  the  river  in  the  environs  of  Saratoff  and  Samara  and  as 
far  as  Tzaritzin.  The  distress  that  followed  the  Seven  Years'  War  in  Ger- 
many determined  a  number  of  families  of  the  afflicted  provinces  to  seek  a 
better  lot  on  Russian  soil.  By  the  year  1768  there  had  been  founded  102 
German  settlements  containing  a  total  population  of  27,000  inhabitants.^ 
The  newcomers  had  to  face  considerable  hardships.  Many  of  them  were 
neither  farmers  nor  peasants.  Their  endurance  was  taxed  by  the  rigor  of 
the  climate.  Insecurity  of  life  and  property  prevailed  as  badly  as  in  their 
devastated  motherland.  In  1774  rebel  bands  led  by  Jemelian  Pontgatcheff 
wrought  havoc  and  ruin  in  the  new  districts.  Two  years  later  hordes  of 
Kirghiz  nomads  laid  waste  the  land  again  and  carried  off  a  number  of  the 
emigrants  as  slaves.  This  state  of  affairs  lasted  until  the  last  decades  of 
the  nineteenth  century.  The  Tatar  raiders  were  attracted  mainly  by  the 
cattle  of  the  colonists.  The  value  of  horses,  camels  and  cattle  stolen  between 
1875  and  1882  is  estimated  at  330,000  rubles.^ 

It  is  estimated  that  fully  five  million  rubles  were  spent  by  the  Rus- 
sian government  to  plant  these  foreign  colonies.  But  no  onerous  terms  were 
imposed  on  the  settlers.  A  head  tax  of  three  rubles  constituted  their  only 
pecuniary  obligation  to  the  state.  Furthermore,  a  liberal  administration 
was  provided  for  their  settlements.  Each  village  was  ruled  by  an  assembly 
recruited  from  among  its  inhabitants. 

Unfortunately  for  the  development  of  these  communities  the  Russian 
system  of  collective  ownership  known  as  the  '*mir"  was  instituted.  Under 
this  form  of  tenure  all  land  becomes  the  property  of  the  village.  Each 
male  inhabitant  is  temporarily  entitled  to  a  share  of  the  whole  area  and  an 
exchange  of  plots  is  made  every  ten  years.  Each  village  then  receives  a 
new  fraction  and  fresh  lots  are  apportioned  to  those  who  have  come  of 

*  P.  Clerget :  Les  Colonies  Allemandes  de  la  Volga,  La  G^ogr.,  Feb.  1909. 

•H.  Pokorny:  Die  Deutschen  an  der  Volga,  Deutsche  Erde,  1908,  No.  4,  pp.  138-144. 



age  during  the  decade.  This  method  of  ownership  does  not  lead  to  develop- 
ment and  generally  retards  rather  than  promotes  agricultural  progress. 

Furthermore  the  land  is  none  too  fertile.  Uncertainty  therefore  is 
today  the  common  lot  of  many  of  the  descendants  of  the  old  German  set- 
tlers. Many  prefer  to  engage  in  trade  rather  than  in  agriculture.  The 
natural  increase  of  the  population  has  brought  a  certain  amount  of  con- 
gestion which  has  resulted  in  emigration.  Effort  is  made  by  German  mis- 
sionary societies  to  induce  these  Russian  Germans  to  return  to  the  land  of 
their  fathers.  The  Russian  government  on  the  other  hand  provides  them 
with  ample  facilities  and  inducements  to  settle  in  Siberia.  The  region 
around  Tomsk  contains  a  number  of  villages  built  up  by  this  emigration. 
Many  however  prefer  to  emigrate  to  the  United  States  where  they  find  a 
happier  lot.  Settlements  composed  entirely  of  Volga  Germans  exist  in 

The  old  German  settlers  had  held  steadfastly  to  their  religion.  Their 
descendants  have  also  clung  to  the  faith  of  their  fathers,  thus  creating  a 
totally  separate  community  in  the  midst  of  Orthodox  Russia.  Their  earliest 
schools  had  been  founded  as  annexes  of  their  churches  and  education  had 
been  a  great  factor  in  the  maintenance  of  language  and  religion.  In  1891 
the  use  of  Russian  was  rendered  obligatory  in  all  educational  institutions 
of  the  Empire.  Nevertheless  this  measure  cannot  be  said  to  have  con- 
tributed to  weaken  the  German  character  of  the  communities.  From  Ger- 
many itself  manifestations  of  interest  towards  these  faraway  centers  of 
German  custom  have  always  been  keen.    Neither  has  support  been  lacking. 

According  to  recent  statistics  the  Germans  inhabiting  the  banks  of  the 
Volga  number  close  to  half  a  million,  distributed  equally  on  both  banks  of 
the  great  inland  river.  The  ethnic  type  of  these  Germans  has  been  main- 
tained with  remarkable  purity  and  their  language  contains  obsolete  forms 
dating  from  the  eighteenth  century.  The  names  of  the  largest  communities 
and  the  number  of  their  inhabitants  are  as  follows : 

Saratoff 12,500 

Norka    13,416 

Frank    11,700 

Grimm  or  Lesnoi  Karamisli 10,761 

Baltzer  Katharinenstadt  or  Baronsk  10,134  ^ 



I   The  Balkan  States  Before  and  After  the  Wars  op  1912-131 

AREAS  {in  square  miles) 

Former  New 

State                                                      area  area 

Montenegro    3,506  5,600 

Albania —  10,900 

Serbia   18,650  33,600 

Rumania    50,720  54,300 

Bulgaria   37,201  43,300 

Greece  24,966  46,600 

Turkey  in  Europe  65,370  9,700 

Percentage  of 
Increase  or 

+  80^ 
+  7^ 
+  16^ 
+  87^ 


Prior  to 
State  War 

Montenegro   285,000 

Albania    — 

Serbia    2,960,000 

Rumania    7,250,000 

Bulgaria    4,340,000 

Greece    2,670,000 

Turkey  in  Europe 6,130,000 

After  the 








^  Joerg,  W.  L.  G. :  The  New  Boundaries  of  the  Balkan  States  and  their  Significance, 
Bull,  of  Amer.  Geogr.  Soc,  Vol.  45,  1913,  p.  819. 


k^>Va^Vo<C    Cfcv^.f'revl^^      C^     -^^ 

..S'T^s     ^f  ^u^o^. 


A.  Celtic 


^         X>3"v\^0'   tnf'>'^«nn.    ka^'A-^dOVt,    . 

Branches  u      J    Languages 

1.  Gaelic 

a.  Irish 

b.  Highland  Scotch 
e.  Manx 

2.  Cymric 

a.  Welsh 

b.  Low  Breton 

B.  Romanic 

C.  Germanic 

D.  Slavic 

E.  Lettic 

F.  Hellenic 

G.  Illybic 
H.  Indio 







1.  French 

2.  Italian 

3.  Spanish 

4.  Provengal 

5.  Portuguese  . 

6.  Romansh  OF  Charwaelefe dA (1     kSo'I 

7.  Rumanian    p '^  a    ''' -at^ 

1.  Swedish 

2.  Danish  c^mcI    Hotvie^^an 

3.  Icelandic 

1.  High  German 

2.  Low  German 

3.  Dutcby^iaQluaing  Flemish 

4.  Frisian 

5.  English 

1.  Polish 

2.  Bohemian    Coecli,^^vik) 

3.  Wend 

1.  Russian,  including  Ruthenian — — ~) 
k^!.  Bulgarian  '^ 

23.  Serbian,   including   Croatian,  ^ «¥<"«»»• 

1.  Lettish 

2.  Lithuanian 



Gipsy  or  Romany 




In  addition  to  the  above  the  following  non-Indo-European  languages 
are  spoken  in  Europe : 











1.  Finnic 

2.  Esthonian 
■0.  Tcfand 

3  ji.  Lapp 
Oi    votli " 
^.  ^.  Livonian 

1.  Votiak 

2.  Sirian 

3.  Permiak 

1.  Tchuvash 

2.  Mordoin 

3.  Cheremiss 

1.  Hungarian  (N\aoMjr) 

2.  Samoyed 


1.  Lesghian 

2.  Circassian 

Basque  or  Euskara  •    | 

1  .     CrAJJtu.^  'rXvLM.aK 



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Aa,  river,  lat.  51°,  PI.  I. 
Abanj,  town,  lat.  48°  50',  Fig.  48. 
Abbateggio,  town,  lat.  42°  14',  Fig.  33. 
Abruzzi,  province,  lat.  42°,  Fig.  33. 
Abullonia,   lake,   south   of   Moudania,   lat. 

40°  12',  PI.  VII. 
Acquaviva,  town,  lat.  40°  53',  Fig.  33. 
Ada  Bazar,  town,  lat.  40°  45',  PI.  VII. 
Adalia,  town  and  bay,  lat.  36°  53',  PI.  V. 
Adana,  town,  lat.  37°,  PI.  V. 
Aden,  gulf  of,  lat.  12°  46'.    See  inset  map: 

"  Extension   of   the    Hejaz    line    toward 

Mecca."    PI.  V. 
Adige,  valley,  lat.  45°  40',  Figs.  30,  67. 
Adrianople,  town,  lat.  41°  41',  Fig.  47. 
Adriatic,  sea,  PI.  IX.     See  also  Figs.  47, 

.lEgean,  sea,  PI.  V. 
Agaro,  district,  lat.  46°  15',  Fig.  22. 
Aidin,  town,  lat.  37°  48',  PI.  V. 
Aire,  town,  lat.  50°  38',  PI.  I. 
Ala,  town,  lat.  45°  50',  Fig.  30. 
Alagna,  village,  lat.  45°  52',  Fig.  22. 
Aland,  isds.,  lat.  60°  15',  PI.  IX. 
Albania,  state,  lat.  41°,  Fig.  53. 
Albula,  river,  lat.  46°  40',  Fig.  67. 
Aleppo,  town,  lat.  36°  10',  PI.  V,  VI,  VII. 
Alexandretta,  town,  lat.  36°  35',  PI.  V,  VI, 

Alghero,  town,  lat.  40°  40',  Fig.  43. 
Allenstein,  town,  lat.  53°  45',  Fig.  38. 
Alpes-Maritimes,   dept.,  lat.  43°  45',  Fig. 

Alsace,  province,  lat.  48°  50',  PI.  II,  IX. 
Amasia,  town,  lat.  40°  39',  PI.  VII. 
Anderlecht    (Brussels),  lat.  50°   51',  Fig. 

Andermatten,       village        (Italian:        La 

Chiesa),  lat.  46°  20',  Fig.  22. 
Andreasfalva,  town,  lat.  47°  50',  Fig.  44. 
Angeln,  mts.,  54°  35',  Fig.  35. 
Angora,  town,  lat.  39°  56',  PI.  V,  VII. 
Anniviers,  valley,  lat.  46°  15',  Fig.  18. 
Antigorio,  val.,  lat.  46°   10',  Fig.  22. 
Antioch,  town,  lat.  36°  10',  PI.  VIT. 
Antivari,  town,  lat.  42°  8',  Fig.  53. 

Aosta,  town,  lat.  45°  44',  PI.  IX,  Fig.  22. 
Aquitaine,  region,  lat.  44°  50',  Fig.  3. 
Arad,  town,  lat.  40°  13',  Fig.  48. 
Arax,  river,  lat.  39°  27',  PI.  VII, 
Arghana,  town,  lat.  38°  25',  PI.  V. 
Argyrocastro,  district,  lat.  40°  7',  Fig.  53. 
Arlon,  town,  lat.  49°  42',  PI.  I. 
Armenia,  province,  PI.  VII,  VIII. 
Armentiferes,  town,  lat.  50°  43',  PI.  I. 
Armorica,  region,  lat.  48°  10',  Fig.  3. 
Arnfels,  town,  lat.  46°  42',  Fig.  31. 
Arnsberg,  town,  lat.  51°  24',  Fig.  7. 
Arta,  river,  lat.  39°  20',  Fig.  53. 
Asiago,  town,  lat.  45°  52',  Fig.  30. 
Aspropotamos,  river,  lat.  39°  22',  Fig.  53. 
Astico,  river,  lat.  45°  40',  Fig.  25. 
Augsburg,  town,  lat.  48°  52',  PI.  IX,  Fig. 

Augustow,  town,  lat.  53°  30',  Fig.  38. 

Baden,  grand  duchy,  lat.  48°  30',  Fig.  7. 
Bagdad,  town,  lat.  33°  21',  PI.  V. 
Balearic,  isds.,  lat.  39°,  Fig.  43. 
Banat,  province,  lat.  45°  53',  Fig.  38. 
Baren  Kopf,  mt.,  lat.  47°  47',  PL  II. 
Bars,  town,  lat.  48°   15',  Fig.  48. 
Basra,  town,  lat.  30°  30',  PI.  V. 
Bautzen,  town,  lat.  51°  11',  Fig.  41. 
Bavaria,  kingdom,  lat.  49°,  Fig.  7. 
Beaulard,  town,  lat.  45°  3',  Fig.  21. 
Becherek,  town,  lat.  45°  27',  Fig.  48. 
Beirut,  town,  lat.  33°  54',  PI.  V. 
Belcamen,  town,  lat.  40°  40',  Fig.  53. 
Belfort,  town,  lat.  47°  38',  PI.  II,  Fig.  18. 
Belgrade,  town,  lat.  44°  47',  PI.  IX. 
Belluno,  town,  lat.  46°  8',  Fig.  67. 
Benkovac,  town,  lat.  44°  2',  Fig.  48. 
Berane,  town,  lat.  42°  47',  Fig.  53. 
Berat,  town,  lat.  40°  43',  Fig.  53. 
Bereg,  town,  lat.  47°,  Fig.  38. 
Beskid,  mts.,  lat.  49°   30',  PI.  IV. 
Bessarabia,  province,  lat.  47°  20',  PI.  III. 
B4v6ra,  valley,  lat.  43°  50',  Fig.  22. 
Bielostok,  town,  lat.  53°  10',  PL  IV. 
Bielsk,  town,  lat.  52°  50',  PI.  IV. 
Bienne,  town,  lat.  47°  9',  Fig.  18. 



Birnbaum,  town,  lat.  52°  37',  PI.  IV. 
Bistritza,  valley,  lat.  40°  30',  Fig.  53. 
Black  Drin,  river,  lat.  42°,  Fig.  53. 
Black   Forest,   mountain   region,   lat.   48° 

20',  Fig.  7. 
Blatza,  town,  lat.  40°  31',  Fig.  53. 
Bohmerwald,  mt.,  lat.  49°  0',  Fig.  48. 
Bohtan,  river,  lat.  38°,  PI.  VII. 
Boitsfort,  town,  lat.  50°  48',  Fig.  14. 
Bolchen,  town,  lat.  49°  10',  PI.  II. 
Boli,  town,  lat.  40°  45',  PI.  V. 
Bolzano,     (Bozen),    town,    lat.    46°     30', 

Figs.  30,  67. 
Bomst,  town,  lat.  52°  12',  PI.  IV. 
Bosnia,  province,  lat.  44°  20',  Fig.  48. 
Bothnia,  gulf,  lat.  62°,  Fig.  38. 
Botzen,   (Bozen),  town,  lat.  46°  30',  Figs. 

30,  67. 
Boulogne,  town,  lat.  50°  43',  PI.  I. 
Boiisson,  town,  lat.  44°  55',  Fig.  21. 
Boyana,  river,  lat.  41°  52',  Fig.  53. 
Brandenburg,  province,  lat.  52°  26',  Fig.  7. 
Branjevo,  town,  lat.  44°  40',  Fig.  48. 
Bredizza,  town,  lat.  41°  50',  Fig.  53. 
Brenner,  pass,  lat.  47°  3',  Fig.  30. 
Brenta,  river,  lat.  45°  26',  Fig.  25. 
Breslau,  town,  lat.  51°  6',  PI.  IV. 
Bressanone,   town,  see  Brixen. 
Briancon,  town,  lat.  44°  50',  Fig.  21. 
Brieg,  town,  lat.  50°  50',  PI.  IV. 
Brittany,  province,  lat.  48°  20',  Fig.  3. 
Brixen,  town,  lat.  46°  41',  Fig.  30. 
Bromberg,  town,  lat.  53°  7',  PI.  IV. 
Broye,  river,  lat.  46°  45',  Fig.  18. 
Bruche,  river,  lat.  48°  30',  PI.  II. 
Bruneco,  town,  lat.  46°  51',  Fig.  30. 
Brusa,  town,  lat.  40°  11',  PI.  V. 
Brux,  town,  lat.  50°  33',  Fig.  48. 
Buccari,  bay,  lat.  45°  18',  Fig.  48. 
Budapest,  lat.  47°  29',  PI.  IX. 
Bukovina,  province,  lat.  48°  0',  Fig.  44. 
Bukschoja,  town,  lat.  47°  37',  Fig.  44. 
Burgundian    lands,    (see   Burgundy),   lat. 

47°,  Fig.  3. 
Busi,  is.,  lat.  43°  8',  Fig.  48. 

Cairo,  city,  lat.  30°  2',  PI.  V. 
Galliano,  town,  lat.  45°  56',  Fig.  30. 
Canza,  village,  lat.  46°  25',  Fig.  22. 
Carinthia,  lat.  47°,  PI.  III. 
Carniola,  province,  lat.  45°  58',  Fig.  48. 

PI.  III. 
Carpathian  Mts.,  lat.  48°  30',  PI.  IV. 

Cascanditella,  town,  lat.  42°   16',  Fig.  33. 
Casotto,  town,  lat.  45°  53',  Fig.  67. 
Cattaro,  town,  lat.  42°  23',  Fig.  48. 
Caucasus,  region,  lat.  44°,  Fig.  38. 
Cazza,  is.,  lat.  42°  55',  Fig.  48. 
Cesane,  town,  lat.  44°  57',  Fig.  21. 
Cevedale,  mt.,  lat.  46°  29',  Fig.  67. 
Chalcydic  peninsula,  lat.  40°  25',  Fig.  53. 
Champlas  du  Col,  town,  lat.  44°  56',  Fig. 

Chanak,  town,  lat.  40°  9',  PI.  VI. 
Cliarmoille,  town,  lat.  47°  20',  Fig.  18. 
Chernikov,  city,  lat.  51°  29',  Fig.  38. 
Chorlu,  river,  lat.  41°   12',  Fig.  47. 
Cilician   Gate,  lat.  37°   30',  PI.  VII.,  see 

inset :  "  Western  Asia  showing  direction 

of  Main  Mountain  Ranges." 
Clabecq,  lat.  50°  40',  Fig.  14. 
Clavi&res,  town,  lat.  44°  55',  Figs.  21,  22. 
Clementi,  pass,  lat.  42°  30',  Fig.  53. 
Collecroce,  town,  lat.  41°  45',  Fig.  33. 
Colmar,  town,  lat.  48°  6',  PI.  II. 
Cologne,  town,  lat.  50°  56',  PI.  IX. 
Constantinople,  city,  lat.  41°,  PI.  VII. 
Corfu,  is.,  lat.  39°  37',  Fig.  53,  PI.  V,  VI. 
Cormons,  town,  lat.  45°  57',  Fig.  31. 
Cortina  d'Ampezzo,  pass,  lat.  46°  31',  Fig. 

Courtaron,  town,  lat.  47°  28',  Fig.  18. 
Cracow,  town,  lat.  50°  4',  PI.  IV. 
Crasna,  lat.  48°   2',  Fig.  44. 
Crefeld,  town,  lat.  51°  21',  PI.  IX. 
Cremnitza,  river,  lat.  40°,  Fig.  53. 
Crete,  is.,  lat.  35°  15',  PI.  V. 
Croatia,  province,  lat.  45°  40',  Fig.  48. 
Cupello,  town,  lat.  42°   5',  Fig.  33. 
Curzola,  is.,  lat.  43°,  Fig.  48. 
Czernowitz,  town,  lat.  48°  17',  Fig.  44. 

Dalmatia,  province,  lat.  44°,  Fig.  48. 
Damascus,  city,  lat.  33°  30',  PI.  V,  VII. 
Dangli,  mts.,  lat.  40°  30',  Fig.  53. 
Danzig,  town,  lat.  54°  35',  PI.  IV. 
Dedeagatch,  town,  lat.  40°  55',  Fig.  47. 
Delemont,  town,  lat.  47°  25',  Fig.  18. 
Delvino,  town,  lat.  40°,  Fig.  53. 
Demir-Hissar,  district,  lat.  41°  12',  Fig.  53. 
Dent  d'H^rens,  mt.,  lat.  45°  59',  Fig.  22. 
Deutsche-Oth,  town,  lat.  49°  28',  PI.  II. 
Devinska  Novaves,  town,  lat.  48°  18',  Fig. 

Devoli,  river,  lat.  40°  55',  Fig.  53. 
Diex,  town,  lat.  46°   48',  Fig.  31. 



Dinaric  Alps,  mts.,  lat.  44°,  Fig.  48. 

Dineir,  town,  lat.  38°  5',  PI.  V. 

Dirschen,    (Dirscliau  or  Terzevv),  lat.  54° 

9',  PI.  IV. 
Dnieper,  river,  lat.  49°,  Fig.  38. 
Dobrac,  town,  lat.  46°  45',  Fig.  31. 
Dobrudja,  province,  lat.  44°  20',  Fig.  47. 
Dodecanesia,  isds.,  lat.  36°,  PL  V. 
Doire  Balt^e,  river,  lat.  45°  15',  Fig.  22. 
Doire  Ripaire,  river,  lat.  45°  10',  Figs.  21, 

Doliano,  town,  lat.  40°  2',  Fig.  53. 
Dolomite  Alps,  mts.,  lat.  46°  25',  Fig.  67. 
Domodossola,  town,  lat.  46°  8',  Fig.  22. 
Don,  river,  lat.  47"  30',  Fig.  38. 
Dorpat,  town,  lat.  58°  17',  Fig.  38. 
Dortmund,  town,  lat.  51°  31',  Fig.  7. 
Douane,  town,  lat.  47°   10',  Fig.  18. 
Drama,  basin,  lat.  41°  6',  Fig.  47. 
Drave,  river,  lat.  45°  50',  Fig.  48. 
Drin,  river,  lat.  41°  50',  Fig.  53. 
Drinissa,  river,  lat.  42°  12',  Fig.  53. 
Drino,  gulf,  lat.  41°  50',  Fig.  53. 
Dugopolje,  town,  lat.  45°  10',  Fig.  48. 
Duino,  town,  lat.  45°  50',  Fig.  31. 
Duisburg,  town,  lat.  51°  26',  Fig.  7. 
Dukla,  town,  lat.  49°  26',  PI.  IV. 
Dulcigno,  town,  lat.  41°  54',  Fig.  53. 
Dunkirk,  town,  lat.  51°  7',  PI.  I. 
Durazzo,  cape  and  town,  lat.  41°   18',  Fig. 

Diisseldorf,  town,  lat.  51°  13',  Fig.  7. 
Dux,  town,  lat.  50°  47',  Fig.  48. 

East  Prussia,  province,  lat.  34°,  PI.  IV. 
Eisack,  valley,  lat.  46°  30',  Fig.  67. 
Eisenau,  town,  lat.  47°  38',  Fig.  44. 
Elbassan,  town,  lat.  41°  6',  Fig.  53. 
Elbe,  river,  lat.  53°,  PI.  IX. 
Emscher,  valley,  lat.  51°  30',  Fig.  7. 
Enego,  town,  lat.  45°  57',  Fig.  25. 
Engadine,  district,  lat.  46°  40',  Fig.  67. 
Epirus,  province,  lat.  40°,  Fig.  53. 
Erzerum,  town,  lat.  39°  57',  PI.  VIII. 
Erzgebirge,  mt.,  lat.  50°  30',  Fig.  48. 
Erzingian,  town,  lat.  39°  38',  PI.  V. 
Eskishehir,  town,  lat.  39°  44',  PI.  V. 
Esthonia,  province,  lat.  59°  15',  Fig.  38. 
Esztergom    or    Gran-Esztergom,    comitat, 

lat.  47°  47',  Fig.  48. 
Etsch,  river,  lat.  46°   16',  Fig.  30. 
Etterbeck,    (Brussels),  Fig.  14. 
Euphrates,  river,  lat.  37°  50',  PI.  VIII. 

Fellin,  town,  lat.  58°,  Fig.  38. 

Fenils,  town,  lat.  44°  59',  Fig.  21. 

Fersina,  town,  lat.  46°  8',  Fig.  30. 

Filiates,  town,  lat.  39°  42',  Fig.  53. 

Flume,  town,  lat.  45°  19',  Fig.  48. 

Fleims,  valley,  lat.  46°  20',  Fig.  30. 

Flensborg,  town,  lat.  54°  46',  Fig.  35. 

Fiorina,  town,  lat.  40°  50',  Fig.  53. 

Fogaras,  town,  lat.  45°  47',  PI.  III. 

Foppiano,  town,  lat.  46°   20',  Fig.  22. 

Formazza,  valley,  lat.  46°  15',  Fig.  22. 

Franconia,  district,  lat.  50°,  Fig.  7. 

Frasheri,  town,  lat.  40°  25',  Fig.  53. 

Freudenthal,  town,  lat.  47°  45',  Fig.  44, 

Fribourg,  town,  lat.  46°  48',  Fig.  18. 

Friuli,  district,  (see  area  of  Friulian  lan- 
guage), lat.  46°  18',  Fig.  43. 

Fruttwald,  or  Canza,  village,  lat.  46°  25', 
Fig.  22. 

Frydland,  town,  lat.  49°  45',  Fig.  48. 

Funfkirchen,  town,  lat.  46°  6',  PI.  III. 

Galicia,  province,  lat.  48°  50',  Fig.  44. 
Gallic,  town,  lat.  45°  52',  Fig.  25. 
Gallipoli,    peninsula,    lat.    40=    25',    Fig. 

Gargazon,  town,  lat.  46°  36',  Fig.  67. 
Gazza,  town,  lat.  45°  50',  Fig.  30. 
Geala,  town,  lat.  41°  13',  Fig.  53. 
Gediz,  river,  lat.  38°  36',  PI.  VII. 
Ghemlick,    (Cius),  town,  lat.  40°   30',  PI. 

Ghison,  river,  lat.  44°  54',  Figs.  21,  22. 
Gleresse,  town,  lat.  47°  8',  Fig.  18. 
Gomo,  district,  lat.  49°,  Fig.  48. 
Gopes,  town,  lat.  41°  13',  Fig.  53. 
Gornia  Bistrica,  town,   lat.   46°   30',  Fig. 

Gottschee,  town,  lat.  45°   38',  Fig.  31. 
Gradena,  basin,  see  Grudenthal. 
Gradisca,  town,  lat.  45°  15',  Fig.  31. 
Gramala,  bay,  lat.  40°   15',  Fig.  53. 
Grammos,  mts.,  lat.  40°  25',  Fig.  53. 
Gramosta,  town,  lat.  40°  23',  Fig.  53. 
Grand  Paradis  Peak,  lat.  45°  30',  Fig.  22. 
Gran-Esztergom,   town,   lat.   47°   47',   Fig. 

Graudenz,  town,  lat.  53°  25',  PI.  IV. 
Gressoney,  lat.  45°  50',  Fig.  22. 
Greutschach,  town,  lat.  46°  51',  Fig.  31. 
Grevena,  village,  lat.  40°  9',  Fig.  53. 
Gries,   pass,   lat.   46°    30',   Fig.    22. 
Griffen,  town,  lat.  46°  50',  Fig.  31. 



Grisons,  canton,  lat.  46°   42',  Fig.  67. 
Gradenthal,  valley,  lat.  46°  37',  Fig.  30. 
Grodno,  town,  lat.  53°  41',  Fig.  38. 
Grybow,  town,  lat.  49°  40',  PI.  IV. 
Guevgueli,  towTi,  lat.  41°  13',  Fig.  53. 
Gurk,  town,  lat.  46°  55',  Fig.  31. 
Gusinye,  district,  lat.  42°   35',  Fig.  53. 

Hadikfalva,  town,  lat.  47°  55',  Fig.  44. 
Halluin,  town,  lat.  50°  47',  PI.  I. 
Hama,  town,  lat.  35°  13',  PI.  V. 
Hamburg,  city,  lat.  53°  33',  PI.  IX. 
Harput,  town,  lat.  38°  40',  PI.  V. 
Havel,  river,  lat.  52°  43',  Fig.  7. 
Hazebrouck,  town,  lat.  50°  44',  PI.  I. 
Helsingfors,  town,  lat.  60°  10',  PL  IX. 
Hermannstadt,  town,  lat.  45°  46',  PI.  III. 
Herzegovina,   province,   lat.  43°    20',   Fig. 

Hesse,  grand  duchy,  lat.  51°,  Fig.  7. 
Hochkonigsberg,  mt.,  lat.  48°   15',  PI.  II. 
Hodeida,  town,  lat.   14°   40',  PI.  V.     See 

inset:    "Extension    of    the    Hejaz    line 

toward  Mecca." 
Hoeylaert,  town,  lat.  50°  49',  Fig.  14. 
Horns,  town,  lat.  34°  46',  PI.  V. 
Hont,  comitat,  lat.  48°  30',  Fig.  48. 
Huta,  town,  lat.  48°   22',  Fig.  48. 

lie  de  France,  province,  lat.  48°  50',  Fig.  3. 
Ill,  river,  lat.  48°  25',  PL  II. 
Illmenspitze,  mt.,  lat.  46°  28',  Fig.  67. 
Illyria,  province,  lat.  46°   15',  Fig.  48. 
Ilmen,  lake,  lat.  58°   15',  Fig.  38. 
Imotski,  town,  lat.  43°  25',  Fig.  48. 
Ipek,  town,  lat.  42°  34',  Fig.  53. 
Iran,  plateau,  lat.  32°,  PL  VII.    See  inset: 

"  Western    Asia    showing    direction    of 

Main  Moimtain  Ranges." 
Isargo,  river,  see  Eisack. 
Iser,  mt.,  lat.  50°   50',  Fig.  48. 
Ishtip,  town,  lat.  41°  45',  Fig.  53. 
Isnik    (Nicaea),   town,    lat.    40°    40',    PL 

Isonzo,  river,  lat.  46°,  Fig.  31. 
Issime,  town,  lat.  45°  40',  Fig.  22. 
Istensegitz,  town,  lat.  47°  52',  Fig.  44. 
Istria,  province,  lat.  45°  20',  Fig.  32. 
Ixelles,    (Brussels),  Fig.  14. 

Jablunka,  pass,  lat.  49°  34',  PL  IV. 
Jaffa,  town,  lat.  32°  4',  PL  V. 
Jakobeny,  town,  lat.  47°  30',  Fig.  44. 
Jeihun,  river,  lat.  37°  30',  PL  VII. 

Jerablus,  town,  lat.  36°  30',  PL  V. 
Jerusalem,  city,  lat.  31°  47',  PL  V. 
Jette,  town,  lat.  50°  51',  Fig.  14. 
Jevizlik,  town,  lat.  40°  48°,  PL  VII. 
Jidda,  town,  lat.  21°,  PL  V.     See  inset: 

"  Extension   of   the   Hejaz   line   toward 

Johanisburg,  town,  lat.  53°   37',  Fig.  38 
Julian  Alps,  mts.,  lat.  46°   10',  Fig.  31. 
Jumaya,  town,  lat.  42°,  Fig.  53. 
Jura,  mts.,  lat.  46°  50',  Fig.  3. 

Kailar,  town,  lat.  40°  29',  Fig.  53. 
Kalamas,  river,  lat.  39°  35',  Fig.  53. 
Kalarites,  town,  lat.  39°  40',  Fig.  53. 
Kamienec,  town,  lat.  48°  40',  Fig.  44. 
Kanin,  mt.,  lat.  46°  24',  Fig.  31. 
Karaferia,  town,  lat.  40°  36',  Fig.  53. 
Kassaba,  town,  lat.  38°  8',  PL  V. 
Kastamuni,  town,  lat.  41°  23',  PI.  V. 
Kastoria,  lake,  lat.  40°  34',  Fig.  53. 
Katerynoslav,  town,  lat.  48°  28',  Fig.  38. 
Kavalla,  town,  lat.  41°,  Fig.  47. 
Kelkid,  river,  lat.  40°  20',  PL  VII. 
Kerepes,  town,  lat.  47°  35',  Fig.  48. 
Kharkov,  town,  lat.  50°,  Fig.  38. 
Kherson,  town,  lat.  46°  39',  Fig.  38. 
Kholm,  town,  lat.  51°  39',  Fig.  38. 
Khursk,  town,  lat.  51°  56',  Fig.  38. 
Kiev,  town,  lat.  50°  27',  Fig.  38. 
Kimara,  town,  lat.  40°  10',  Fig.  53. 
KirL  river,  lat.  41°  55',  Fig.  53. 
Kirlibaba,  town,  lat.  47°  40',  Fig.  44. 
Kizil,  river,  lat.  41°,  PL  VII. 
Klagenfurth,  town,  lat.  46°  37',  Fig.  48. 
Klausen,  town,  lat.  46°  39',  Fig.  67. 
Kliasma,  river,  lat.  56°  19',  Fig.  38. 
Klimutz,  town,  lat.  47°  58',  Fig.  44. 
Klissura,  town,  see  Vlakho-Klissura. 
Knin,  town,  lat.  44°   3',  Fig.  48. 
Kockana,  town,  lat.  40°  20',  Fig.  53. 
Koekelberg,   (Brussels),  Fig.  14. 
Konia,  town,  lat.  37°  51',  PL  VII. 
Koritza,  town,  lat.  40°   15',  Fig.  53. 
Kostenberg,  town,  lat.  46°  45',  Fig.  31. 
Kottbus,  town,  lat.  51°  34',  Fig.  41. 
Kovno,  town,  lat.  55°,  Fig.  38. 
Koweit,  town,  lat.  29°  30',  PL  VI. 
Krajste,  valley,  lat.  42°  41',  Fig.  53. 
Krasnostaw,  town,  lat.  50°  59',  PL  IV. 
Kremnitz,  to^vn,  lat.  48°  42',  Fig.  48. 
Krushevo,  town,  lat.  41°  25',  Fig.  53. 
Kuban,  province,  lat.  45°,  Fig.  38. 
Kukush,  town,  lat.  40°  59^,  Fig.  53. 



Kurdistan,  province,  lat.  37°  30',  PI.  VII. 
Kurland,  province,  lat.  57°,  Fig.  38. 
Kustendil,  town,  lat.  42°  18',  Fig.  53. 
Kwidzyn  or  Marienwerder,  tovi^n,  lat.  53° 
40',  PI.  IV. 

La  Chlesa,  town,  lat.  46°  20',  Fig.  22. 
Ladoga,  lake,  lat.  60°  45',  Fig.  38. 
Laeken,  lat.  50°   51',  Fig.   14. 
Laghi,  cape,  lat.  41°  12',  Fig.  53. 
Lagosta,  is.,  lat.  42°   46',  Fig.  48. 
Laibach,  town,  lat.  46°  3',  Fig.  48. 
Lales,  town  and  bay,  lat.  41°  30',  Fig.  53. 
Lanciano,  town,  lat.  42°  14',  Fig.  33. 
Lantosque,  town,  lat.  43°  59',  Fig.  22. 
Lapsista,  town,  lat.  39°  45',  Fig.  53. 
La  Turbie,  village,  lat.  43°  50',  Fig.  22. 
Lavarone,  town,  lat.  45°  55',  Fig.  67. 
Lecce,  town,  lat.  40°  22',  Fig.  43. 
Lecker  Au,  river,  lat.  54°  45',  Fig.  34. 
Lemberg,  (Lvov),  lat.  49°  40',  PI.  III. 
Lesina,  is.,  lat.  43°,  Fig.  48. 
Leskovatz,  town,  lat.  43°,  Fig.  53. 
Leva,   town,   lat.   48°    15',   Fig.   48. 
Libau,  town,  lat.  56°  30',  Fig.  38. 
Li^ge,  town,  lat.  50°  40',  PI.  I. 
Lille,  town,  lat.  50°  38',  PI.  I. 
Lim,  river,  lat.  43°  23',  Fig.  53. 
Linkelbeek,  town,  lat.  50°  49',  Fig.  14. 
Linz,  town,  lat.  48°   17',  Fig.  48. 
Lissa,  is.,  lat.  43°  4',  Fig.  48. 
Livonia,   province,   lat.   57°   20',   Fig.   38. 
Lobau,  town,  lat.  53°  30',  PI.  IV. 
Lobositz,  town,  lat.  50°  31',  Fig.  48. 
Lods,  town,  lat.  51°  46',  PI.  IV. 
Louche,  town,  lat.  46°    12',  Fig.  22. 
Loetzen,  town,  lat.  54°  2',  Fig.  38. 
Loing,  river,  lat.  48°,  Fig.  3. 
Longwy,  town,  lat.  49°  32',  PI.  I. 
Lorraine,  province,  lat.  48°  50',  PI.  II. 
Luditz,  town,  lat.  50°  3',  Fig.  48. 
Luisenthal,  town,  lat.  47°  35',  Fig.  44. 
Luneville,  town,  lat.  48°  35',  Fig.  7. 
Lusatia,  province,  lat.  51°,  Fig.  41. 
Liixemburg,  grand  duchy,  lat.  50°,  PI.  I. 
Lvov,  (Lemberg),  city,  lat.  49°  40',  PI.  III. 
Lyck,  town,  lat.  53°  50',  PI.  IV. 
Lys,  river,  lat.  51°,  PI.  I. 

Macedonia,  lat.  41°,  Fig.  53. 
Macugnaga,  town,  lat.  45°  59',  Fig.  22. 
Magarevo,  town,  lat.  41°   12',  Fig.  53. 
Maggiore,  lake,  lat.  46°,  Fig.  22. 

Makarska,  town,  lat.  43°  18',  Fig.  48. 
Malakasi,  town,  lat.  39°  45',  Fig  53. 
Malborghet,  town,  lat.  46°  30',  PI.  III. 
Malmedy,  town,  lat.  50°   24',  PI.  I. 
Maramoros    or    Maramaros-Sziget,    town, 

lat.  47°  55',  Fig.  44. 
Marburg,  town,  lat.  46°  34',  Fig.  31. 
March,  river,  lat.  48°  30',  PI.  III. 
Maria-Theresiopel,   town,   lat.   46°    8',   PI. 

Marienwerder,    (Kwidzgn),  town,  lat.  53° 

44',  PL  IV. 
Mariondol,  town,  lat.  45°  40',  Fig.  48. 
Maritza,  river,  lat.  41°,  Fig.  47. 
Markircb,     (or    Sainte-Marie-Aux-Mines), 

town,  lat.  48°   14',  PI.  II. 
Marmora,  sea,  lat.  40°  40',  Fig.  47. 
Marne,  river,  lat.  49°  2',  Fig.  3. 
Maros,  river,  lat.  46°,  PI.  III. 
Maros  Vasarhely,  town,  lat.  46°   28',  PI. 

Martello,  river,  lat.  45°  51',  Fig.  25. 
Massif  Central,  region,  lat.  45°,  Fig.  3. 
Masurian,  lakes,  lat.  54°,  Fig.  38. 
Mati,  river,  lat.  41°  40',  Fig.  53. 
Meander,  river,  lat.  37°,  PI.  VII. 
Mecca,    city,    lat.    21°    20',    PI.    V.      See 

inset:    "Extension    of    the    Hejaz    line 

toward  Mecca." 
Mediasch,  town,  lat.  46°  7',  PI.  III. 
Meleda,  is.,  lat.  42°  45',  Fig.  48. 
Melkovic,  town,  lat.  43°  3',  Fig.  48. 
Melnik,  town,  lat.  52°  21',  PI.  IV. 
Menin,  town,  lat.  50°  47',  PI.  I. 
Meran,  town,  lat.  46°  41',  Fig.  67. 
Mesopotamia,   province,   lat.    36°    30',   PI. 

Metsovo,  town,  lat.  39°  45',  Fig.  53. 
Metz,  town,  lat.  49°  7',  PI.  II. 
Meuse,  river,  lat.  49°  10',  PI.  IX. 
Midyad,  town,  lat.  37°  30',  PI.  VII. 
Mies,  town,  lat.  49°  44',  Fig.  48. 
Mitau,  town,  lat.  56°  39',  Fig.  38. 
Mitoka-Dragomirna,    town,    lat.    47°    48', 

Fig.  44. 
Mitrovitza,  town,  lat.  42°  43',  Fig.  47. 
Moldau,  river,  lat.  49°  40',  Fig.  48. 
Molenbeek-St.  Jean,    (Brussels),  Fig.  14. 
Molise,  province,  lat.  41°  35',  Fig.  33. 
MoUiferes,  town,  lat.  44°  58',  Fig.  21. 
Molovista,  town,  lat.  41°  4',  Fig.  53. 
Molsheim,  town,  lat.  48°  33',  PI.  II. 
Monastir,  town,  lat.  41°  1',  Fig.  47. 



Mont  Blanc,  lat.  45°  51',  Fig.  18. 
Montefalcone,  town,  lat.  45°  42',  Fig.  31. 
Monte  Moro,  pass,  lat.  46°,  Fig.  22. 
Montenegro,  kingdom,  lat.  43°,  Fig.  48. 
Monteoderisio,  town,  lat.  42°  6',  Fig.  33. 
Monte  Theodule,  pass,  lat,  45°  57',  Fig.  22. 
Montreux,  town,  lat.  46°  26',  Fig.   18. 
Montsevilier,  town,  lat.  47°  23',  Fig.  18. 
Moosburg,  town,  lat.  46°  37',  Fig.  48. 
Morat  or  Murten,   lake   and  village,   lat. 

46°  55',  Fig.   18. 
Morava,  river,  lat.  44°,  Fig.  47. 
Moravia,  province,  lat.  49°  30',  PI.  III. 
Moravska-Ostrava,  town,  lat.  49°  50',  Fig. 

Moresnet,  territory,  lat.  50°  43',  Fig.  7. 
Morge,  valley,  lat.  46°  20',  Fig.  18. 
Morhange,  town,  lat.  48°  56',  PI.  II. 
Mori,  town,  lat.  45°  52',  Fig.  30. 
Morlacca,  canal,  lat.  45°,  Fig.  48. 
Morva,    (March),  river,  lat.  48°    30',  PI. 

Moselle,  river,  lat.  49°,  PI.  II. 
Moskopolis,  town,  lat.  40°  40',  Fig.  53. 
Mosul,  town,  lat.  36°   19',  PI.  VII. 
Moutiers,  town,  lat.  45°  30',  Fig.  22. 
Munster,  town,  lat.  46°   16',  Fig.  22. 
Mur,  river,  lat.  46°,  Fig.  31. 
Murad  Su  or  Murad,  river,  lat.  38°   43', 

Mush,  town,  lat.  38°   47',  PI.  VII. 

Namur,  town,  lat.  50°  28',  PI.  I. 
Nancy,  town,  lat.  48°  41',  PI.  II. 
Narenta,  river,  lat.  43°,  Fig.  47. 
Narew,  river,  lat.  53°  8',  PI.  IV. 
Neidenburg,  town,  lat.  53°,  Fig.  38. 
Nemeck'e  Prava,  town,  lat.  48°    57',  Fig. 

Nesibin,  town,  lat.  37°,  PI.  V. 
Netze,  river,  lat.  53°,  PI.  IV. 
Neuchatel,  lake,  lat.  46°  55',  Fig.  18. 
Neusatz,  town,  lat.  45°  16',  PI.  III. 
Neusiedler,  lake,  lat.  47°  50',  Fig.  48. 
Neusolonetz,  town,  lat.  47°  40',  Fig.  44. 
Neutra,  town,  lat.  48°   19',  Fig.  48. 
Neuveville,  town,  lat.  47°   6',  Fig.   18. 
Neva,  river,  lat.  59°  48',  Fig.  38. 
Nevesca,  town,  lat.  40°  37',  Fig.  53. 
Nevrokop,  town,  lat.  41°  32',  Fig.  53. 
New  Tischen  or  Titschein,  town,  lat.  49° 

35',  PI.  III. 
Niemen,  river,  lat.  55°,  Fig.  38. 

Nish,  town,  lat.  43°  27',  Fig.  47. 
Nishava,  river,  lat.  43°,  Fig.  47. 
Nissa,  river,  see  the  river,  lat.  50°  30',  on 
which  the  town  of  Neisse  stands,  PI.  IV. 
Noce,  river,  lat.  46°   25',  Fig.  30. 
Novezansky,  town,  lat.  48°  2',  Fig.  48. 
Novi  Bazar,  town,  lat.  43°  4',  Fig.  53. 
Novi  Varosh,  town,  lat.  43°  25',  Fig.  53. 
Niirschan,  town,  lat.  49°  40',  Fig.  48. 

Oder,  river,  lat.  51°  20',  PI.  IV. 
Ograyevitza,  valley,  lat.  43°  40',  Fig.  53. 
Ohain,  town,  lat.  50°  49',  Fig.  14. 
Oise,  river,  lat.  49°  54',  Fig.  3. 
Oka,  river,  lat.  55°  57',  Fig.  38. 
Okrida,   lake,  lat.  41°,  Fig.  53. 
Okrida,  town,  lat.  41°   11',  Fig.   53. 
Oldenhorn,  peak,  lat.  46°  19',  Fig.  18. 
Oletzko,  town,  lat.  54°,  Fig.  38. 
Olhem  or  Ohain,  town,  lat.  50°  49',  Fig.  14. 
Oliva,  town,  lat.  54°  32',  PI.  IV. 
Olmiitz,  town,  lat.  49°  36',  Fig.  48. 
Oltu,  river,  lat.  44°,  PI.  III. 
Olympus,  mt.,  lat.  40°  4',  Fig.  53. 
Oppeln,  town,  lat.  50°  40',  PL  IV. 
Oreo,  river,  lat.  45°  17',  Fig.  22. 
Ornavasso,  town,  lat.  45°   59',  Fig.  22. 
Ortelsburg,  town,  lat,  53°  34',  Fig  38. 
Ortler,  mt.,  lat.  46°  30',  Fig.  67. 
Osogov,  mt.,  lat.  42°  10',  Fig.  53. 
Ostanitza,  town,  lat.  40°   2',  Fig.  53. 
Osterode,  town,  lat.  53°  41',  Fig.  38. 
Otranto,  strait,  lat.  39°  45',  Fig.  53. 
Oulx,  town,  lat.  45°  3',  Fig.  21. 

Paluzza,  village,  lat.  46°  34',  Fig.  31. 
Panchova,  town,  lat.  44°   56',